APA Citation Guide: Statistics

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How do i express numbers & statistics, statistical abstract of the united states (proquest), pew research center.

It's not always easy to convey numerical and statistical information with clarity and precision. For this reason, Sections 6.32–6.35 of the Manual  provide guidelines on using numerals vs. words. 

Here are a few pointers:

Use numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.) for the following:

  • numbers 10 and above
  • numbers used in statistics (e.g., 2.45, 3 times as many, 2 x 2 design)
  • numbers used with units of measurement (e.g., 7-mg dose, 3-in. increments) 
  • times (e.g.,1 hr 34 min), ages (e.g., 2 years old), and dates (e.g., March 6)
  • scores and points on a scale (e.g., score of 6, 5-point Likert scale)

Use words (one, two, three, etc.) for the following:

  • numbers zero through nine (e.g., five members)
  • numbers beginning a sentence, heading, or title (e.g., Sixty participants volunteered for)
  • common fractions (e.g., one half, one fifth, a two-thirds majority)
  • universally accepted phrases (e.g., Twelve Apostles, Five Pillars of Islam)

Commas in numbers

  • Use commas between groups of three digits in most figures of 1,000 or more
  • Do not use commas in page numbers, binary digits, serial numbers, degrees of temperature, degrees of freedom, and acoustic frequencies above 1000.

Statistics  (see Publication Manual Sections 6.40–6.45 for guidelines on reporting statistics)

  • Do not repeat statistics in both the text and a table or figure
  • In tables and figures, report exact p values (e.g., p = .015), unless p is < .001 (instead write as "<.001")
  • Put a space before and after a mathematical operator (e.g., minus, plus, greater than, less than). For a negative value, put a space only before the minus sign, not after it (e.g., –8.25)
  • Use the symbol or abbreviation for statistics with a mathematical operator (e.g., M = 7.7)
  • Use the term, not the symbol, for statistics in the text (e.g., the means were)

For more information, check out:  Numbers and Statistics Guide, APA Style 7th Edition

The Statistical Abstract of the United States is a comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.

ProQuest provides over 1400 individually indexed tables with attached spreadsheets. Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and cite it like this:

Authoring agency (Year of Publication). Title of document: Subtitle if given [often a Table]. ProQuest Statistical Abstract of the U.S . URL

Bureau of Census (2021). Resident population projections for native and foreign-born populations by age group: 2020 To 2060 [quinquennially, as of July 1]. ProQuest Statistical Abstract of the U.S.   https://0-statabs-proquest-com.

Statista provides statistical data on many topics including media, business, politics, society, technology, and education. Sources include market reports, opinion research institutions, trade publications, scientific journals, and government agencies. Charts can be downloaded in PNG, PowerPoint, Excel or PDF formats or embedded in web pages and can be great in papers or presentations. Note: under Source, look for "Survey by," and cite this as author.

Authoring agency. (Publication date). Report title: subtitle if given [Format type]. In Statista . URL

Statistics, dossiers, and reports

eMarketer. (2020, April 14). Social media platforms used by adults in the United States during the coronavirus outbreak as of March 2020 [Graph]. In Statista .  https://0-www-statista-com

Spotrac. (2020, June 10). Highest player salaries in Major League Baseball in 2020 (in million U.S. dollars) [Graph]. In Statista .  https://0-www-statista-com

Statista. (2020). National Hockey League [Dossier]. In Statista .  https://0-www-statista-com

Statista Consumer Market Outlook. (2020, November). Sneaker report 2020 [Report]. In Statista .  https://0-www-statista-com

Infographics

Richter, F. (2021, January 12). One year on, the pandemic still rages [Digital image]. In Statista .  https://0-www-statista-com

The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American think tank (referring to itself as a "fact tank") based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world. It also conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis, and other empirical social science research. As authoring agency, cite it like this:

Pew Research Center. (Publication date). Report title: subtitle if given [Format type]. URL

Pew Research Center. (2020, April 20). From virtual parties to ordering food, how Americans are using the internet during COVID-19  [Report].  What Americans are doing online during COVID-19 | Pew Research Center

Note: URLs for Pew Reports are often named, and don't resemble typical https:// addresses. Cut and paste the URL from its source. 

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / How to Cite a Report in MLA

How to Cite a Report in MLA

Citing a report.

Report – A document containing the findings of an individual or group. Can include a technical paper, publication, issue brief, or working paper.

Report Citation Structure

Last, First M. Report Title . Publisher, date published, URL (if applicable).

Note: If the author and publisher of the report are the same, start your citation with the title of the report instead. 

First Page of Report

MLAReport2

Report Citation Example:

Gorbunova, Yulia and Konstantin Baranov. Laws of Attrition: Crackdown on Russia’s Civil Society After Putin’s Return to the Presidency . Human Rights Watch, 2013.

Report In-text Citation Structure:

(Author Last Name(s) Page #)

Report In-text Citation Example: 

(Gorbunova and Konstantin 4)

MLA Formatting Guide

MLA Formatting

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Block Quotes
  • et al Usage
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  • MLA 9 Updates
  • View MLA Guide

Citation Examples

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  • View all MLA Examples

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To cite a report in MLA style, you need to have basic information including the author or the organization name, title of the report, and publication year. The templates for in-text citations and works-cited-list entries of a report, along with examples, are given below:

Report created and published by the same organization

In-text citation template and example:

Use the organization’s name in both prose and parenthetical citation.

Citation in prose: Pew Research Center

Parenthetical: (Pew Research Center)

Works-cited-list entry template and example:

Title of the Chapter . Organization Name, Publication Date.

Audio and Podcasting Fact Sheet . Pew Research Center, July 2018.

Different authors and publisher

Use the below template when the author and publisher are different. For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the first author followed by “and others” or “and colleagues.” In subsequent citations, use only the surname of the first author followed by “and others” or “and colleagues.” In parenthetical citations, always use only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”

Citation in prose:

First instance: Kim Parker and others . . . Or Kim Parker and colleagues

Subsequent occurrences: Parker and others . . . Or Parker and colleagues

Parenthetical:

. . . (Parker et al.)

Surname, First Name, et al. Title of the Report . Organization Name, Publication Date, URL.

Parker, Kim, et al. About Half of Lower-Income Americans Report Household Job or Wage Loss Due to COVID-19 . Pew Research Center, Apr. 2020, www.pewresearch.org/social-trends/2020/ 04 /21/about-half-of-lower-income-americans-report-household-job-or-wage-loss-due-to-covid-19/ .

To cite a government document in MLA style, you need to have basic information including the author or the organization name, title of the document, and publication year. The templates for in-text citations and works-cited-list entries of a government document, along with examples, are given below:

For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the author in the first occurrence. In subsequent citations, use only the surname. In parenthetical citations, always use only the surname of the author.

First mention: Ferdinand Hayden . . .

Subsequent occurrences: Hayden . . .

. . . (Hayden)

Surname, First Name. Title of the Government Document . Organization Name, Publication Date.

Hayden, Ferdinand. Preliminary Report of the United States Geological Survey of Montana and Portions of Adjacent Territories . Government Printing Office, 1872.

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APA Citation and University Writing: Examples

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APA Style examples

These examples are references. The examples demonstrate the style and format required for a reference list.

Need help with in-text citation style? Click the tab Citations & Reference List . 

APA 7 Style Guide Examples

APA Style Notes

  • Date of retrieval
  • Missing Info

The examples on this page should only be used as a guide. The following links are official APA Style resources:

APA Style FAQ [APA Style]

Quick Answers - Reference

APA Tutorial: The Basics of APA Style

https://URL

URL where information was r etrieved  not required for library database citations.

Database where information was  retrieved not required in most instances except for special cases.

A citation for an article from a library database does not require the URL or name of the database.

ONLINE! URL

Do not include the words "Retrieved from" any longer before the URL

URL is important for items found freely available online. APA rules recommend using the homepage URL when an item can be easily located - such as URLs for news websites or online databases such as Hathi Trust and Internet Archive. Here is an example - only the homepage URL is used, not the full webpage URL.

Gallagher, D. (2018, Feb. 3 ) Is Google Losing to Amazon? Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com

Retrieved date is only included in a reference if the information cited is likely to change.

In general, do not include retrieved date within a citation, unless it is required by your instructor, or you are citing a blog, wiki, and a post from a personal website.

Example of information likely to change:

Neurology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia . Retrieved August 8, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurology

This is only in cases where this is no published date and the information is likely to change.

[Square Brackets] 

[Square Brackets] have several functions in APA Style. Regardless of the function, words within square brackets are your words .

1) [Square brackets] identify source types. APA Style recommends (not requires) providing identifying information when the title and other information in the citation does not identify the source. Add [square brackets] when needed to clarify what the item is. For example, [Case study], [Blog post], [Wiki], [Twitter post], [Facebook post] [Personal website], [PDF document], [Excel document], [Video], [Interview], [Data], [Data set].

Sasal, D. (2017, June 13)  Project Management simplified: Learn the fundamentals of PMI's framework  [Video]. Youtube.      https://youtu.be/ZKOL-rZ79gs

2)  Use square brackets If you’re referencing an unusual item.

APA Style Blog: Using Square Brackets

3) Use square brackets when there is missing information - for example, missing date and title.

APA Style Blog: Missing Pieces: How to Write an APA Style Reference Even Without All the Information

Do you have questions about authors?

  • Click here. APA FAQ tab. Need help formatting AUTHOR names? No author, multiple authors, etc... In the AUTHOR box, click the tabs IN-TEXT or REFERENCE to learn how to handle 1-5 authors, and 6+ authors.

Authors for websites are often corporations, organizations or governments. If there is no person as the author consider using a corporate/group name.

Use a corporate/group name when an o rganization, rather than an individual, takes responsibility for the creation of a work. Ask yourself, whose website is it - what company, organization or government agency?

No author? Are you sure? Is it a Group/corporate Author?

APA Style Blog on group authors

If there is no author and no group/corporate author, begin the reference with the TITLE in the author-place. Use a shortened version of the title in when using in-text citations.

How to write an APA Style reference when information is missing

No date? Missing title? Missing source?

APA Style Blog on missing information

  • Guidelines for missing information This PDF was created and made available by the APA Style Blog.
  • Articles - Print
  • Articles - Online
  • Articles - Library database
  • Articles - Library database with DOI

Working Papers

Article - print.

I ansiti , M., Lakhani, K. R., McBrien, K., & Moon, M. (2017). Managing our hub economy: Strategy, ethics, and network competition in the age of digital superpower. Harvard Business Review , 95 (5), 84-92.

  

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. , (Issue ), Page numbers.

Online Journal Article

Klein, G., & Aubry, M. (2017). Introducing the issue on megaprojects. Project Management Journal , 48 (6), 3-4. https://www.pmi.org/PMJ

Wang, J., Meric, G., Liu, Z., & Meric, I. (2010). A comparison of the determinants of stock returns in the 1987 and 2008 stock market meltdowns. Banking and Finance Review, 2 (1), 15-26. http://www.bankingandfinancereview.com/

Online Newspaper Article

Gallagher , D. (2018, February 3 ). Is Google losing to Amazon? The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com

Krauss, C. (2008, August 30). Surge in natural gas has Utah driving cheaply. The New York Times . https://www.nytimes.com

APA Style Blog on citing newspapers

Is this website a newspaper, magazine or journal?

"There’s no governing authority who decides what’s a newspaper versus a website versus an online magazine versus something else entirely. Best to look at how the site refers to itself and follow the convention associated with that. So if they call themselves a newspaper, italicize the name; otherwise, don’t." APA Style Blog

If the site does not refer to itself as a newspaper, magazine or journal cite the source as a webpage - scroll down to Online - Webpage.

 

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. (issue number if available). https://www.someaddress.com

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. . https://www.someaddress.com

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. (issue number if available). https://www.someaddress.com

Articles from library databases without doi .

Journal Article:

Arruda-Filho, E., Cabusas, J., & Dholakia, N. (2010). Social behavior and brand devotion among iPhone innovators.  International Journal of Information Management,   30 (6), 475-480.

