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importance of case study today

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5 Benefits of Learning Through the Case Study Method

Harvard Business School MBA students learning through the case study method

  • 28 Nov 2023

While several factors make HBS Online unique —including a global Community and real-world outcomes —active learning through the case study method rises to the top.

In a 2023 City Square Associates survey, 74 percent of HBS Online learners who also took a course from another provider said HBS Online’s case method and real-world examples were better by comparison.

Here’s a primer on the case method, five benefits you could gain, and how to experience it for yourself.

Access your free e-book today.

What Is the Harvard Business School Case Study Method?

The case study method , or case method , is a learning technique in which you’re presented with a real-world business challenge and asked how you’d solve it. After working through it yourself and with peers, you’re told how the scenario played out.

HBS pioneered the case method in 1922. Shortly before, in 1921, the first case was written.

“How do you go into an ambiguous situation and get to the bottom of it?” says HBS Professor Jan Rivkin, former senior associate dean and chair of HBS's master of business administration (MBA) program, in a video about the case method . “That skill—the skill of figuring out a course of inquiry to choose a course of action—that skill is as relevant today as it was in 1921.”

Originally developed for the in-person MBA classroom, HBS Online adapted the case method into an engaging, interactive online learning experience in 2014.

In HBS Online courses , you learn about each case from the business professional who experienced it. After reviewing their videos, you’re prompted to take their perspective and explain how you’d handle their situation.

You then get to read peers’ responses, “star” them, and comment to further the discussion. Afterward, you learn how the professional handled it and their key takeaways.

HBS Online’s adaptation of the case method incorporates the famed HBS “cold call,” in which you’re called on at random to make a decision without time to prepare.

“Learning came to life!” said Sheneka Balogun , chief administration officer and chief of staff at LeMoyne-Owen College, of her experience taking the Credential of Readiness (CORe) program . “The videos from the professors, the interactive cold calls where you were randomly selected to participate, and the case studies that enhanced and often captured the essence of objectives and learning goals were all embedded in each module. This made learning fun, engaging, and student-friendly.”

If you’re considering taking a course that leverages the case study method, here are five benefits you could experience.

5 Benefits of Learning Through Case Studies

1. take new perspectives.

The case method prompts you to consider a scenario from another person’s perspective. To work through the situation and come up with a solution, you must consider their circumstances, limitations, risk tolerance, stakeholders, resources, and potential consequences to assess how to respond.

Taking on new perspectives not only can help you navigate your own challenges but also others’. Putting yourself in someone else’s situation to understand their motivations and needs can go a long way when collaborating with stakeholders.

2. Hone Your Decision-Making Skills

Another skill you can build is the ability to make decisions effectively . The case study method forces you to use limited information to decide how to handle a problem—just like in the real world.

Throughout your career, you’ll need to make difficult decisions with incomplete or imperfect information—and sometimes, you won’t feel qualified to do so. Learning through the case method allows you to practice this skill in a low-stakes environment. When facing a real challenge, you’ll be better prepared to think quickly, collaborate with others, and present and defend your solution.

3. Become More Open-Minded

As you collaborate with peers on responses, it becomes clear that not everyone solves problems the same way. Exposing yourself to various approaches and perspectives can help you become a more open-minded professional.

When you’re part of a diverse group of learners from around the world, your experiences, cultures, and backgrounds contribute to a range of opinions on each case.

On the HBS Online course platform, you’re prompted to view and comment on others’ responses, and discussion is encouraged. This practice of considering others’ perspectives can make you more receptive in your career.

“You’d be surprised at how much you can learn from your peers,” said Ratnaditya Jonnalagadda , a software engineer who took CORe.

In addition to interacting with peers in the course platform, Jonnalagadda was part of the HBS Online Community , where he networked with other professionals and continued discussions sparked by course content.

“You get to understand your peers better, and students share examples of businesses implementing a concept from a module you just learned,” Jonnalagadda said. “It’s a very good way to cement the concepts in one's mind.”

4. Enhance Your Curiosity

One byproduct of taking on different perspectives is that it enables you to picture yourself in various roles, industries, and business functions.

“Each case offers an opportunity for students to see what resonates with them, what excites them, what bores them, which role they could imagine inhabiting in their careers,” says former HBS Dean Nitin Nohria in the Harvard Business Review . “Cases stimulate curiosity about the range of opportunities in the world and the many ways that students can make a difference as leaders.”

Through the case method, you can “try on” roles you may not have considered and feel more prepared to change or advance your career .

5. Build Your Self-Confidence

Finally, learning through the case study method can build your confidence. Each time you assume a business leader’s perspective, aim to solve a new challenge, and express and defend your opinions and decisions to peers, you prepare to do the same in your career.

According to a 2022 City Square Associates survey , 84 percent of HBS Online learners report feeling more confident making business decisions after taking a course.

“Self-confidence is difficult to teach or coach, but the case study method seems to instill it in people,” Nohria says in the Harvard Business Review . “There may well be other ways of learning these meta-skills, such as the repeated experience gained through practice or guidance from a gifted coach. However, under the direction of a masterful teacher, the case method can engage students and help them develop powerful meta-skills like no other form of teaching.”