Magazine Article:

Barkin, E. (2010, April). Jetting to greener pastures.  Customer Relationship Management,   14 (4), 30-33,36.

Newspaper Article:

Krauss, C. (2008, August 30). Surge in natural gas has Utah driving cheaply. The New York Times , 157 (54418), A1.  https://www.nytimes.com/

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. , (Issue), Pages.

Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. (Year, Month Day). , (Issue), Pages. URL or Database name if unique database.

Articles from library databases with doi.

Gonzalez, J., Ragins, B., Ehrhardt, K., & Singh, R. (2018). Friends and family: The role of relationships in community and workplace attachment. Journal of Business & Psychology , 33 (1), 89-104. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s10869-016-9476-3

Holland, C. P. (1995). Cooperative supply chain management: The impact of interorganizational information systems. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 4 (2), 117-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/0963-8687(95)80020-Q

   

Author, A. A. (Date of Publication). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle.   (issue), page range. https://doi.org/#######

Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 14124). http://www.nber.org/papers/w14124

White papers.

Department for Business Innovation & Skills. (2016).  Success as a knowledge economy: Teaching excellent, social mobility and student choice  [White paper]. Crown.  https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/523396/bis-16-265-success-as-a-knowledge-economy.pdf

APA Style on White Papers

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work (Report No. 123). Publisher.

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work (Report No. 123). http:// www.URL.com

Source: American Psychological Association, 2010, p.206.

  • Books in print

Book in print

Brader, t. (2006). campaigning for hearts and minds: how emotional appeals in political ads work . university of chicago press., laudon, k.c. & traver, c.g. (2016). e-commerce: business, technology, society (12 th ed.). pearson., lewis, r., & dart, m. (2010). the new rules of retail: competing in the world's toughest marketplace . palgrave macmillan., miller, t. e., bender, b. e., & schuh, j. h. (2005). promoting reasonable expectations: aligning student and institutional views of the college experience . jossey-bass..

Book with no author, but has an editor or editors:   add (Ed.) or (Eds.)

Duncan , G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor . Russell Sage Foundation.

  

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). . Publisher.

If the edition is known, include it in the reference - but not the first edition. APA Style Blog:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). (edition# ed.). Publisher.

Ebooks (APA 7)

Ebook from a library database (ie. Ebook Central ProQuest)

Kerzner, H. (2017). Project management metrics, KPIS, and dashboards: A guide to measuring and monitoring project performance .  https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Ebook found online:

Barton, Clara. (1904). A story of the Red Cross: Glimpses of field work . D. Appleton and Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/30230

Ebook accessed using a specific reader

Gladwell, M. (2011). Outliers: The story of success . Back Bay Books. https://www.amazon.com

Cite an ebook with the same information as a print book, and add the URL.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). . Publisher. URL

Case Studies

Case study published by harvard business school publishing.

Thomas, D.A. (1999). Leaving. HBS No. 400033-PDF-ENG. Harvard Business School Publishing. 

Eisenmann, T., & Herman, K. (2010). Google, Inc. HBS No. 910036-PDF-ENG. Harvard Business School Publishing. 

Case Study published by Ivey Publishing

Bernhut, S. (2013). The Ivey Business Journal Interview: State Capitalism, with Aldo Musacchio . Ivey ID: 9B13TB08. Ivey Publishing. 

Author(s). (Year). Publisher. 

Author(s). (Year). Publisher. 

>> If the case study does not include these elements, it is likely a case study that is in an article format - cite as an article.

(pp. xx-xx). Publisher.
  • General Guidelines
  • Library Database
  • Website (including photo)
  • Reference examples

Figures: graphs, flow charts, maps, drawings, photos, etc.

Looking for tables > use formatting information in the box Tables.

Click through the tabs and find in-text citation and reference examples.

Using Statista? Scroll down to the Statista box.

Video tutorial: APA Style for Figures and Tables

Looking for tables > using formatting information in the box Tables.

A figure may be a chart, a graph, a photograph, a drawing, or any other illustration or nontextual depiction. Any type of illustration other than a table is referred to as a figure.

When you use a figure that has been adapted or copied directly from another source, you need to reference that original source. This reference appears as a caption underneath the figure (image):

  • don't include a title on top - the caption is your title
  • concise explanation of the figure; i.e. a brief but descriptive phrase
  • include copyright information
  • format your caption - use italics and a capital F for Figure and sequential numbering (if you have more than one Figure)

Legend (if needed) :

A legend explains the symbols used in the figure. It should have the same kind and proportion of lettering that appear in the rest of the figure.

  • capitalize major words in the legend
  • place the legend within the figure (it may already be there if you have copied the graph from elsewhere)

General rules:

  • Number all figures with Arabic numerals in the order in which they are first mentioned in text, regardless of whether a more detailed discussion of the figure occurs later in the paper. For example, Figure 1...Figure 2...etc.
  • Refer to the figure in your writing - no italics, but with capital F, for example "In Figure 1..."
  • Copyright permission for using figures and images in theses/dissertations/exegeses - obtain written copyright permission from the copyright holder if you reproduced or adapted a figure from a copyrighted source. If you are adapting material from multiple sources, and integrating them into a single figure, you might need to include multiple permission statements, one for each source.
  • Figures must have a reference in your Reference List.

Multiple Sources:

See Simon Fraser University's instructions for citing multi-sources.

Created by Auckland University of Technology Library, and adapted with permission.

APA Style on citing Tables & Figures

Figure reproduced in your paper

Use this format for figures you COPY - reproduced exactly as they appear in another source. Use this format when you do not make any modifications or add data to the table.

Caption Format - caption under a figure

. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Reprinted [or adapted] from   (page number), by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Year. Publisher. Copyright [Year] by the Name of Copyright Holder.

how to cite pew research center

Figure 1. FinSec's communication networks. Reprinted from Employment Relations in New Zealand (2nd ed., p.355), by E. Rasmussen, 2009. Pearson. Copyright 2009 by Erling Rasmussen.

In-text citation:

This is clearly indicated in Figure 1,...

Reference list entry:

Rasmussen, E. J. (2009). (2nd ed.). Pearson.

Figure referred to and not reproduced in your paper

If you simply refer to a figure, format the in text-citation and the reference list entry in the usual way.

... interpretations of the painting “Mona Lisa” (Gombrich 1995, p. 203).

Gombrich, E. H. (1995). (16th ed.). Phaidon.

. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Reprinted [or adapted] from “Title of Article,” by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Year, (issue), page number. Copyright [Year] by the Name of Copyright Holder.

how to cite pew research center

Figure 1. Factors influencing the formation of tourists' needs. Reprinted from "Factors that Obstruct Tourism Development in Bangladesh", by N. Jahan and S. Rahman, 2016, CLEAR International Journal of Research in Commerce & Management, 7 (9) , p.53. Copyright 2016 by Chinniah Lakshmiammal Educational Academy & Research (CLEAR) Foundation.

As shown in Figure 1, there are five groups of factors that influence...

Jahan, N., & Rahman, S. (2016). Factors that obstruct tourism development in bangladesh. , 7(9), 48–55.

If you simply refer to a figure and do not include it in your text, format the in text citation and the reference list entry in the usual way.

... in the installation "Talking about the Weather"... (Randerson, 2007, p. 446).

Randerson, J. (2007). Between reason and sensation: Antipodean artists and climate change. , (5), 442–448. https://doi.org/10.1162/leon.2007.40.5.442

Caption Format - caption under a figure

. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Title of the database. Copyright [year] by the Name of Copyright Holder.

Example from ACNielsen Market Information Digest database

Figure 1 . The market location and dollar sales of meat pies in New Zealand. SMAP is the segment of market for the Auckland Province, SMLNI for the Lower North Island, SMSI for the South Island; MAP is the moving annual total. Nielsen Market Information Digest New Zealand database. Copyright 2011 by The Nielsen Company.

Example: from Passport (Euromonitor) database

Figure 2 .  Trade volume of ready to drink high strength premixes sold in New Zealand, measured in 000 litres. Passport database. Copyright 2010 by Euromonitor International.

As Figure 1 shows, sales of meat pies ...

As shown in Figure 2, ...

Euromonitor International. (2010). [Graph]. Passport database.

The Nielsen Company. (2011). [Graph] Nielsen Market Information Digest New Zealand database.

If you refer to a figure, format the in-text citation and the reference list entry in the usual way:

...trade volume...(Euromonitor International, 2010).

The painting ... (Pollock, 1942).

Euromonitor International. (2010).   [Graph]. Passport database.

Pollock, J. (1942). [Painting]. ARTstor database.

Caption Format - caption under a figure

. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. From URL. Copyright [year] by the Name of Copyright Holder.

Figure 1 . Vermeer, J. (c. 1665). Girl with a pearl earring . From Mauritshuis Royal Picture Gallery, The Hague. http://www.mauritshuis.nl/index.aspx?Chapterid=2295. Reprinted with permission.

Figure 2 . America's Army screen dump showing soldiers and watch tower. From America's Army (Version 3). http://www.americasarmy.com. Copyright 2010 by America’s Army.

As Figure 1 shows, ...

As shown in Figure 2, ...

[Photograph]. (n.d.). http://www.americasarmy.com.

Vermeer, J. (c. 1665). [Photograph]. http://www.mauritshuis.nl/index.aspx?Chapterid=2295.

If you refer to a figure, format the in-text citation and the reference list entry in the usual way.

... facial expression reminiscent of Munch’s .

  • Not every reference to an artwork needs a reference list entry, for example, if you refer to a famous painting, as above, it would not need a reference.

McCahon, C. (1954). [Painting]. http://www.mccahonhouse.org.nz/fifties/5360manukau1954.asp?artwork=19

Hamilton, D. (1975). [Photograph]. http://www.rennart.co.uk/posters.html

[Photograph]. (2006). http://www.bergoiata.org/fe/divers28/10.htm

[Untitled photograph of a giraffe]. (n.d.). http://www.birminghamzoo.com/animals/

  • clicking on or hovering your mouse over the image
  • looking at the bottom of the image
  • looking at the URL
  • if there is no title, create a short descriptive one yourself and put it in square brackets e.g. [...]

Reference List

Examples of references for figures.

Retrieved from a library database

Euromonitor International. (2013). Youth unemployment rate vs. total unemployment rate: 2006-2011 [Graph]. Euromonitor Passport database .

Format: Figure

Author. (year created). Title of work [Type of work], Database name or URL.

No author? Use a corporate/agency/company (as known as group author name), or a screen name. If this is not an option, use the title in place of the author.

  • Library Databases
  • Multiple sources

Tables: numerical values or text displayed in clearly designated columns and rows

Looking for: graphs, flow charts, maps, drawings, photos, etc. > see box Figures.

Created by Auckland University of Technology Library , and adapted with permission.

Tables usually show numerical value or textual information and are almost always characterized by a row-column structure. Any type of illustration other than a table is a  figure .

General notes on tables:

  • Tables are located at the end of your paper, after the reference list and before any appendixes. Each table is on a separate page.
  • Tables may use single-spacing or one-and-a-half spacing (p. 229).
  • Information necessary for understanding the table and definitions of abbreviations used within the table appear in a table note. ( APA Style Blog )
  • All tables must be cited in-text and discussed within the body of your paper, and be included in your reference list.

Basic instructions for formatting tables

Number t ables sequentially (i.e.if you have more than one table in your writing) e.g. Table 1, Table  2 .....

  • Each table must be referred to in the text, using a capital T,  for example: ...as shown in Table 1

Title is placed directly a bove the table itself and below the table number.

  • Brief but clear and explanatory, in italics and with major words capitalized with no full stop.

Note is placed directly below the table, the word "Note" in italics with a full stop, for example:  Note.

  • Explain abbreviations, symbols etc
  • Acknowledge the source of the table
  • Include a copyright statement at the end of the note. 

     ​  For specific and probability note (section 5.16, p 138).

Ruling (Lines)

  • Limit the use of lines to those that are necessary
  • Appropriately positioned white space can be an effective substitute.
  • Tables  may be submitted either single or double spaced. Consider readability (section 5.17, p 141).

Sales of  Take Home Ice Cream in New Zealand

Note . MAT= moving annual total, From ACNielsen Market Information Digest New Zealand .Copyright 2010 by The Nielsen Company.

Table reproduced in your paper

Use this format for tables you COPY - reproduced exactly as they appear in another source. Use this format when you do not make any modifications or add data to the table.

Note format - note under a table

how to cite pew research center

Note. Reprinted from Employment relations in New Zealand (p 98), by E. Rasmussen, 2009. Pearson. Copyright (2009) by Erling Rasmussen. 

...as shown in Table 1, no compensation...

Use the reference style for books - see go to box Books

Table referred to and not reproduced in your paper

If you simply refer to a table, format the in-text citation and the reference list entry in the usual way.

....fifty eight percentage received compensation (Rasmussen, 2009).

Rasmussen, E. (2009). . Pearson.

Note format - note under a table

Adapted/Retrieved/Reprinted from "Title of  Article" by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Surname.Year, Journal Title, Volume(issue), page(s). Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder.     

   In-text citation:

... as shown in Table 1

Use the reference style for articles - see box Articles .

Table referred to but not reproduced in your paper

....the multivariate longitudinal models (Bainter & Howard, 2016)

Bainter, S.A., Howard, A.L. (2016). Comparing within-person effects from multivariate longitudinal models. . 52(12), 1955–1968. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000215

Note Format : note below a table

General notes, including definitions of abbreviations. Name of Database. Copyright (year) by XXX.

Percentage of Men and Women Who Have Bought Fruit and Vegetable Products in the Last Four Weeks

how to cite pew research center

Note.  wc = weighted count, shown in thousands; v% =vertical percentage, showing which % of the column group also belongs to the row group; h% = horizontal percentage showing which percentage of the row group also belongs to the column group. Roy Morgan Single Source New Zealand database. Copyright 2015 by Roy Morgan New Zealand Ltd. 

.... as shown in Table 2

Roy Morgan New Zealand. (2015). [Table]. Roy Morgan Single Source New Zealand database. 

...fewer men than women bought vegetables (Roy Morgan, New Zealand, 2010)

Reference  List entry:

Roy Morgan New Zealand. (2010). [Table]. Roy Morgan Single Source New Zealand database.

Note format - note below a table

Include the title of the document if the table title does not provide enough information. Adapted/Retrieved/Reprinted from Source website. Copyright (Year) by Name of copyright Holder. 

Percentage of New Zealand Population Who Have Never Worked by Age Group. By age group June 2016 quarter

 15–19

 48.5

 20–24

 8.4

 25–29

 3.4

 30–34

 1.8

 35–39

 1.5

Note . Adapted from  http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/income-and-work/employment_and_unemployment/people-never-worked.aspx . Copyright (2016) by Statistics New Zealand. 

...as shown in Table 1, young people make up most of the never-worked group...

Use the reference style for websites - see box Online , tab Websites.

If you refer to a table but don’t provide a copy of it in your assessment, simply give an in-text citation in the usual way

...twenty four year olds who never worked (Statistics New Zealand, 2016).

​ Reference list entry:

Statistics New Zealand. (2016). [Table]. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/income-and-work/employment_and _unemployment/people-never-worked.aspx

Table - compiled from a variety of sources

Multi source data

If you create your own table by compiling data from multiple sources, you will still need to cite where you got your information from. You do not need to give the full bibliographic citation in the note, an author and date is sufficient. 

Note format - note under table:

Data for ABC from Author (date), from  XYZ from Author (date), and MNO from Author (date).

In-text citation: 

As shown in Table 3.......

Note: you used should have a full bibliographic entry in your Reference List even though the information in the field uses a lot of the same information.

Multiple kinds of data

If you have multiple kinds of data (population figures, employment information... etc.) in one table you would describe each set of data)

Note format - note under Table:

Population figures for ABC from Author (date), and for XYZ from Author (date). Data for total unemployed for ABC from Author (date) and for  XYZ from Author (date).
Note: you used should have a full bibliography entry in your reference list even though the information in the Note uses a lot of the same information.

 For more information see:

APA Style for figures & tables

Examples of references for tables.

Retrieved from a book

New Strategist. (2008). Women's time use by age, 2007 [Table]. In New Strategist Editors, American women: Who they are and how they live (4th ed.) . New Strategist Publications, Inc.

Retrieved from a online source

US Census Bureau. (2002). Industries in Which California Ranks First in Terms of Sales or Receipts Per Capita [Table]. 2002 Economic Census . http://www.census.gov/econ/census02/data/tops/TOPSTCA.HTM

National Center for Education Statistics. (2007). [Chart showing racial makeup of San Francisco Unified School District students under age 18]. Common Core of Data . http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/districtsearch/

If the table you find does not have a title, then describe the content in [square brackets].

Format: Table

Author. (Publication Date). Title of  table [Table]. In author or editor of work Title of work . Publisher.

Author. (Publication Date). Title of table [Table]. Title of website. URL

Author. (Publication Date). [Title of table] [Table]. Title of website. URL

Interviews, Emails, Personal Communications

  • Interview, Email & Personal Communications

Personal interviews that you conduct do not have references. Personal interviews are considered personal communication. Include any relevant and important information about the interview in the body of your paper. APA Style states, "An interview is not considered recoverable data, so no reference to this is provided in the reference list. You may, however, cite the interview within the text as a personal communication." APA Style

The company's new initiatives will likely lead to rewriting the mission statement (J. Smith, personal communication, August 15, 2009).

J. Smith (personal communication, August 15, 2009) claims the company' new initiatives will likely lead to rewriting the mission statement.

Interviews - research participants .  APA Style

An interview you read has a citation and reference. Where did you find the interview? Is it from a magazine article, website, blog, etc.? Use the appropriate APA Style format to create the reference.

Email & Personal Communications

Email & personal communications do not have references at the end of your paper, but you will create a citation within the body of your paper.

Why do personal communications not have references? References are created to direct your reader to the sources of information you used in your paper. With personal communications you cannot direct the reader to the source - to the phone conversation you had, to your email inbox, to the day of the interview - the reader of your paper cannot access these sources.

Include any relevant and important information about the email and personal communication in the body of your paper.

Here is an example for the APA Style :

K. M. Ingraham (personal communication, October 5, 2013) stated that she found her career as an educational psychologist intellectually stimulating as well as emotionally fulfilling.
  • Blogs & Wikipedia
  • YouTube & Video

Social Media

  • Help! More info for web sources...

Website (entire website, not a webpage)

No citation is needed for an entire website. Include the website within the body of a paper.

"In my paper, I mention a website. I refer to the website as a whole, and I am not discussing a specific webpage or an article within a website. Do I need to create an in-text citation and a reference list citation?"

NO . All you need to do is include the URL within the body of your paper, and you do not need to include the website and URL in your reference list at the end of the paper. In APA Style there is no specific formatting recommendations.

Two examples - full websites mentioned within a paper.

1) The Department of Health has just released a new website to help people identify and compare health care programs available in their area. The website is called HealthCare.gov at http://www.healthcare.gov/ This resource is easy to use and the interface is intuitive, but the website will not support members of the population not using the internet.

2) Kidspsych ( http://www.kidspsych.org ) is a wonderful interactive website for children. This resource is appropriate for children ages 3 to 10.

APA Style Blog: Websites & Webpages

Webpage (not an online journal, magazine or newspaper > use article format) (APA 7)

Webpage with author:

Doyle, A. (2017, July 1). Best questions to ask at a job interview: What to ask the employer during a job interview. The balance careers. The Balance. https://www.thebalance.com/questions-to-ask-in-a-job-interview-2061205

Webpage without a person as the author - there are options! (APA 7)

Authors for websites are often corporations, organizations or governments. If there is no person listed as the author consider using a corporate/group name . Use a corporate/group name when an o rganization, rather than an individual, takes responsibility for the creation of a work. Ask yourself, whose website is it - what company, organization or government agency?

Webpage with no person as author. Use a corporate/group author.  (APA 7)

United States government agency

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2018, February 14). Traumatic brain injury: FDA actions and research. http://usgov.info/2018/02/14/traumatic-brain-injury-fda-actions-and-research/

U.S. Small Business Association. (n.d.). Build your business plan. https://www.sba.gov/tools/business-plan/1?interiorpage2015

Ben & Jerry's. (n.d.). Our history. https://www.benjerry.com/about-us

Samsung. (2018). Vision 2020. https://www.samsung.com/us/aboutsamsung/vision/vision2020/

Kaiser Permanente. (2013, November). Measuring quality and patient safety. https://healthy.kaiserpermanente.org

Webpage with no author

Effective business plans: Strategies for managers. (2018, March 4). Business Pros. http:// www.businesspros.com

Format:      Title of webpage. (Year, Month Day web page was last updated). Webpage. URL

In-text citation for no author:   ("First Few Words of Title," YEAR).    ("Effective Business Plans," 2018).

If the site refers to itself as a newspaper, magazine or journal cite the source using an article format. Scroll up to Articles - Online.

"There’s no governing authority who decides what’s a newspaper versus a website versus an online magazine versus something else entirely. Best to look at how the site refers to itself and follow the convention associated with that. So if they call themselves a newspaper, italicize the name; otherwise, don’t." 

Use these formats are for webpages - not articles from online journals, magazines or newspapers (see box: Articles)

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day web page was last updated). URL

Corporate Author. (Year, Month Day web page was last updated). URL

(Year, Month Day web page was last updated). Retrieved from URL

Blogs, wikis, and posts on personal websites

Stephanie (2018, february 5). what to do if your obamacare 1095-a column b is zero. poorer than you . http://poorerthanyou.com/category/taxes/.

APA Style on citing Blogs

When citing Wikipedia, cite an archived version of a Wikipedia page so that readers can retrieve the version you used.

*Access the archived version on Wikipedia by selecting “View history” and then the time and date of the version you used.

*If a wiki does not provide permanent links to archived versions of the page, include the URL for the entry and a retrieval date.

Business performance management. ( 2018,  January 25 ). In Wikipedia . https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_performance_ management

Neurology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia . Retrieved December 15, 2017 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurology

APA Style Blog on citing Wikipedia

Entire blog, wiki, or personal website

"In my paper, I mention a blog. I refer to the blog as a whole, and I am not discussing a specific blog post. Do I need to create an in-text citation and a reference list citation?"

No. All you need to do is include the URL within the body of your paper, and you do not need to include the website and URL in your reference list at the end of the paper. In APA Style there is no specific formatting recommendations.

Two examples for mentioning the entire blog, wiki or personal website.  In the body of the paper:

1) At age 22, blogger Stephanee (Stephanie), started her the blog Poorer Than You (http://poorerthanyou.com). The posts are aimed at millennials and provide financial advice on a variety of topics.

2) I have learned a lot by reading the Psych Learning Curve blog (http://psychlearningcurve.org). This blog is an excellent resource for teachers.

Posts and information found within blogs, wikis and personal websites are likely to change and be updated frequently. Therefore, when citing these sources you need to include the retrieved date - this is the date found it.

If there is no date, use (n.d.).

Titles for items in online communities are NOT italicized.

If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name or use the title in place of the author.