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How to Experience the Case Study Method

If the case method seems like a good fit for your learning style, experience it for yourself by taking an HBS Online course. Offerings span seven subject areas, including:

  • Business essentials
  • Leadership and management
  • Entrepreneurship and innovation
  • Finance and accounting
  • Business in society

No matter which course or credential program you choose, you’ll examine case studies from real business professionals, work through their challenges alongside peers, and gain valuable insights to apply to your career.

Are you interested in discovering how HBS Online can help advance your career? Explore our course catalog and download our free guide —complete with interactive workbook sections—to determine if online learning is right for you and which course to take.

importance of case study today

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importance of case study today

The Ultimate Guide to Qualitative Research - Part 1: The Basics

importance of case study today

  • Introduction and overview
  • What is qualitative research?
  • What is qualitative data?
  • Examples of qualitative data
  • Qualitative vs. quantitative research
  • Mixed methods
  • Qualitative research preparation
  • Theoretical perspective
  • Theoretical framework
  • Literature reviews

Research question

  • Conceptual framework
  • Conceptual vs. theoretical framework

Data collection

  • Qualitative research methods
  • Focus groups
  • Observational research

What is a case study?

Applications for case study research, what is a good case study, process of case study design, benefits and limitations of case studies.

  • Ethnographical research
  • Ethical considerations
  • Confidentiality and privacy
  • Power dynamics
  • Reflexivity

Case studies

Case studies are essential to qualitative research , offering a lens through which researchers can investigate complex phenomena within their real-life contexts. This chapter explores the concept, purpose, applications, examples, and types of case studies and provides guidance on how to conduct case study research effectively.

importance of case study today

Whereas quantitative methods look at phenomena at scale, case study research looks at a concept or phenomenon in considerable detail. While analyzing a single case can help understand one perspective regarding the object of research inquiry, analyzing multiple cases can help obtain a more holistic sense of the topic or issue. Let's provide a basic definition of a case study, then explore its characteristics and role in the qualitative research process.

Definition of a case study

A case study in qualitative research is a strategy of inquiry that involves an in-depth investigation of a phenomenon within its real-world context. It provides researchers with the opportunity to acquire an in-depth understanding of intricate details that might not be as apparent or accessible through other methods of research. The specific case or cases being studied can be a single person, group, or organization – demarcating what constitutes a relevant case worth studying depends on the researcher and their research question .

Among qualitative research methods , a case study relies on multiple sources of evidence, such as documents, artifacts, interviews , or observations , to present a complete and nuanced understanding of the phenomenon under investigation. The objective is to illuminate the readers' understanding of the phenomenon beyond its abstract statistical or theoretical explanations.

Characteristics of case studies

Case studies typically possess a number of distinct characteristics that set them apart from other research methods. These characteristics include a focus on holistic description and explanation, flexibility in the design and data collection methods, reliance on multiple sources of evidence, and emphasis on the context in which the phenomenon occurs.

Furthermore, case studies can often involve a longitudinal examination of the case, meaning they study the case over a period of time. These characteristics allow case studies to yield comprehensive, in-depth, and richly contextualized insights about the phenomenon of interest.

The role of case studies in research

Case studies hold a unique position in the broader landscape of research methods aimed at theory development. They are instrumental when the primary research interest is to gain an intensive, detailed understanding of a phenomenon in its real-life context.

In addition, case studies can serve different purposes within research - they can be used for exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory purposes, depending on the research question and objectives. This flexibility and depth make case studies a valuable tool in the toolkit of qualitative researchers.

Remember, a well-conducted case study can offer a rich, insightful contribution to both academic and practical knowledge through theory development or theory verification, thus enhancing our understanding of complex phenomena in their real-world contexts.

What is the purpose of a case study?

Case study research aims for a more comprehensive understanding of phenomena, requiring various research methods to gather information for qualitative analysis . Ultimately, a case study can allow the researcher to gain insight into a particular object of inquiry and develop a theoretical framework relevant to the research inquiry.

Why use case studies in qualitative research?

Using case studies as a research strategy depends mainly on the nature of the research question and the researcher's access to the data.

Conducting case study research provides a level of detail and contextual richness that other research methods might not offer. They are beneficial when there's a need to understand complex social phenomena within their natural contexts.

The explanatory, exploratory, and descriptive roles of case studies

Case studies can take on various roles depending on the research objectives. They can be exploratory when the research aims to discover new phenomena or define new research questions; they are descriptive when the objective is to depict a phenomenon within its context in a detailed manner; and they can be explanatory if the goal is to understand specific relationships within the studied context. Thus, the versatility of case studies allows researchers to approach their topic from different angles, offering multiple ways to uncover and interpret the data .

The impact of case studies on knowledge development

Case studies play a significant role in knowledge development across various disciplines. Analysis of cases provides an avenue for researchers to explore phenomena within their context based on the collected data.

importance of case study today

This can result in the production of rich, practical insights that can be instrumental in both theory-building and practice. Case studies allow researchers to delve into the intricacies and complexities of real-life situations, uncovering insights that might otherwise remain hidden.

Types of case studies

In qualitative research , a case study is not a one-size-fits-all approach. Depending on the nature of the research question and the specific objectives of the study, researchers might choose to use different types of case studies. These types differ in their focus, methodology, and the level of detail they provide about the phenomenon under investigation.

Understanding these types is crucial for selecting the most appropriate approach for your research project and effectively achieving your research goals. Let's briefly look at the main types of case studies.

Exploratory case studies

Exploratory case studies are typically conducted to develop a theory or framework around an understudied phenomenon. They can also serve as a precursor to a larger-scale research project. Exploratory case studies are useful when a researcher wants to identify the key issues or questions which can spur more extensive study or be used to develop propositions for further research. These case studies are characterized by flexibility, allowing researchers to explore various aspects of a phenomenon as they emerge, which can also form the foundation for subsequent studies.

Descriptive case studies

Descriptive case studies aim to provide a complete and accurate representation of a phenomenon or event within its context. These case studies are often based on an established theoretical framework, which guides how data is collected and analyzed. The researcher is concerned with describing the phenomenon in detail, as it occurs naturally, without trying to influence or manipulate it.

Explanatory case studies

Explanatory case studies are focused on explanation - they seek to clarify how or why certain phenomena occur. Often used in complex, real-life situations, they can be particularly valuable in clarifying causal relationships among concepts and understanding the interplay between different factors within a specific context.

importance of case study today

Intrinsic, instrumental, and collective case studies

These three categories of case studies focus on the nature and purpose of the study. An intrinsic case study is conducted when a researcher has an inherent interest in the case itself. Instrumental case studies are employed when the case is used to provide insight into a particular issue or phenomenon. A collective case study, on the other hand, involves studying multiple cases simultaneously to investigate some general phenomena.

Each type of case study serves a different purpose and has its own strengths and challenges. The selection of the type should be guided by the research question and objectives, as well as the context and constraints of the research.

The flexibility, depth, and contextual richness offered by case studies make this approach an excellent research method for various fields of study. They enable researchers to investigate real-world phenomena within their specific contexts, capturing nuances that other research methods might miss. Across numerous fields, case studies provide valuable insights into complex issues.

Critical information systems research

Case studies provide a detailed understanding of the role and impact of information systems in different contexts. They offer a platform to explore how information systems are designed, implemented, and used and how they interact with various social, economic, and political factors. Case studies in this field often focus on examining the intricate relationship between technology, organizational processes, and user behavior, helping to uncover insights that can inform better system design and implementation.

Health research

Health research is another field where case studies are highly valuable. They offer a way to explore patient experiences, healthcare delivery processes, and the impact of various interventions in a real-world context.

importance of case study today

Case studies can provide a deep understanding of a patient's journey, giving insights into the intricacies of disease progression, treatment effects, and the psychosocial aspects of health and illness.

Asthma research studies

Specifically within medical research, studies on asthma often employ case studies to explore the individual and environmental factors that influence asthma development, management, and outcomes. A case study can provide rich, detailed data about individual patients' experiences, from the triggers and symptoms they experience to the effectiveness of various management strategies. This can be crucial for developing patient-centered asthma care approaches.

Other fields

Apart from the fields mentioned, case studies are also extensively used in business and management research, education research, and political sciences, among many others. They provide an opportunity to delve into the intricacies of real-world situations, allowing for a comprehensive understanding of various phenomena.

Case studies, with their depth and contextual focus, offer unique insights across these varied fields. They allow researchers to illuminate the complexities of real-life situations, contributing to both theory and practice.

importance of case study today

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Understanding the key elements of case study design is crucial for conducting rigorous and impactful case study research. A well-structured design guides the researcher through the process, ensuring that the study is methodologically sound and its findings are reliable and valid. The main elements of case study design include the research question , propositions, units of analysis, and the logic linking the data to the propositions.

The research question is the foundation of any research study. A good research question guides the direction of the study and informs the selection of the case, the methods of collecting data, and the analysis techniques. A well-formulated research question in case study research is typically clear, focused, and complex enough to merit further detailed examination of the relevant case(s).

Propositions

Propositions, though not necessary in every case study, provide a direction by stating what we might expect to find in the data collected. They guide how data is collected and analyzed by helping researchers focus on specific aspects of the case. They are particularly important in explanatory case studies, which seek to understand the relationships among concepts within the studied phenomenon.

Units of analysis

The unit of analysis refers to the case, or the main entity or entities that are being analyzed in the study. In case study research, the unit of analysis can be an individual, a group, an organization, a decision, an event, or even a time period. It's crucial to clearly define the unit of analysis, as it shapes the qualitative data analysis process by allowing the researcher to analyze a particular case and synthesize analysis across multiple case studies to draw conclusions.

Argumentation

This refers to the inferential model that allows researchers to draw conclusions from the data. The researcher needs to ensure that there is a clear link between the data, the propositions (if any), and the conclusions drawn. This argumentation is what enables the researcher to make valid and credible inferences about the phenomenon under study.

Understanding and carefully considering these elements in the design phase of a case study can significantly enhance the quality of the research. It can help ensure that the study is methodologically sound and its findings contribute meaningful insights about the case.

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Conducting a case study involves several steps, from defining the research question and selecting the case to collecting and analyzing data . This section outlines these key stages, providing a practical guide on how to conduct case study research.