 

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day web page was last updated). Title of Blog site. URL

 

Title of page. (Year, Month Day web page was last updated). Title of Blog site. Retrieved date from URL

Glass, I. (Producer). (2013, September 6). How I got into college [Audio podcast]. In  This American Life . http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/504/how-i-got-into-college

Purdue OWL  APA Style: How to Cite a Podcast

LastName, A. A. (Producer). (Year, Month Day {of podcast}). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. In  Title of Podcast Series . Publisher. URL

Podcast without a series - stand alone

LastName, A. A. (Host). (Year, Month Day {of podcast}). Title of podcast [Audio podcast episode]. Publisher. URL

Gallagher , D. (2018, February 3 ). Is Google losing to Amazon? The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com

Krauss, C. (2008, August 30). Surge in natural gas has Utah driving cheaply. The New York Times . https://www.nytimes.com

CNN. (2015, February 15). Boston sets new snow record [Video]. https://www.cnn.com/videos/weather/2015/02/15/newday-alesci-ripley-boston-sets-new-snow-record.cnn/video/playlists/top-news-videos/

Online Newspaper format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. Title of Newspaper . https://www.someaddress.com

Online Magazine format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. Title of Magazine, volume number (issue number if available). https://www.someaddress.com

Online News broadcast video:

Producer Name. (Year, Month Day). Video title [Video]. Website host. https://www.someaddress.com

Youtube video

Forbes. (2018, January 19).  Facebook announces algorithm changes; Apple brings money back to U.S. [Video]. Youtube. https://youtube/39gFZawmKfM

Sasal, D. (2017, June 13) Project Management simplified: Learn the fundamentals of PMI's framework [Video]. Youtube. https://youtu.be/ZKOL-rZ79gs

APA Style: How to Create a Reference for a YouTube Video

TikTok  video

Cook, P. [@chemteacherphil]. (2019, November 19). Alkali salts get lit. #chemistry #chemteacherphil #scienceexperiments #foryou #jobforme #trend #featurethis #science #vibecheck [Video]. TikTok. https://vm.tiktok.com/xP1r1m

Washington Post [@washingtonpost]. (2019, December 3). News is all around us #frozen #newsroom #newspaper [Video]. TikTok. https://vm.tiktok.com/x2sKUu

TikTok  Profile

Witherspoon, R. [@officialreesetiktok]. (n.d.). vsco mom [TikTok profile]. TikTok. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://vm.tiktok.com/xS3B86

APA 7 TikTok Citation Guide

TED Talk video

If you viewed the video on the TED website:

Palmer, A. (2013, February). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video]. TED. https://www.ted.com/talks/amanda_palmer_the_art_of_asking

If you viewed the video on YouTube, the same TED Talk would be referenced as follows:

TED. (2013, March 1). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video]. Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMj_P_6H69g

APA Style Blog: How to Cite a TED Talk in APA Style

Film, Video, or DVD

Selick, H. (Director). (1993). The nightmare before Christmas [Film]. Touchstone.

Smithee, A. F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie [ Film ]. Paramount Pictures.

APA Style Film and TV

If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name.

Director's last name, first initial (Director). (Year of the film's release). [Film]. Name of the movie studio.

Author, A.A. (year, month day). [Film]. http://wwws.URL.com

Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). [Film]. https://www.URL.com

Corporate name. (year, month day). [Film]. https://www.URL.com

Screen name. (year, month day). [Film]. https://www.URL.com

NY Review of Books. (2013, September 6). The total weight of jellyfish in the Black Sea is 10x greater than that of all fish caught around the world in a year. [Tweet; thumbnail link to article]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/nybooks/status/376055502880665600

Obama, M. (2013, February 28). “ We can give all our children the bright, healthy futures they so richly deserve .” —the First Lady on why healthier food options are good for American businesses   [Image attached] [Status update] .  Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php? fbid =10152608245040578& set=a.10150238318835578.467644.22092775577&type=1

Gaiman, N. (2012, February 29). Please celebrate Leap Year Day in the traditional manner by taking a writer out for dinner.  [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/neilgaiman/posts/10150574185041016

Reuters Top News [Reuters]. (2016, November 1). Inside David Bowie's art collection [Twitter moment]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/i/moments/793575609028915200

APA Style: How to Cite a Twitter Moment

APA Style: How to Cite Facebook

APA Style: How to Cite Instagram

Titles for items in online communities are italicized.

If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name.

Author, A.A. (year, month day). . [Type of post]. Site name. https://socialmediaWebsite.com

Screen name. (year, month day) . [Type of post]. Site name. https://clickSHAREinYouTubeURL.com

In APA Style there are no specific formatting rules for citing PDFs.

Why? PDF is just a file format. To cite this type of document, ask yourself: What is this?

You must determine what the nature of the PDF, and then use the corresponding format.

There are two common types of documents that appear as PDFs:

- Articles (magazines, newspapers, journals, newsletters, etc.)

- Reports (government report, company profile, company annual report, etc.)

Need help? Ask us by emailing [email protected]

For Webinar citations in APA 7, Please check out Purdue University APA 7 citation guide on Other Non-Print Sources available here:

https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_other_non_print_sources.html

Rules for citing information found on the web:

No author? Start with the title and then the date. A screen-name can be used as the author. An organization/company can be the author.

Date? If a date is not specifically included with the item you are citing, look for the last updated date. No date type (n.d.)

Titles? Keep it simple - do not italicize website titles. This can get confusing:  If a webpage is part of a larger website, do not italicize the title of the page. If the webpage is an independent document on the website, do italicize the title of the page. This is also a judgment call that you will have to make. If you are not sure, do not italicize.

URL? Yes, include it. www.theURL.com

Retrieved on date? In general, do not include the retrieved date for most web sources. If a webpage is likely to change over time, such as a wiki or personal website, include the date that you looked at the page.

Author and website name? If the name of the website is the same as the name of the author, you do not need to include it a second time.

[Square Brackets]?  APA Style recommends providing identifying information - when needed for clarification. If the information in the citation and URL do not clearly identify what it is you are citing, add [square brackets]. For example, [Blog post], [Wiki], [Twitter post], [Facebook post] [Personal website], [PDF document], [Video], [Interview], [Data].

Presentations

Instructors frequently require students to use APA Style within presentations. APA Style does not provide specific guidelines for PowerPoint presentations and visuals. You will be adapting APA Style guidelines. Check with your instructor about the format. You will likely need to have in-text citations on the slides throughout your presentation for images, data, quotes and paraphrased statements, AND a slide at the end for a reference list.

  • Statistics & Data Sets
  • Dictionary / Definitions

Barr, J. G. (2018). Artificial intelligence . Faulkner Advisory for IT Studies database.  MarketLine . (2013, April 29). NIKE, Inc.: Company profile . 

Annual Report

American Psychological Association. (2013). 2012 annual report of the American  Psychological Association . http://www.apa.org/pubs/info/reports/2012-report.pdf

Unilever. (2015). Annual report and accounts 2015 strategic report.  https://www.unilever.com/Images/annual_report_and_accounts_ar15_tcm244-478426_en.pdf

APA Style on citing annual reports

Microsoft. (2005, September 25). Form 10-Q.  Arrow International, Inc. (2009). 10-K Annual Report 2009 .

Government Report

San Francisco Department of Public Health. (2016). San Francisco community health needs assessment 2016 . https://www.sfdph.org/dph/hc/HCAgen/HCAgen2016/May%2017/2016CHNA-2.pdf

U.S. Department of Education. (2014). Profile of undergraduate students: 2011-12. Web tables (NCES 2015-167). https://nces.ed.gov/ pubs2015/2015167.pdf

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication date). (version number if provided). https://URL

Name of company. (Publication date). (version number if provided). https://URL

Name of company. (Publication date). (version number if provided). Library database name and/or URL.

:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication date). (version number if provided). Publisher Name.

National Cancer Institute. (2016). Taking part in cancer treatment research studies  (Publication No. 16-6249). https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/CRS.pdf

Office of the Inspector General U.S. Department of Justice. (2017, May). Review of the handling of sexual harassment and misconduct allegations by the department’s Civil Division . https://oig.justice.gov/reports/2017/e1703.pdf

APA Style: How to Cite Government Report

U.S. Constitution

APA Style Blog states, "All citations of the U.S. Constitution begin with U.S. Const. , followed by the article, amendment, section, and/or clause numbers as relevant."   APA Style Blog: How to Cite the U.S. Constitution in APA Style

In-text                   (U.S. Const. amend. II)

Reference             U.S. Const. amend. II

Congressional Bill

Equitable Health Care for Severe Mental Illnesses Act of 1993, S. 671, 103d Cong., 1st Sess. (1993).

Federal Statutes

Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 29 U.S.C. §§ 2601–2654 (2006).

FORMAT: Name of the Statute, Tile number Source  § Section number(s) (Year).

APA Style: Writing References for Federal Statutes

Government Agency. (Publication date). (version number if provided). https://URL

Title, Bill or Resolution Number, Number of Congress Cong., Number of Session Sess. (Year).

Name of the Statute, Title number Source § Section number(s) (Year).

Statistics & Data Sets

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2016). Consumer price index - all urban consumers, 1956-2016 [Time series]. http://data.bls.gov

Pew Research Center. (2016). June 10-July 12, 2015 – Gaming, jobs and broadband [Data file and codebook]. http://www.pewresearch.org

World Bank, World Development Indicators. (2016). Firms using banks to finance working capital (% of firms) [Data file]. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IC.FRM.BKWC.ZS?view= chart

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data set]. http://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/in_fy2008.pdf

APA Style on citing data sets

U.S. Census

U.S. Census Bureau (2011). Selected housing characteristics, 2007-2011 American community survey 5-year estimates [Data file]. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_5YR_DP04

If a data set has a DOI, include https://doi.org/########## in the citation. For data sets without a DOI, add the URL.

The name of the data set is italicized. For example, [Data set].

[Square Brackets] identify the source type. There is not a specific rule for use of [square brackets]. You must determine what the information is: [Data set], [Data file], [Data file and codebook], and so on. [Square Brackets] are optional, but are recommended because they can improve a citation.

Author/Rightsholder. (Year). [Data Set]. http://URL

Author/Rightsholder. (Year). [Data Set]. https://doi.org/##########

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (2009). Cahaba River Natural Refuge. https://www.fws.gov/cahabariver/maps.html

International Monetary Fund. (2017, May 8). IMF lending at a glance. http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/map/lending/

WOU APA Style on citing maps

Google Maps

Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps directions for driving from Ingolstadt, Germany, to Geneva, Switzerland]. Retrieved August 4, 2015 from https://goo.gl/maps/ILt8O

APA Style on citing online map s

IAC. (n.d.).  Impact investing. In Investopedia . Retrieved May 15, 2016 from  https://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/impact-investing.asp

Merriam Webster (n.d.). R eliability. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved January 11, 2020 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reliability

Dictionary references in APA 7

BizJournals (via American City Business Journals)

Dittmer, M. (2018, March 16). Busiest Bay Area airlines. San Francisco Business Times .

Britannica Academic & Encyclopaedia Britannica

Library database fisher, w. w. (2018). patent. encyclopaedia britannica ., online britannica, t. editors of encyclopaedia (2019, november 20). prohibition. encyclopedia britannica. https://www.britannica.com/event/prohibition-united-states-history-1920-1933 note: encyclopedia britannica online  has a citation tool., business source complete.

Is it an article?  Use the format: Articles - library database

Is it a report? >> Use the format: Reports

The database Business Source Complete has a citation tool. Click CITE and select APA citation format. Review the citation and edit it.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed): DSM–5

American psychiatric association. (2013). diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.).      https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596, (american psychiatric association, 2013), faulkner reports.

Reports from these databases: Faulkner Advisory for IT Studies (FAITS), and Faulkner Security Management Practices.

Barr, J. G. (2019). Artificial intelligence . Faulkner Advisory for IT Studies.

Keston, G. (2019). Network access control . Faulkner Security Management Practices.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication date). (version number if provided).

Name of company. (Publication date). (version number if provided). 

Name of company. (Publication date). (version number if provided). 

:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication date). (version number if provided). Publisher Name.

Gale Ebooks

Agile software. In Encyclopedia of Emerging Industries (7th ed., pp. 5-10). Gale. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3664200008/GVRL?u=ggusf_main&sid=GVRL&xid=4c07cc09

Harvard Business Review

Is it an article? >> Use the article format .

Is it a case study? >> Use the case study format .

Mergent Online

Mergent Inc. (n.d.). Apple, Inc.: Business segments .

Mergent Inc. (2014, February 28). McDonald's Corp.: Ford Equity research report .

Apple Inc. (2013, October 30). Form 10-K . 

Microsoft. (2005, September 25). Form 10-Q.  

Morningstar Investment Research Center

Google , Inc. (2011, December 31). Form 10-K .

Morningstar . (n.d.). Google: Key ratios . Retrieved March 13, 2014, from Morningstar Investment Research.

Morningstar . (2014, February 28) Fidelity Blue Chip Growth: Rating and risk .  Morningstar Investment Research.

Reichart, K. R. (2014, March 6). Fidelity Blue Chip Growth: Fund analyst repor t. Morningstar Investment Research database.

Summer, R. (2014, February 25). Google, Inc.: Stock analyst report . Morningstar Investment Research database.

Pew Research Center

Lopez, G., Ruis, N.G. & Patten, E. (2017, September 8) Key facts about Asian Americans, a diverse and growing population. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/08/key-facts-about-asian-americans/

Shearer, E. & Gottfried, J. (2017, September 6). In 2017, two-thirds of U.S. adults get news from social media [Table]. In News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2017. http://www.journalism.org/2017/09/07/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-2017/pi_17-08-23_socialmediaupdate_0-01/

Pew Research Center. (2016). June 10-July 12, 2015 – Gaming, Jobs and Broadband [Data file and code book]. http://www.pewresearch.org

Pew Research Center. (2018, January 2018). They’re waiting longer, but U.S. women today more likely to have children than a decade ago: More than half of never-married women in their early 40s have given birth [Report]. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2018/01/18/theyre-waiting-longer-but-u-s-women-today-more-likely-to-have-children-than-a-decade-ago/

S&P Global NetAdvantage

Industry survey.

Snyder, K. (2017, October). Health care equipment and supplies. CFRA Industry Surveys [PDF].

Library database - Statista - citing data and charts

When you are viewing data, look for the citation button. SELECT CITATION. From the drop-down menu, click APA. We recommend you edit the citation. Note, Statista uses many difference SOURCES - the source is in the place of the author.

Atlas Van Lines. (May 27, 2020). Internal factors that influenced employee relocations in the United States in 2020 [Chart]. In Statista - The Statistics Portal . Retrieved April 08, 2021 from https://www.statista.com/statistics/763368/internal-factors-on-employee-relocation-us/

Airnow. (February 17, 2021). Leading iPhone apps in the Apple App Store worldwide in January 2021, by revenue (in million U.S. dollars) [Graph]. In  Statista . Retrieved April 08, 2021, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/271103/top-iphone-apps-worldwide-by-revenue/

Library database - Statista - citing a full report

Collignon , H. & Sultan, N. (2014, November). Winning the business of sports 2014 . Retrieved from Statista database.

Janßen , B., Krützfeldt, W., Ramcke, K., & Staffa, V. (2014, August).  Industry report - Computer and electronic product manufacturing NAICS Code 334 . Retrieved from Statista database.

Statista. (2018). Coffee market in the U.S. [Report]. Retrieved from Statista database.

Online - using Statista's website - citing data and charts

When there is no author name, use the SOURCE name in place of the author. Statista uses many difference SOURCES. Look under the table or figure for the word SOURCE.

ITU. (2011, October). Number of active mobile broadband subscriptions worldwide from 2005 to 2011 (in millions) [Chart].  In Statista . Retrieved from http://www.statista.com/statistics/186337/number-of-mobile-broadband-subscriptions-worldwide-since-2005/

Value Line Publishing. (2010, November 26). Ford Motor. Value Line Investment Survey .

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University of Portland Clark Library

Thursday, February 23: The Clark Library is closed today.

Chicago Style (17th Edition) Citation Guide: Websites

  • Introduction
  • Journal Articles
  • Magazine/Newspaper Articles
  • Books & Ebooks
  • Government & Legal Documents
  • Secondary Sources
  • Videos & DVDs
  • How to Cite: Biblical & Catholic Sources
  • How to Cite: Other
  • Short Form & Ibid.
  • Additional Help

Table of Contents

Entire website - no separate pages or sections, page or section from a website.

Bibliography:

All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

All citations should use first line indent, where the first line of the footnote should be indented by 0.5 inches; all subsequent lines are not indented.

Footnotes should be the same font size and style as the rest of your paper.

See instructions for how to insert footnotes in Microsoft Word.

It can sometimes be difficult to find out who the author of a website is. Remember that an author can be a corporation or group, not only a specific person. Author information can sometimes be found under an "About" section on a website.

If there is no known author, start the citation with the title of the website instead.

The best date to use for a website is the date that the content was last updated. Otherwise look for a copyright or original publication date. Unfortunately this information may not be provided or may be hard to find. Often date information is put on the bottom of the pages of a website.

If you do not know the complete date, put as much information as you can find. For example you may have a year but no month or day.

Access Date

Chicago style does not recommend including access dates in the citation, unless no date of publication or last revision for the source may be located.

“Religion & Public Life.” Pew Research Center. Accessed January 26, 2021. https://www.pewforum.org.

1. “Religion & Public Life,” Pew Research Center, accessed January 26, 2021, https://www.pewforum.org.

“Roman Catholic Church.” Religious Groups. American Religion Data Archives. Accessed July 15, 2020. http://www.thearda.com/Denoms/D_836.asp.

1. “Roman Catholic Church,“ Religious Groups, Association of Religion Data Archives, accessed July 5, 2020, http://www.thearda.com/Denoms/D_836.asp.

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Buena Vista University

APA Citations (7th ed.)

  • General Formatting
  • Student Paper Elements - Title Page
  • Professional Paper Elements - Title Page
  • In-text Citation Basics
  • In-text Citation Author Rules
  • Citing Multiple Works
  • Personal Communications
  • Classroom or Intranet Resources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Periodicals
  • Books & Reference Works
  • Edited Book Chapters & Entries in Reference Works
  • Reports & Gray Literature
  • Conference Sessions & Presentations
  • Dissertations & Theses
  • Data Sets & Software
  • Tests, Scales, & Inventories
  • Audiovisual Works
  • Audio Works
  • Visual Works
  • Social Media
  • Webpages & Websites
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Basics & Formatting
  • Avoiding Plagiarism

Library contact information

Email: [email protected]

Text us: 712-794-4288

Chat online with a BVU Librarian

Schedule an appointment with a BVU librarian (This can be an electronic meeting or F2F)

Authors should include an in-text citation and reference list entry for a data set when they have either (a) conducted secondary analysis of publicly archived data or (b) archived their own data being presented for the first time in the current work.

The date for published data is the year of publication and for unpublished data is the year(s) of collection.

When a version number exists, include it in parentheses after the title.

The bracketed description is flexible (e.g., data set, data set and code book).

In the source element of the reference, for published data, provide the name of the organization that has published, archived, produced, or distributed the data set; for unpublished data, provide the source (e.g., a university), if known.

Include a retrieval date only if the data set is designed to change over time.

Common software and mobile apps mentioned in the text, but not paraphrased or quoted, do not need citations, nor do programming languages. "Common" is relative to your field and audience.

Include reference list entries and in-text citations if you have paraphrased or quoted from any software or app, or if you are mentioning software, apps, and apparatuses or equipment with limited distribution.

Software Template

how to cite pew research center

Data Sets Template

how to cite pew research center

National Center for Education Statistics. (2016).  Fast Response Survey System (FRSS): Teachers' use of educational technology in U.S. public schools, 2009  (ICPSR 35531; Version V3) [Data set and code book]. National Archive of Data on Arts and Culture. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35531.v3

Pew Research Center. (2022).  American trends panel wave 90  [Data set]. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/dataset/american-trends-panel-wave-90/

Shortt, J. W., & Tiberio, S. S. (2019).  Child exposure to intimate partner violence and parent aggression in two generations, United States, 2016-2018  (ICPSR 37185; Version V1) [Data set]. ICPSR. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR37185.v1

Parenthetical citations:  (National Center for Education Statistics, 2016; Pew Research Center, 2022; Shortt & Tiberio, 2019)

Narrative citations:  National Center for Education Statistics (2016), Pew Research Center (2022), and Shortt and Tiberio (2019)

Unpublished Raw Data

  • For an untitled data set, provide a description in square brackets of the publication status and focus of the data.
  • When the source of unpublished raw data is known (e.g., a university or a university department), include it at the end of the reference.

Baer, R. A. (2015). [Unpublished raw data on the correlations between the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills]. University of Kentucky.

Oregon Youth Authority. (2011).  Recidivism outcomes  [Unpublished raw data].

Parenthetical citations:  (Baer, 2015; Oregon Youth Authority, 2011)

Narrative citations:  Baer (2015) and Oregon Youth Authority (2011)

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Need help? Email [email protected] or chat with a BVU Librarian .

MLA Quick Citation Guide

  • In-Text Citations
  • Citing Online Journal, Newspaper & Magazine Articles
  • Citing E-books & Online Books
  • Online (Streaming) Film, Video, & Audio

Formatting Notes

  • Websites and Blogs

Online Images

Email, twitter, & online comments.

  • Citing Print Resources
  • Citing Art, Films, Television, & Music

Unless directed otherwise by your instructor, when using MLA 8 Style for your paper, follow these steps for formatting your citations:

  • Start your works cited list on a separate page at the end of your paper
  • Double space all of your citations, but don't add extra spaces between citations. Spacing should be consistent for the whole list.
  • Use a hanging indent for each citation by indenting the second line and any following lines of a citation. 

The Purdue Owl site has a helpful page with more detailed information about formatting:

  • MLA Works Cited Page: General Format

Due to some limitations on this guide's design, many of the examples do not use double spaces and hanging indents (they don't work well with responsive design). Any color-coded images of citations, however, do show citations with standard MLA style spacing and indents.

Websites & Blogs

  • Author [if available]. Name of Site, Sponsor or Organization Publishing the Site [if available], Date of publication or last update [if available], URL [or DOI or permalink]. Date of access [optional but recommended].
  • If the website has no author, begin with the title of the website.

Chicago Shakespeare Theater, Chicago Shakespeare Theater, 2018, https://www.chicagoshakes.com/. Accessed 4 Feb. 2018.

Page from a Website

  • Author [if available]. "Name of Webpage." Name of Site, Sponsor or Organization Publishing the Site [if available], Date of publication or last update [if available], URL [or DOI or permalink]. Date of access [optional but recommended].
  • If there is no author, begin with the title of the website.

Examples: 

Barthell, Michael, and Amy Mitchell. "Americans’ Attitudes About the News Media Deeply Divided Along Partisan Lines." Pew Research Center, 10 May 2017, http://www.journalism.org/2017/05/10/americans-attitudes-about-the-news-media-deeply-divided-along-partisan-lines/. Accessed 17 Nov. 2017.

Heiner, Heidi Anne. "The Annotated Girl Without Hands." SurLaLune Fairy Tales, 7 July 2007, http://www.surlalunefairytales.com/armlessmaiden/index.html. Accessed 15 Aug. 2017.

  • Artist [if available]. Title of Image. Date of Composition. Name of the Website Where You Found the Image, Publisher of the website [if different from the name of the website], URL. Access Date [optional, but encouraged].
  • If the artist name or username is not available, begin with the title.
  • If the image has no title, provide a brief description.

"Dancing at Etsi Bravo." 2015. Inland 360, inland360.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/dancingatEtsiBravo-300x200.jpg. Accessed 8 Sept. 2017.

"Llama cake." 2018. Cake Wrecks, http://www.cakewrecks.com/display/ShowImage?imageUrl=/storage/TaraDoy.ow.EasterLlama28prettygreatbutcreepy29.jpg?__SQUARESPACE_CACHEVERSION=1530075541695. Accessed 28 June 2018.

Sherald, Amy. Former First Lady, Michelle Obama. 2018. National Portrait Gallery, npg.si.edu/sites/default/files/Single_michelle.jpg.  

  • Use standard capitalization.