Defining the research question

The first step in case study research is defining a clear, focused research question. This question should guide the entire research process, from case selection to analysis. It's crucial to ensure that the research question is suitable for a case study approach. Typically, such questions are exploratory or descriptive in nature and focus on understanding a phenomenon within its real-life context.

Selecting and defining the case

The selection of the case should be based on the research question and the objectives of the study. It involves choosing a unique example or a set of examples that provide rich, in-depth data about the phenomenon under investigation. After selecting the case, it's crucial to define it clearly, setting the boundaries of the case, including the time period and the specific context.

Previous research can help guide the case study design. When considering a case study, an example of a case could be taken from previous case study research and used to define cases in a new research inquiry. Considering recently published examples can help understand how to select and define cases effectively.

Developing a detailed case study protocol

A case study protocol outlines the procedures and general rules to be followed during the case study. This includes the data collection methods to be used, the sources of data, and the procedures for analysis. Having a detailed case study protocol ensures consistency and reliability in the study.

The protocol should also consider how to work with the people involved in the research context to grant the research team access to collecting data. As mentioned in previous sections of this guide, establishing rapport is an essential component of qualitative research as it shapes the overall potential for collecting and analyzing data.

Collecting data

Gathering data in case study research often involves multiple sources of evidence, including documents, archival records, interviews, observations, and physical artifacts. This allows for a comprehensive understanding of the case. The process for gathering data should be systematic and carefully documented to ensure the reliability and validity of the study.

Analyzing and interpreting data

The next step is analyzing the data. This involves organizing the data , categorizing it into themes or patterns , and interpreting these patterns to answer the research question. The analysis might also involve comparing the findings with prior research or theoretical propositions.

Writing the case study report

The final step is writing the case study report . This should provide a detailed description of the case, the data, the analysis process, and the findings. The report should be clear, organized, and carefully written to ensure that the reader can understand the case and the conclusions drawn from it.

Each of these steps is crucial in ensuring that the case study research is rigorous, reliable, and provides valuable insights about the case.

The type, depth, and quality of data in your study can significantly influence the validity and utility of the study. In case study research, data is usually collected from multiple sources to provide a comprehensive and nuanced understanding of the case. This section will outline the various methods of collecting data used in case study research and discuss considerations for ensuring the quality of the data.

Interviews are a common method of gathering data in case study research. They can provide rich, in-depth data about the perspectives, experiences, and interpretations of the individuals involved in the case. Interviews can be structured , semi-structured , or unstructured , depending on the research question and the degree of flexibility needed.

Observations

Observations involve the researcher observing the case in its natural setting, providing first-hand information about the case and its context. Observations can provide data that might not be revealed in interviews or documents, such as non-verbal cues or contextual information.

Documents and artifacts

Documents and archival records provide a valuable source of data in case study research. They can include reports, letters, memos, meeting minutes, email correspondence, and various public and private documents related to the case.

importance of case study today

These records can provide historical context, corroborate evidence from other sources, and offer insights into the case that might not be apparent from interviews or observations.

Physical artifacts refer to any physical evidence related to the case, such as tools, products, or physical environments. These artifacts can provide tangible insights into the case, complementing the data gathered from other sources.

Ensuring the quality of data collection

Determining the quality of data in case study research requires careful planning and execution. It's crucial to ensure that the data is reliable, accurate, and relevant to the research question. This involves selecting appropriate methods of collecting data, properly training interviewers or observers, and systematically recording and storing the data. It also includes considering ethical issues related to collecting and handling data, such as obtaining informed consent and ensuring the privacy and confidentiality of the participants.

Data analysis

Analyzing case study research involves making sense of the rich, detailed data to answer the research question. This process can be challenging due to the volume and complexity of case study data. However, a systematic and rigorous approach to analysis can ensure that the findings are credible and meaningful. This section outlines the main steps and considerations in analyzing data in case study research.

Organizing the data

The first step in the analysis is organizing the data. This involves sorting the data into manageable sections, often according to the data source or the theme. This step can also involve transcribing interviews, digitizing physical artifacts, or organizing observational data.

Categorizing and coding the data

Once the data is organized, the next step is to categorize or code the data. This involves identifying common themes, patterns, or concepts in the data and assigning codes to relevant data segments. Coding can be done manually or with the help of software tools, and in either case, qualitative analysis software can greatly facilitate the entire coding process. Coding helps to reduce the data to a set of themes or categories that can be more easily analyzed.

Identifying patterns and themes

After coding the data, the researcher looks for patterns or themes in the coded data. This involves comparing and contrasting the codes and looking for relationships or patterns among them. The identified patterns and themes should help answer the research question.

Interpreting the data

Once patterns and themes have been identified, the next step is to interpret these findings. This involves explaining what the patterns or themes mean in the context of the research question and the case. This interpretation should be grounded in the data, but it can also involve drawing on theoretical concepts or prior research.

Verification of the data

The last step in the analysis is verification. This involves checking the accuracy and consistency of the analysis process and confirming that the findings are supported by the data. This can involve re-checking the original data, checking the consistency of codes, or seeking feedback from research participants or peers.

Like any research method , case study research has its strengths and limitations. Researchers must be aware of these, as they can influence the design, conduct, and interpretation of the study.

Understanding the strengths and limitations of case study research can also guide researchers in deciding whether this approach is suitable for their research question . This section outlines some of the key strengths and limitations of case study research.

Benefits include the following:

  • Rich, detailed data: One of the main strengths of case study research is that it can generate rich, detailed data about the case. This can provide a deep understanding of the case and its context, which can be valuable in exploring complex phenomena.
  • Flexibility: Case study research is flexible in terms of design , data collection , and analysis . A sufficient degree of flexibility allows the researcher to adapt the study according to the case and the emerging findings.
  • Real-world context: Case study research involves studying the case in its real-world context, which can provide valuable insights into the interplay between the case and its context.
  • Multiple sources of evidence: Case study research often involves collecting data from multiple sources , which can enhance the robustness and validity of the findings.

On the other hand, researchers should consider the following limitations:

  • Generalizability: A common criticism of case study research is that its findings might not be generalizable to other cases due to the specificity and uniqueness of each case.
  • Time and resource intensive: Case study research can be time and resource intensive due to the depth of the investigation and the amount of collected data.
  • Complexity of analysis: The rich, detailed data generated in case study research can make analyzing the data challenging.
  • Subjectivity: Given the nature of case study research, there may be a higher degree of subjectivity in interpreting the data , so researchers need to reflect on this and transparently convey to audiences how the research was conducted.

Being aware of these strengths and limitations can help researchers design and conduct case study research effectively and interpret and report the findings appropriately.

importance of case study today

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10 Case Study Advantages and Disadvantages

10 Case Study Advantages and Disadvantages

Chris Drew (PhD)

Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]

Learn about our Editorial Process

case study advantages and disadvantages, explained below

A case study in academic research is a detailed and in-depth examination of a specific instance or event, generally conducted through a qualitative approach to data.

The most common case study definition that I come across is is Robert K. Yin’s (2003, p. 13) quote provided below:

“An empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, especially when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident.”

Researchers conduct case studies for a number of reasons, such as to explore complex phenomena within their real-life context, to look at a particularly interesting instance of a situation, or to dig deeper into something of interest identified in a wider-scale project.

While case studies render extremely interesting data, they have many limitations and are not suitable for all studies. One key limitation is that a case study’s findings are not usually generalizable to broader populations because one instance cannot be used to infer trends across populations.

Case Study Advantages and Disadvantages

1. in-depth analysis of complex phenomena.

Case study design allows researchers to delve deeply into intricate issues and situations.

By focusing on a specific instance or event, researchers can uncover nuanced details and layers of understanding that might be missed with other research methods, especially large-scale survey studies.

As Lee and Saunders (2017) argue,

“It allows that particular event to be studies in detail so that its unique qualities may be identified.”

This depth of analysis can provide rich insights into the underlying factors and dynamics of the studied phenomenon.

2. Holistic Understanding

Building on the above point, case studies can help us to understand a topic holistically and from multiple angles.

This means the researcher isn’t restricted to just examining a topic by using a pre-determined set of questions, as with questionnaires. Instead, researchers can use qualitative methods to delve into the many different angles, perspectives, and contextual factors related to the case study.

We can turn to Lee and Saunders (2017) again, who notes that case study researchers “develop a deep, holistic understanding of a particular phenomenon” with the intent of deeply understanding the phenomenon.

3. Examination of rare and Unusual Phenomena

We need to use case study methods when we stumble upon “rare and unusual” (Lee & Saunders, 2017) phenomena that would tend to be seen as mere outliers in population studies.

Take, for example, a child genius. A population study of all children of that child’s age would merely see this child as an outlier in the dataset, and this child may even be removed in order to predict overall trends.

So, to truly come to an understanding of this child and get insights into the environmental conditions that led to this child’s remarkable cognitive development, we need to do an in-depth study of this child specifically – so, we’d use a case study.

4. Helps Reveal the Experiences of Marginalzied Groups

Just as rare and unsual cases can be overlooked in population studies, so too can the experiences, beliefs, and perspectives of marginalized groups.

As Lee and Saunders (2017) argue, “case studies are also extremely useful in helping the expression of the voices of people whose interests are often ignored.”

Take, for example, the experiences of minority populations as they navigate healthcare systems. This was for many years a “hidden” phenomenon, not examined by researchers. It took case study designs to truly reveal this phenomenon, which helped to raise practitioners’ awareness of the importance of cultural sensitivity in medicine.

5. Ideal in Situations where Researchers cannot Control the Variables

Experimental designs – where a study takes place in a lab or controlled environment – are excellent for determining cause and effect . But not all studies can take place in controlled environments (Tetnowski, 2015).

When we’re out in the field doing observational studies or similar fieldwork, we don’t have the freedom to isolate dependent and independent variables. We need to use alternate methods.

Case studies are ideal in such situations.

A case study design will allow researchers to deeply immerse themselves in a setting (potentially combining it with methods such as ethnography or researcher observation) in order to see how phenomena take place in real-life settings.

6. Supports the generation of new theories or hypotheses

While large-scale quantitative studies such as cross-sectional designs and population surveys are excellent at testing theories and hypotheses on a large scale, they need a hypothesis to start off with!