Smythe, Eleanor. "Many Thanks for Volunteering!" Received by Veronica Frank and Charles Nicholson, 4 Sept. 2016.

Zeltner, Abby. "Re: Author Signing in the CUB." Received by Linda Morris, 23 Nov. 2017.

For more about citing tweets and Twitter threads, look at the MLA Style Center's post, which includes information on how to deal with twitter threads and tweets with no text: 

  • How do I cite a Twitter thread or conversation in my text and in my works-cited list? 

Short Tweet (less than 140 characters)

  • Twitter handle of the tweet’s author [if real name is known, include it in parenthesis]. "entire text of tweet." Twitter, Date of tweet, URL. Access date [optional].

@viet_t_nguyen (Viet Than Nguyen). "Rather than respond to all my hate mail individually, or ignoring them, I think I'll put all those email addresses into a bcc file and send those people every one of my future op-eds regardless of whether they want them or not." Twitter, 16 May 2018, twitter.com/viet_t_nguyen/status/996991192196763648. Accessed 17 May 2018.

Long Tweet (more than 140 characters)

  • Twitter handle of the tweet’s author [if real name is known, include it in parenthesis]. "beginning of tweet followed by an ellipsis. . . ." Twitter, Date of tweet, URL. Access date [optional].

@LibnOfCongress (Carla Hayden). "Access means accessibility here at @librarycongress. . . ." Twitter, 2 May 2018, https://twitter.com/LibnOfCongress/status/991666499722137600

Comment on an Online Article or Post

  • Author [often this is a username]. Comment on "Title of Article or Post Being Commented on." Name of Website [if available], date, time [if available], URL. Access Date [optional but recommended]. 

millennialmania. Comment on "Being the Song." Libba Bray, 10 Oct. 2016, 11:18 a.m., https://libbabray.com/being-the-song/.

Pusher of Buttons. Comment on "Video Games May Protect Mental Health and Avert Trauma, Addiction." Ars Technica, 29 Mar. 2017, 8:48 a.m., https://arstechnica.com/science/2017/03/video-games-may-tidy-and-protect-mental-health-averting-trauma-addiction/?comments=1. Accessed 20 Jan. 2018.

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  • Last Updated: Jun 30, 2022 12:24 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.libraries.wsu.edu/QuickCiteMLA

WashU Libraries

Citing your sources & writing styles.

  • Classical Studies
  • Sciences/Engineering
  • Legal/Government/Business
  • Citation Software
  • Chicago/Turabian
  • Other Styles
  • Citing your Data
  • Ask us! This link opens in a new window

Why cite your data

Just as you cite journal articles, websites, and any books you reference in your publication, so too do you need to cite any data your publication uses. 

Citing datasets, such as spreadsheets, interview transcripts, images, etc., is crucial in providing context for your research and giving credit to the individual who's data you've used.

Generic data citation

A dataset citation includes many of the same components of a traditional citation.

Many style manuals have not developed specific instructions for citing data. If the style guide you are using does not address data citations, you may use the basic citation elements, regardless of the type of work.

  • author(s) (Who created the data? an organization, individual, group of individuals) ,
  • title (name of the study or title of the dataset),
  • year of publication,
  • publisher (or location of where the data was found)
  • edition/version
  • access information (URL/doi where data was found)

Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles , Feb. 2014

Image source:  Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles

APA 6th edition formatting and examples

For a complete description of data citation guidelines refer to pp. 210-211 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition

  • Author Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title of data set (Version number) [Description of form]. Location: Name of producer.

                                OR

  • Author Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title of data set [Description of form].  Retrieved from http://xxx
  • Pew Hispanic Center. (2004).  Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures: A survey of Latinos on the news media [Data file and code book].  Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/datasets

MLA 9th edition examples using general rules

Since MLA has not developed a specific citation style for datasets, the general rules for citing a web document may be applied. 

  • Author Last Name, First Name. Title of data set . (Version). Publisher location: Publisher name, Date of publication. Medium of publication. Date accessed. doi/url of data
  • Pew Hispanic Center.  Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures: A survey of Latinos on the news media. (Data file and code book). Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, 2004.  Web.  19 Sep 2011. < http://pewhispanic.org/datasets/signup.php?DatasetID=5 >

More about citing sources

  • DCC cite datasets and link to publications
  • Why and how should I cite data? from Inter-University Consortium for Social and Political Research (ICPSR)
  • How to cite data (including datasets) with more examples; from Michigan State University
  • Citing data from MIT Libraries
  • Elements of a Data Citation - examples in several citation styles from How to Cite Datasets and Link to Publications
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Q&A for work

Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search.

Proper BibTeX citation for Pew Research Report

What is the proper BibTeX format for a Pew research report? The Pew website says:

Citation. “Report Title.” Pew Research Center, Washington, D.C. (Publication date) URL.

My entry currently looks like

But this doesn't produce the full date in the bibliography. It only looks like this:

Pew Research Center. 2019. Americans Favor Mobile Devices over Desktops and Laptops for Getting News. Technical Report. Washington, D.C. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/11/19/americans-favor-mobile-devices-over-desktops-and-laptops-for-getting-news/

How do I get the full date, and for it not to say "Technical Report"?

(I would also like it to export properly from Zotero, but that's a problem for another day.)

  • bibliographies

Adam_G's user avatar

  • As always, the exact output will depend on the bibliography style you use. So you may have to experiment a bit (and/or check out in the style documentation or source code which fields are supported). I should mention that I know of no BibTeX style that supports a day field (neither does biblatex ). –  moewe Commented Jul 22, 2021 at 6:05
  • As for the legal status of the "please cite as" in the ToS I cannot help you, but from a purely scientific/bibliographic viewpoint I think it is absurd to force a certain style of reference unto people. If you were to follow the guidance in the ToS to the letter you could not cite any Pew work in an article using APA style, because APA style requires a different result. Surely that cannot be the desired outcome. See also tex.stackexchange.com/q/263102/35864 . ... –  moewe Commented Jul 22, 2021 at 6:15
  • ... The proper format for a reference should be determined by the reference style. The author of the work that is cited has control over all the raw entry data, but should not ave control over the final presentation. –  moewe Commented Jul 22, 2021 at 6:16
  • @Adam_G in what sense do you mean "exported properly"? –  retorquere Commented Aug 29, 2021 at 22:51

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how to cite pew research center

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COMS 1030: Public Speaking

  • Find statistics or data
  • Choose or focus your topic
  • Get Background Information
  • News Sources
  • Find books or book chapters
  • Find research articles
  • Cite your sources in APA style
  • Write an annotated bibliography
  • Get Help / Contact Me

Find statistics or data with Statista

Where can i get data about my topic .

  • There are many different places to find data about your topic, but I suggest starting with Statista , a website which compiles data that is available from across the web. 
  • On the Statista website, search for your topic. You should see a chart of the data and a description of where it comes from below the chart.
  • Example: this data on public opinion in regards to gun safety and ownership comes from the Pew Research Center, so they should be cited as the source of the data. Check out the example citation below. 
  • I've also listed a variety of topic-specific websites below that you can use to find data. 

Example APA Citation:

Pew Research Center. (2012). What do you think is more imporant - proteching the right of Americans to own guns, or controlling gun ownership (United States, July 2012). Retrieved from  http://www.statista.com/statistics/237372/survey-on-the-importance-of-gun-control-and-gun-ownership-in-the-us/ . 

You could also use the link to the original article on the Pew Research Center site and cite that instead. Here is an APA citation for the page from which Statista drew the data for the ciation listed above:

Pew Research Center. (2012). Views on gun laws unchanged after Aurora shooting. Retrieved from http://www.people-press.org/2012/07/30/views-on-gun-laws-unchanged-after-aurora-shooting/ .

  • Statista Statista is a search-able collection of statistics that are available on the open web.

Other Data Sources

  • Pew Research Center for People and the Press The Pew Research Center compiles statistics on public opinion toward political and social issues including some major issues in the news such as immigration, health care, taxes and spending, gay marriage and attitudes towards news organizations.
  • SimplyMap SimplyMap provides census and market data for the United States by state, county and even city.
  • Health Statistics Health statistics from the US National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health.
  • Bureau of Labor Statistics Statistics on employment, occupations, industry and demographics from the US government.
  • Migration Population Statistics Statistics on Americans born in other countries from the US Census Bureau.
  • Education Statistics From the National Center for Education Statistics.
  • Vital Statistics on American Politics Statistics on voting and political behavior. Part of the CQ Press Political Reference Suite of Online Editions.
  • Europa World Plus Demographic, economic and political data for all countries across the world.
  • Statistical Abstract of the United States A collection of statistics about the US from a number of federal agencies. This series was ended in 2011.
  • << Previous: Find research articles
  • Next: Cite your sources in APA style >>

American Psychological Association

Webpage on a Website References

This page contains reference examples for webpages, including the following:

  • Webpage on a news website
  • Comment on a webpage on a news website
  • Webpage on a website with a government agency group author
  • Webpage on a website with an organizational group author
  • Webpage on a website with an individual author
  • Webpage on a website with a retrieval date

1. Webpage on a news website

Bologna, C. (2019, October 31). Why some people with anxiety love watching horror movies . HuffPost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/anxiety-love-watching-horror-movies_l_5d277587e4b02a5a5d57b59e

Roberts, N. (2020, June 10). Trayvon Martin’s mother, Sybrina Fulton, qualifies to run for elected office . BET News. https://www.bet.com/news/national/2020/06/10/trayvon-martin-mother-sybrina-fulton-qualifies-for-office-florid.html

Toner, K. (2020, September 24). When Covid-19 hit, he turned his newspaper route into a lifeline for senior citizens . CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2020/06/04/us/coronavirus-newspaper-deliveryman-groceries-senior-citizens-cnnheroes-trnd/index.html

  • Parenthetical citations : (Bologna, 2019; Roberts, 2020; Toner, 2020)
  • Narrative citations : Bologna (2019), Roberts (2020), and Toner (2020)
  • Use this format for articles from news websites. Common examples are BBC News, BET News, Bloomberg, CNN, HuffPost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, and Vox. These sites do not have associated daily or weekly newspapers.
  • Use the newspaper article category for articles from newspaper websites such as The New York Times or The Washington Post .
  • Provide the writer as the author.
  • Provide the specific date the story was published.
  • Provide the title of the news story in italic sentence case.
  • List the name of the news website in the source element of the reference.
  • End the reference with the URL.

2. Comment on a webpage on a news website

Owens, L. (2020, October 7). I propose a bicycle race between Biden and Trump [Comment on the webpage Here’s what voters make of President Trump’s COVID-19 diagnosis ]. HuffPost. https://www.spot.im/s/00QeiyApEIFa

  • Parenthetical citation : (Owens, 2020)
  • Narrative citation : Owens (2020)
  • Credit the person who left the comment as the author using the format that appears with the comment (i.e., a real name and/or a username). The example shows a real name.
  • Provide the specific date the comment was published.
  • Provide the comment title or up to the first 20 words of the comment in standard font. Then in square brackets write “Comment on the webpage” and the title of the webpage on which the comment appeared in sentence case and italics.
  • Provide the name of the news website in the source element of the reference.
  • Link to the comment itself if possible. Otherwise, link to the webpage on which the comment appears. Either a full URL or a short URL is acceptable.

3. Webpage on a website with a government agency group author

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, July). Anxiety disorders . U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml

  • Parenthetical citation : (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018)
  • Narrative citation : National Institute of Mental Health (2018)
  • For a page on a government website without individual authors, use the specific agency responsible for the webpage as the author.
  • The names of parent agencies not present in the author element appear in the source element (in the example, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health). This creates concise in-text citations and complete reference list entries.
  • Provide as specific a date as possible for the webpage.
  • Some online works note when the work was last updated. If this date is clearly attributable to the specific content you are citing rather than the overall website, use the updated date in the reference.
  • Do not include a date of last review in a reference because content that has been reviewed has not necessarily been changed. If a date of last review is noted on a work, ignore it for the purposes of the reference.
  • Italicize the title of the webpage.