This is where case studies – in the form of grounded research – come in. Often, a case study doesn’t start with a hypothesis. Instead, it ends with a hypothesis based upon the findings within a singular setting.

The deep analysis allows for hypotheses to emerge, which can then be taken to larger-scale studies in order to conduct further, more generalizable, testing of the hypothesis or theory.

7. Reveals the Unexpected

When a largescale quantitative research project has a clear hypothesis that it will test, it often becomes very rigid and has tunnel-vision on just exploring the hypothesis.

Of course, a structured scientific examination of the effects of specific interventions targeted at specific variables is extermely valuable.

But narrowly-focused studies often fail to shine a spotlight on unexpected and emergent data. Here, case studies come in very useful. Oftentimes, researchers set their eyes on a phenomenon and, when examining it closely with case studies, identify data and come to conclusions that are unprecedented, unforeseen, and outright surprising.

As Lars Meier (2009, p. 975) marvels, “where else can we become a part of foreign social worlds and have the chance to become aware of the unexpected?”

Disadvantages

1. not usually generalizable.

Case studies are not generalizable because they tend not to look at a broad enough corpus of data to be able to infer that there is a trend across a population.

As Yang (2022) argues, “by definition, case studies can make no claims to be typical.”

Case studies focus on one specific instance of a phenomenon. They explore the context, nuances, and situational factors that have come to bear on the case study. This is really useful for bringing to light important, new, and surprising information, as I’ve already covered.

But , it’s not often useful for generating data that has validity beyond the specific case study being examined.

2. Subjectivity in interpretation

Case studies usually (but not always) use qualitative data which helps to get deep into a topic and explain it in human terms, finding insights unattainable by quantitative data.

But qualitative data in case studies relies heavily on researcher interpretation. While researchers can be trained and work hard to focus on minimizing subjectivity (through methods like triangulation), it often emerges – some might argue it’s innevitable in qualitative studies.

So, a criticism of case studies could be that they’re more prone to subjectivity – and researchers need to take strides to address this in their studies.

3. Difficulty in replicating results

Case study research is often non-replicable because the study takes place in complex real-world settings where variables are not controlled.

So, when returning to a setting to re-do or attempt to replicate a study, we often find that the variables have changed to such an extent that replication is difficult. Furthermore, new researchers (with new subjective eyes) may catch things that the other readers overlooked.

Replication is even harder when researchers attempt to replicate a case study design in a new setting or with different participants.

Comprehension Quiz for Students

Question 1: What benefit do case studies offer when exploring the experiences of marginalized groups?

a) They provide generalizable data. b) They help express the voices of often-ignored individuals. c) They control all variables for the study. d) They always start with a clear hypothesis.

Question 2: Why might case studies be considered ideal for situations where researchers cannot control all variables?

a) They provide a structured scientific examination. b) They allow for generalizability across populations. c) They focus on one specific instance of a phenomenon. d) They allow for deep immersion in real-life settings.

Question 3: What is a primary disadvantage of case studies in terms of data applicability?

a) They always focus on the unexpected. b) They are not usually generalizable. c) They support the generation of new theories. d) They provide a holistic understanding.

Question 4: Why might case studies be considered more prone to subjectivity?

a) They always use quantitative data. b) They heavily rely on researcher interpretation, especially with qualitative data. c) They are always replicable. d) They look at a broad corpus of data.

Question 5: In what situations are experimental designs, such as those conducted in labs, most valuable?

a) When there’s a need to study rare and unusual phenomena. b) When a holistic understanding is required. c) When determining cause-and-effect relationships. d) When the study focuses on marginalized groups.

Question 6: Why is replication challenging in case study research?

a) Because they always use qualitative data. b) Because they tend to focus on a broad corpus of data. c) Due to the changing variables in complex real-world settings. d) Because they always start with a hypothesis.

Lee, B., & Saunders, M. N. K. (2017). Conducting Case Study Research for Business and Management Students. SAGE Publications.

Meir, L. (2009). Feasting on the Benefits of Case Study Research. In Mills, A. J., Wiebe, E., & Durepos, G. (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Case Study Research (Vol. 2). London: SAGE Publications.

Tetnowski, J. (2015). Qualitative case study research design.  Perspectives on fluency and fluency disorders ,  25 (1), 39-45. ( Source )

Yang, S. L. (2022). The War on Corruption in China: Local Reform and Innovation . Taylor & Francis.

Yin, R. (2003). Case Study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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Case Study: Definition, Types, Examples and Benefits

Written by MasterClass

Last updated: Jan 26, 2023 • 3 min read

Researchers, economists, and others frequently use case studies to answer questions across a wide spectrum of disciplines, from analyzing decades of climate data for conservation efforts to developing new theoretical frameworks in psychology. Learn about the different types of case studies, their benefits, and examples of successful case studies.

importance of case study today

What Is a Case Study and Why You Should Use Them

Case studies can provide more insights into your business while helping you conduct further research with robust qualitative data analysis to learn more.

If you're in charge of running a company, then you're likely always looking for new ways to run your business more efficiently and increase your customer base while streamlining as many processes as possible.

Unfortunately, it can sometimes be difficult to determine how to go about implementing the proper program in order to be successful. This is why many business owners opt to conduct a case study, which can help significantly. Whether you've been struggling with brand consistency or some other problem, the right case study can identify why your problem exists as well as provide a way to rectify it.

A case study is a great tool that many businesses aren't even aware exists, and there are marketing experts like Mailchimp who can provide you with step-by-step assistance with implementing a plan with a case study. Many companies discover that not only do they need to start a blog in order to improve business, but they also need to create specific and relevant blog titles.

If your company already has a blog, then optimizing your blog posts may be helpful. Regardless of the obstacles that are preventing you from achieving all your professional goals, a case study can work wonders in helping you reverse this issue.

importance of case study today

What is a case study?

A case study is a comprehensive report of the results of theory testing or examining emerging themes of a business in real life context. Case studies are also often used in the healthcare industry, conducting health services research with primary research interest around routinely collected healthcare data.

However, for businesses, the purpose of a case study is to help small business owners or company leaders identify the issues and conduct further research into what may be preventing success through information collection, client or customer interviews, and in-depth data analysis.

Knowing the case study definition is crucial for any business owner. By identifying the issues that are hindering a company from achieving all its goals, it's easier to make the necessary corrections to promote success through influenced data collection.

Why are case studies important?

Now that we've answered the questions, "what is a case study?" Why are case studies important? Some of the top reasons why case studies are important include:

 Importance of case studies

  • Understand complex issues: Even after you conduct a significant amount of market research , you might have a difficult time understanding exactly what it means. While you might have the basics down, conducting a case study can help you see how that information is applied. Then, when you see how the information can make a difference in business decisions, it could make it easier to understand complex issues.
  • Collect data: A case study can also help with data tracking . A case study is a data collection method that can help you describe the information that you have available to you. Then, you can present that information in a way the reader can understand.
  • Conduct evaluations: As you learn more about how to write a case study, remember that you can also use a case study to conduct evaluations of a specific situation. A case study is a great way to learn more about complex situations, and you can evaluate how various people responded in that situation. By conducting a case study evaluation, you can learn more about what has worked well, what has not, and what you might want to change in the future.
  • Identify potential solutions: A case study can also help you identify solutions to potential problems. If you have an issue in your business that you are trying to solve, you may be able to take a look at a case study where someone has dealt with a similar situation in the past. For example, you may uncover data bias in a specific solution that you would like to address when you tackle the issue on your own. If you need help solving a difficult problem, a case study may be able to help you.

Remember that you can also use case studies to target your audience . If you want to show your audience that you have a significant level of expertise in a field, you may want to publish some case studies that you have handled in the past. Then, when your audience sees that you have had success in a specific area, they may be more likely to provide you with their business. In essence, case studies can be looked at as the original method of social proof, showcasing exactly how you can help someone solve their problems.

What are the benefits of writing a business case study?

Although writing a case study can seem like a tedious task, there are many benefits to conducting one through an in depth qualitative research process.

Benefits of Case Studies

  • Industry understanding: First of all, a case study can give you an in-depth understanding of your industry through a particular conceptual framework and help you identify hidden problems that are preventing you from transcending into the business world.
  • Develop theories: If you decide to write a business case study, it provides you with an opportunity to develop new theories. You might have a theory about how to solve a specific problem, but you need to write a business case study to see exactly how that theory has unfolded in the past. Then, you can figure out if you want to apply your theory to a similar issue in the future.
  • Evaluate interventions: When you write a business case study that focuses on a specific situation you have been through in the past, you can uncover whether that intervention was truly helpful. This can make it easier to figure out whether you want to use the same intervention in a similar situation in the future.
  • Identify best practices: If you want to stay on top of the best practices in your field, conducting case studies can help by allowing you to identify patterns and trends and develop a new list of best practices that you can follow in the future.
  • Versatility: Writing a case study also provides you with more versatility. If you want to expand your business applications, you need to figure out how you respond to various problems. When you run a business case study, you open the door to new opportunities, new applications, and new techniques that could help you make a difference in your business down the road.
  • Solve problems: Writing a great case study can dramatically improve your chances of reversing your problem and improving your business.
  • These are just a few of the biggest benefits you might experience if you decide to publish your case studies. They can be an effective tool for learning, showcasing your talents, and teaching some of your other employees. If you want to grow your audience , you may want to consider publishing some case studies.

What are the limitations of case studies?

Case studies can be a wonderful tool for any business of any size to use to gain an in-depth understanding of their clients, products, customers, or services, but there are limitations.

One limitation of case studies is the fact that, unless there are other recently published examples, there is nothing to compare them to since, most of the time, you are conducting a single, not multiple, case studies.

Another limitation is the fact that most case studies can lack scientific evidence.

importance of case study today

Types of case studies

There are specific types of case studies to choose from, and each specific type will yield different results. Some case study types even overlap, which is sometimes more favorable, as they provide even more pertinent data.

Here are overviews of the different types of case studies, each with its own theoretical framework, so you can determine which type would be most effective for helping you meet your goals.

Explanatory case studies

Explanatory case studies are pretty straightforward, as they're not difficult to interpret. This type of case study is best if there aren't many variables involved because explanatory case studies can easily answer questions like "how" and "why" through theory development.