4. Webpage on a website with an organizational group author

World Health Organization. (2018, May 24) . The top 10 causes of death . https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death

  • Parenthetical citation : (World Health Organization, 2018)
  • Narrative citation : World Health Organization (2018)
  • For a page from an organization’s website without individual authors, use the name of the organization as the author.
  • Because the author of the webpage and the site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element to avoid repetition.

5. Webpage on a website with an individual author

Horovitz, B. (2021, October 19). Are you ready to move your aging parent into your home? AARP. https://www.aarp.org/caregiving/home-care/info-2021/caregiving-questions.html

Schaeffer, K. (2021, October 1). What we know about online learning and the homework gap amid the pandemic. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/10/01/what-we-know-about-online-learning-and-the-homework-gap-amid-the-pandemic/

  • Parenthetical citations : (Horovitz, 2021; Schaeffer, 2021)
  • Narrative citations : Horovitz (2021) and Schaeffer (2021)
  • When individual author(s) are credited on the webpage, list them as the author in the reference.
  • Provide the site name in the source element of the reference.

6. Webpage on a website with a retrieval date

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock . U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved January 9, 2020, from https://www.census.gov/popclock/

  • Parenthetical citation : (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.)
  • Narrative citation : U.S. Census Bureau (n.d.)
  • When contents of a page are designed to change over time but are not archived, include a retrieval date in the reference.

Webpage references are covered in the seventh edition APA Style manuals in the Publication Manual Section 10.16 and the Concise Guide Section 10.14

how to cite pew research center

How to Cite a Survey in Different Citation Styles

how to cite pew research center

When you’re trying to build a case for something or need to increase credibility for a particular argument, a great way to start is to cite a survey . You can do this by finding an existing, published survey that supports your position, or by creating your own survey and sending it out, hoping that the majority of responses will favor what you believe to be true. 

Create your first survey, form or poll now!

Regardless of your survey results , however, it’s necessary to let your audience know where and how you obtained the information in your report. That’s when using survey citations—and the right research citation format —comes into play.

What is a Citation?

No, we’re not talking about that traffic citation you got a while back. In the world of research and writing, a citation is how you inform readers that a reference or quote you’re using in your research came from another source. 

Citations also provide your audience with a method of finding the source again. In an internet blog such as this, it could be as simple as including a hyperlink that directs the reader to the original site housing the information you referenced. 

When it’s not possible to link, such as in a printed piece, it’s important to include the following information:

  • Author’s (or authors’) name(s)
  • Title of the work
  • Publisher’s name
  • Publication date
  • Page(s) or section(s) referenced

Benefits of Citing Sources

Because of the wealth of information at our fingertips online, “borrowing” information without giving credit is all too common. So, the most obvious benefit of properly citing an outside source is that it protects you from accusations of plagiarism. But there are other great benefits:

  • Citing outside sources lends credibility to your ideas or arguments.
  • Citing sources shows that significant research was involved.
  • If the information you’re citing happens to be wrong or inaccurate, adding a citation absolves you of having to take full ownership of the misinformation.

Sourcing a Survey and Survey Citation Formats

When you want to reference a survey, you need to let readers know where the survey results came from. Otherwise, they may not believe you. Sourcing and citing a survey properly comes down to whether you conducted the survey yourself or are referencing a published survey as well as which citation style you are using. There are three citation formats:

  • Modern Language Association (MLA) style
  • American Psychological Association (APA) style
  • Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS)

Citing a Survey You Conducted

When citing a survey that you conducted on your own, clarify that you designed and distributed the survey in the body of your content rather than citing it at the end of the survey. You should explain the methodology you used (e.g., “an online survey distributed to 1,000 graduate students”). While not necessary, including the survey itself, either as an appendix or through an online link, helps your audience better understand the methodology. You may even choose to disclose data sets, being sure to remove any personal or private information, in a spreadsheet.

Speaking of anonymity, if you refer to a comment made by a respondent in your survey, always refer to them as “a respondent,” not by name. You can, however, give them pseudonyms to avoid repetition as long as you note that the names have been changed to protect privacy.

Citation Styles : MLA vs APA vs Chicago

There is no standard citation format . Which citation format you use will depend upon your field of research, your educational institution, or the publication you’re writing for. 

How to Cite a Survey in APA and MLA Styles

MLA and APA guidelines are similar. In both citation styles, you should use in-text citations that correlate with a “Works Cited” list as the end of the report. For example, say you were referencing a statistic from this Pew Research Center survey on internet usage, published by Andrew Perrin and Madhu Kumar. In the body of your report, you’d cite the authors’ last names and the page number (since this is a web page, use page 1) and put their words into quotations. 

Today, everyone is online. In fact, “about three-in-ten U.S. adults say they are ‘almost constantly’ online” (Perrin & Kumar 1). 

Then, in your “Works Cited” list at the end of the report, you’d give the complete details or the citation.

Perrin, Andrew, and Kumar, Madhu. “About three-in-ten U.S. adults say they are ‘almost constantly’ online.” Pew Research Center , 25 July 2019, p. 1

How to Cite a Survey in Chicago Style

In CMOS, you would instead include a superscript number that correlates to the source, which will be noted at the bottom of the page and in the Bibliography at the end of the report (similar to a “Works Cited” page). So, in the body of your report, that same sentence would look like this:

Today, everyone is online. In fact, “about three-in-ten U.S. adults say they are ‘almost constantly’ online” .¹ 

At the end of that same page, you would insert a small footnote with that superscript number attached for reference:

1 Perrin, Andrew, and Kumar, Madhu. About three-in-ten U.S. adults say they are ‘almost constantly’ online. (Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, 2019)

Again, this same information would appear, in a list along with other citations, in a final Bibliography at the end of the report.

It’s important to understand that we’re painting with a broad brush; citing surveys with MLA, APA , and CMOS comes with little quirks, and there are exceptions to many rules. To gain a full understanding of how to cite surveys with each citation format, you may want to refer to Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab (OWL) which gets very in-depth.

Citing surveys and other data in your research is a great way to build a case for something or increase credibility for a particular argument. Now that you have a better understanding of how to cite a survey and what the three citation formats are, you’re probably ready to start creating your survey! SurveyLegend offers both fun and professional survey templates you can use for any industry, and they’re responsive, so they’ll scale down to the size of a smartphone. Swing by the SurveyLegend website and take a tour of our capabilities to discover all that you can do.

Which citation method do you prefer? (Hey, that’s a good topic for a survey…) Let us know in the comments!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

In research and writing, a citation is noting in your text that you are referencing or quoting another source.

Citing outside sources gives credibility to your argument, shows that research was conducted, and absolves you from taking full ownership of misinformation if the source happens to be inaccurate.

Modern Language Association (MLA) style, American Psychological Association (APA) style, and Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS).

Which citation format you use will depend upon your field of research, your educational institution, or the publication you’re writing for. 

Jasko Mahmutovic

How to Write Survey Questions Ebook

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How to cite “Pew” by Catherine Lacey

Apa citation.

Formatted according to the APA Publication Manual 7 th edition. Simply copy it to the References page as is.

If you need more information on APA citations check out our APA citation guide or start citing with the BibguruAPA citation generator .

Lacey, C. (2020). Pew . Granta Books.

Chicago style citation

Formatted according to the Chicago Manual of Style 17 th edition. Simply copy it to the References page as is.

If you need more information on Chicago style citations check out our Chicago style citation guide or start citing with the BibGuru Chicago style citation generator .

Lacey, Catherine. 2020. Pew . London, England: Granta Books.

MLA citation

Formatted according to the MLA handbook 9 th edition. Simply copy it to the Works Cited page as is.

If you need more information on MLA citations check out our MLA citation guide or start citing with the BibGuru MLA citation generator .

Lacey, Catherine. Pew . Granta Books, 2020.

Other citation styles (Harvard, Turabian, Vancouver, ...)

BibGuru offers more than 8,000 citation styles including popular styles such as AMA, ASA, APSA, CSE, IEEE, Harvard, Turabian, and Vancouver, as well as journal and university specific styles. Give it a try now: Cite Pew now!

Publication details

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TitlePew
Author(s)Catherine Lacey
Year of publication2024
PublisherGranta Books
City of publicationLondon, England
ISBN9781783785179

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Web Archive Pew Research Center : Numbers, Facts, and Trends Shaping Your World

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Pew Research Center. Pew Research Center: Numbers, Facts, and Trends Shaping Your World . United States, 2013. Web Archive. https://www.loc.gov/item/lcwaN0002821/.

APA citation style:

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MLA citation style:

Pew Research Center. Pew Research Center: Numbers, Facts, and Trends Shaping Your World . United States, 2013. Web Archive. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/lcwaN0002821/>.

Funders’ Network Encourages Practices to Close the Gap Between Research and Real-World Solutions

Global collaborative seeks to support progress on pressing societal challenges.

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  • Table of Contents

The Transforming Evidence Funders Network (TEFN)—a collection of more than 80 philanthropies and public funding agencies that convene to catalyze collection action around work at the nexus of research, policy, practice, and community—has announced that it’s facilitating a peer learning and exchange program for 15 funding organizations that have committed to both change a funding practice or process and assess the outcomes of that change.

The participating organizations include the AIR Equity Initiative at the American Institutes for Research ; the Canadian Cancer Society ; The Patrick and Catherine Weldon Donaghue Medical Research Foundation ; the Education Endowment Foundation ; Canada’s International Development Research Centre ; the Lumina Foundation ; the University of Michigan Water Center, host of the National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERRS) Science Collaborative through a cooperative agreement with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); The Pew Charitable Trusts’ Lenfest Ocean Program and Programs in the Biomedical Sciences ; Wellcome ; The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation ; and the William T. Grant Foundation .

The program fits with the network’s role of offering funders a space for peer learning and collaborative action, which has inspired some participants to reimagine their own funding practices and processes. These changes aim to better enable research to contribute to progress on long-standing societal challenges—including, but not limited to, climate change, economic inequity, and health disparities.

The announcement comes as TEFN participants have been exploring a variety of strategies, including supporting innovative approaches to research synthesis (i.e., combining findings from multiple studies), infrastructure for networks and consortia that span the boundaries between sectors, and participatory approaches to research—which are also called “engaged research,” “research co-production,” “research-practice partnerships,” “integrated knowledge translation,” “collaborative science,” ­and other names.

Engaged research cultivates mutually beneficial partnerships between researchers and groups who are close to the issues being studied and who stand to benefit from the findings—such as communities, service delivery organizations, and government agencies. Interest in engaged research, and the other strategies that TEFN organizations have been exploring, flows in large part from the promise these approaches hold for integrating different types of knowledge and experiences into real-world problem-solving efforts.

Changes Funders Are Making to Their Practices and Processes

These approaches often require project timelines that account for necessary relationship-building, new or different project team expertise and capabilities, and unique success measures. The creation of the peer learning and exchange program is a response to the reality that few practical guides or resources exist to support funders who want to strengthen their practices and processes to ensure their grantees are well equipped (and appropriately resourced) to implement these promising strategies. The program’s regular exchanges serve as a mechanism for the group to offer peer support and problem-solving, with participants sharing their real-time experiences exploring and implementing changes to their funding practices and processes. Many participants are assessing process outcomes, such as the relationship between application guidance and who receives funding. Others are beginning to assess the contributions that funding practices and processes make to longer-term, downstream impacts such as policy and practice change.

Most of these changes that participants are discussing fall in one of three areas:

  • Centering Key Voices and Attending to Power Imbalances and Inequities Several funders are working to adapt their funding processes and practices to center the perspectives and priorities of communities that are close to the issues being studied. Some of these efforts explicitly aim to help funding recipients confront long-standing power imbalances and inequities. For example, some funders are working to commit grantmaking resources to Africa, focusing on funding African organizations and African-led partnerships directly. Other funders are integrating policymakers, practitioners, or community groups into funded project teams or into processes for developing funding priorities, drafting application guidance, or reviewing and selecting proposals for funding.
  • Rethinking Reporting and Impact Measurement Other funders are exploring new methods for monitoring projects and adapting reporting requirements. The funders working on changing these practices are sensitive to (and attempting to limit) the administrative burdens created by the reporting requirements that come with their funding. These shifts in monitoring and reporting link to broader efforts to expand research impact assessment beyond publication and citation counts. Examples of funding practices in this space include assessment and evaluation criteria that target impacts in policy, practice, or community settings, as well as the creation of narrative reports produced collaboratively by funding recipients and program officers.
  • Strengthening Capacity of Funding Organization Staff Some funders are working to strengthen the capacity of their staffs to ensure the research initiatives they support are positioned for use in policy, practice, or community decision-making. To do this, some funders are developing guidance to ensure that funder staff have the knowledge, skills, and competencies to cultivate and support grantees that are working toward impacts beyond academic publications—such as fostering sustainable networks, strengthening evidence generation and use capacities, and influencing policies, practices, or behaviors. For example, some funders are developing guidelines and toolkits to equip grantmaking staff to give greater priority to research processes that engage evidence users throughout the project life cycle.

Funders recognize that shifting practices—and learning from those changes—must be an ongoing process. As funders continue to strengthen their individual practices to help close the gap between research and real-world solutions, new information and assessments will be needed to understand what works and why.

As a parallel effort, TEFN has begun curating a set of field-tested, promising practices intended to build on other funder efforts, including Wellcome’s library of funding practices that aims to help address funding inequities. The goal is to make funder-focused resources easier to access and use while continuing to encourage thoughtful assessment and evaluation of practice changes to build the knowledge base needed to establish best practices.

Funders interested in developing and assessing funding practices to better support work at the nexus of research, policy, practice, and community are invited to share their own promising practices, describe lessons learned from assessments of their funding practices, or join TEFN’s monthly learning sessions by writing to [email protected] .

Ben Miyamoto works on The Pew Charitable Trusts’ evidence project.

Angela Bednarek

Don’t miss our latest facts, findings, and survey results in The Rundown

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POV: Sisterhood for the Win

Photo: Kamala Harris, the vice president of the united states, standing in front of a large group of College Athletes at a recent speech on July 22, 2024. The image has the letters "POV" masked on top in white

Photo via AP Photo/Susan Walsh

BU LAW scholar knows racist and sexist attacks await Kamala Harris, but vows, “she will not struggle alone”

Erika george.

When Vice President Kamala Harris accepted President Joe Biden’s endorsement on Sunday to replace him on the Democratic ticket and to run for the party’s nomination, she emphasized her intention to “earn and win” support for her candidacy. Historically, earning widespread support has proved to be a challenge for women candidates seeking the highest political offices in a country—with a 2023 Pew study finding that women served as government heads in just 13 of the 193 member states of the United Nations, and that fewer than one-third of UN countries have ever had a woman leader.

And, yet, witnessing a multiracial daughter of immigrants withstand the intense scrutiny of a 24-7 news cycle—with the support of a multicultural, multiracial, intergenerational coalition of people who are choosing to come together—inspires me to believe that we can overcome our country’s difficult past and prepare for a different, more inclusive future.

It won’t be easy.

Women are underrepresented at all levels of political decision-making worldwide and reaching gender equality in the highest positions of power will take over 100 years, according to UN Women . Yet, as I watched how rapidly endorsements and donations to support the vice president’s candidacy poured in from across the country, I found myself feeling grateful that she decided to take on the challenge—and increasingly optimistic about her chances to make history.

I met Vice President Harris for the first time at a small event in Utah in June, along with members of our sorority, Alpha Kappa Alpha. Service and sisterhood have been central commitments of our sorority since it was founded by Black women at Howard University in 1908. She warmly welcomed us as her sisters, just as she did a few weeks later at our national meeting in Texas, when she said in her opening remarks , “Oh, my heart is full.”

Her continued commitment to public service was also clear. The words to our sorority’s song speak of moving through years of struggle to capture a vision of fairness. When I cast my first ballot as a young voter while living in Chicago, I knew my right to do so was won because others before me struggled to secure my voting rights. In 1908, against improbable odds, founding members of our sisterhood envisioned women winning greater laurels and taking on greater tasks in the world. Now, one of us stands poised to win the honor of serving our country in its highest elected office.

I am encouraged by her courage. I know she will not struggle alone. Within hours of her announcement, I received multiple invitations from different sorority sisters inviting me to join a Zoom call with a coalition of Black women leaders from across the country who show up and support one another. The call exceeded 45,000 participants.

Women everywhere continue to face obstacles in their efforts to earn respect for their accomplishments. Despite their qualifications, women—and especially women of color—too often are deemed unqualified or presumed incompetent. Black women do not enjoy the benefit of the doubt, and instead are held to an even higher, maybe impossible, standard. Their talents are doubted, and their achievements diminished.

Vice President Harris has convinced me, along with the many people who have endorsed her and donated to her campaign, that she is ready. It could be that she is on her way to earn the widespread support that has been so elusive, yet so deserving, for women candidates historically.

To be sure, I expect her candidacy will be met with racist, sexist, and nativist rhetoric. When personal attacks replace policy analysis, we all lose. A study of the impacts of sexualized disinformation campaigns against women in public life during the 2020 election cycle found online abuse to be intersectional, combining sexist and racist tropes, compounding risks for women of color. It will hurt me to see a member of my sisterhood, and someone so many people may identify with, subjected to hateful speech and harmful stereotypes.

I believe we can—and we must—become a country that is ready for women to occupy the highest levels of political leadership. Erika George

I believe we can—and we must—become a country that is ready for women to occupy the highest levels of political leadership. It is important to continue to question our biases and challenge ourselves to do better. The Harris campaign will mean that more women—and, specifically, women of color, who have historically been underrepresented in high political offices—will envision aspiring to higher levels of leadership and participation in public affairs and a range of different areas.

There is growing evidence that the role played by women’s leadership in political decision-making processes is positive, can improve outcomes, and is more likely to increase collaboration across party affiliations, even in contested political contexts, by promoting issues of gender equality. The candidacy of Vice President Harris will invite more people to imagine that a different world is achievable—one with more possibilities for more people from more diverse backgrounds. Our country’s greatness lies in its diversity. This moment presents us with a powerful opportunity to embrace it.

Erika R. George is associate dean for equity, justice, and engagement, and the R. Gordon Butler Scholar in International Law at the School of Law. Previously, she was the Samuel D. Thurman Professor of Law at University of Utah’s S.J. Quinney College of Law and directed the Tanner Humanities Center in the university’s College of Humanities. She can be reached at [email protected] .

“POV” is an opinion page that provides timely commentaries from students, faculty, and staff on a variety of issues: on-campus, local, state, national, or international. Anyone interested in submitting a piece, which should be about 700 words long, should contact John O’Rourke at [email protected] . BU Today reserves the right to reject or edit submissions. The views expressed are solely those of the author and are not intended to represent the views of Boston University.

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Researchers discover a new form of scientific fraud: Uncovering 'sneaked references'

by Lonni Besançon and Guillaume Cabanac, The Conversation

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A researcher working alone—apart from the world and the rest of the wider scientific community—is a classic yet misguided image. Research is, in reality, built on continuous exchange within the scientific community: First you understand the work of others, and then you share your findings.

Reading and writing articles published in academic journals and presented at conferences is a central part of being a researcher. When researchers write a scholarly article, they must cite the work of peers to provide context, detail sources of inspiration and explain differences in approaches and results. A positive citation by other researchers is a key measure of visibility for a researcher's own work.

But what happens when this citation system is manipulated? A recent Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology article by our team of academic sleuths—which includes information scientists, a computer scientist and a mathematician—has revealed an insidious method to artificially inflate citation counts through metadata manipulations: sneaked references.

Hidden manipulation

People are becoming more aware of scientific publications and how they work, including their potential flaws. Just last year more than 10,000 scientific articles were retracted . The issues around citation gaming and the harm it causes the scientific community, including damaging its credibility, are well documented.

Citations of scientific work abide by a standardized referencing system: Each reference explicitly mentions at least the title, authors' names, publication year, journal or conference name, and page numbers of the cited publication. These details are stored as metadata, not visible in the article's text directly, but assigned to a digital object identifier, or DOI—a unique identifier for each scientific publication.

References in a scientific publication allow authors to justify methodological choices or present the results of past studies, highlighting the iterative and collaborative nature of science.

However, we found through a chance encounter that some unscrupulous actors have added extra references, invisible in the text but present in the articles' metadata, when they submitted the articles to scientific databases. The result? Citation counts for certain researchers or journals have skyrocketed, even though these references were not cited by the authors in their articles.

Chance discovery

The investigation began when Guillaume Cabanac, a professor at the University of Toulouse, wrote a post on PubPeer , a website dedicated to post-publication peer review, in which scientists discuss and analyze publications. In the post, he detailed how he had noticed an inconsistency: a Hindawi journal article that he suspected was fraudulent because it contained awkward phrases had far more citations than downloads, which is very unusual.

The post caught the attention of several sleuths who are now the authors of the JASIST article . We used a scientific search engine to look for articles citing the initial article. Google Scholar found none, but Crossref and Dimensions did find references. The difference? Google Scholar is likely to mostly rely on the article's main text to extract the references appearing in the bibliography section, whereas Crossref and Dimensions use metadata provided by publishers.

A new type of fraud

To understand the extent of the manipulation, we examined three scientific journals that were published by the Technoscience Academy, the publisher responsible for the articles that contained questionable citations.

Our investigation consisted of three steps:

  • We listed the references explicitly present in the HTML or PDF versions of an article.
  • We compared these lists with the metadata recorded by Crossref, discovering extra references added in the metadata but not appearing in the articles.
  • We checked Dimensions, a bibliometric platform that uses Crossref as a metadata source, finding further inconsistencies.

In the journals published by Technoscience Academy, at least 9% of recorded references were "sneaked references." These additional references were only in the metadata, distorting citation counts and giving certain authors an unfair advantage. Some legitimate references were also lost, meaning they were not present in the metadata.

In addition, when analyzing the sneaked references, we found that they highly benefited some researchers. For example, a single researcher who was associated with Technoscience Academy benefited from more than 3,000 additional illegitimate citations. Some journals from the same publisher benefited from a couple hundred additional sneaked citations.

We wanted our results to be externally validated, so we posted our study as a preprint , informed both Crossref and Dimensions of our findings and gave them a link to the preprinted investigation. Dimensions acknowledged the illegitimate citations and confirmed that their database reflects Crossref's data. Crossref also confirmed the extra references in Retraction Watch and highlighted that this was the first time that it had been notified of such a problem in its database. The publisher, based on Crossref's investigation, has taken action to fix the problem.

Implications and potential solutions

Why is this discovery important? Citation counts heavily influence research funding, academic promotions and institutional rankings. Manipulating citations can lead to unjust decisions based on false data. More worryingly, this discovery raises questions about the integrity of scientific impact measurement systems, a concern that has been highlighted by researchers for years. These systems can be manipulated to foster unhealthy competition among researchers, tempting them to take shortcuts to publish faster or achieve more citations.

To combat this practice we suggest several measures:

  • Rigorous verification of metadata by publishers and agencies like Crossref.
  • Independent audits to ensure data reliability.
  • Increased transparency in managing references and citations.

This study is the first, to our knowledge, to report a manipulation of metadata. It also discusses the impact this may have on the evaluation of researchers. The study highlights, yet again, that the overreliance on metrics to evaluate researchers, their work and their impact may be inherently flawed and wrong.

Such overreliance is likely to promote questionable research practices, including hypothesizing after the results are known, or HARKing ; splitting a single set of data into several papers, known as salami slicing; data manipulation; and plagiarism. It also hinders the transparency that is key to more robust and efficient research. Although the problematic citation metadata and sneaked references have now been apparently fixed, the corrections may have, as is often the case with scientific corrections , happened too late.

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