Exploratory case studies

An exploratory case study does exactly what its name implies: it goes into specific detail about the topic at hand in a natural, real-life context with qualitative research.

The benefits of exploratory case studies are limitless, with the main one being that it offers a great deal of flexibility. Having flexibility when writing a case study is important because you can't always predict what obstacles might arise during the qualitative research process.

Collective case studies

Collective case studies require you to study many different individuals in order to obtain usable data.

Case studies that involve an investigation of people will involve many different variables, all of which can't be predicted. Despite this fact, there are many benefits of collective case studies, including the fact that it allows an ongoing analysis of the data collected.

Intrinsic case studies

This type of study differs from the others as it focuses on the inquiry of one specific instance among many possibilities.

Many people prefer these types of case studies because it allows them to learn about the particular instance that they wish to investigate further.

Instrumental case studies

An instrumental case study is similar to an intrinsic one, as it focuses on a particular instance, whether it's a person, organization, or something different.

One thing that differentiates instrumental case studies from intrinsic ones is the fact that instrumental case studies aren't chosen merely because a person is interested in learning about a specific instance.

importance of case study today

Tips for writing a case study

If you have decided to write case studies for your company, then you may be unsure of where to start or which type to conduct.

However, it doesn't have to be difficult or confusing to begin conducting a case study that will help you identify ways to improve your business.

Here are some helpful tips for writing your case studies:

1. Your case study must be written in the proper format

When writing a case study, the format that you should be similar to this:

Case study format

Administrative summary

The executive summary is an overview of what your report will contain, written in a concise manner while providing real-life context.

Despite the fact that the executive summary should appear at the beginning of your case studies, it shouldn't be written until you've completed the entire report because if you write it before you finish the report, this summary may not be completely accurate.

Key problem statement

In this section of your case study, you will briefly describe the problem that you hope to solve by conducting the study. You will have the opportunity to elaborate on the problem that you're focusing on as you get into the breadth of the report.

Problem exploration

This part of the case study isn't as brief as the other two, and it goes into more detail about the problem at hand. Your problem exploration must include why the identified problem needs to be solved as well as the urgency of solving it.

Additionally, it must include justification for conducting the problem-solving, as the benefits must outweigh the efforts and costs.

Proposed resolution

This case study section will also be lengthier than the first two. It must include how you propose going about rectifying the problem. The "recommended solution" section must also include potential obstacles that you might experience, as well as how these will be managed.

Furthermore, you will need to list alternative solutions and explain the reason the chosen solution is best. Charts can enhance your report and make it easier to read, and provide as much proof to substantiate your claim as possible.

Overview of monetary consideration

An overview of monetary consideration is essential for all case studies, as it will be used to convince all involved parties why your project should be funded. You must successfully convince them that the cost is worth the investment it will require. It's important that you stress the necessity for this particular case study and explain the expected outcome.

Execution timeline

In the execution times of case studies, you explain how long you predict it will take to implement your study. The shorter the time it will take to implement your plan, the more apt it is to be approved. However, be sure to provide a reasonable timeline, taking into consideration any additional time that might be needed due to obstacles.

Always include a conclusion in your case study. This is where you will briefly wrap up your entire proposal, stressing the benefits of completing the data collection and data analysis in order to rectify your problem.

2. Make it clear and comprehensive

You want to write your case studies with as much clarity as possible so that every aspect of the report is understood. Be sure to double-check your grammar, spelling, punctuation, and more, as you don't want to submit a poorly-written document.

Not only would a poorly-written case study fail to prove that what you are trying to achieve is important, but it would also increase the chances that your report will be tossed aside and not taken seriously.

3. Don't rush through the process

Writing the perfect case study takes time and patience. Rushing could result in your forgetting to include information that is crucial to your entire study. Don't waste your time creating a study that simply isn't ready. Take the necessary time to perform all the research necessary to write the best case study possible.

Depending on the case study, conducting case study research could mean using qualitative methods, quantitative methods, or both. Qualitative research questions focus on non-numerical data, such as how people feel, their beliefs, their experiences, and so on.

Meanwhile, quantitative research questions focus on numerical or statistical data collection to explain causal links or get an in-depth picture.

It is also important to collect insightful and constructive feedback. This will help you better understand the outcome as well as any changes you need to make to future case studies. Consider using formal and informal ways to collect feedback to ensure that you get a range of opinions and perspectives.

4. Be confident in your theory development

While writing your case study or conducting your formal experimental investigation, you should have confidence in yourself and what you're proposing in your report. If you took the time to gather all the pertinent data collected to complete the report, don't second-guess yourself or doubt your abilities. If you believe your report will be amazing, then it likely will be.

5. Case studies and all qualitative research are long

It's expected that multiple case studies are going to be incredibly boring, and there is no way around this. However, it doesn't mean you can choose your language carefully in order to keep your audience as engaged as possible.

If your audience loses interest in your case study at the beginning, for whatever reason, then this increases the likelihood that your case study will not be funded.

Case study examples

If you want to learn more about how to write a case study, it might be beneficial to take a look at a few case study examples. Below are a few interesting case study examples you may want to take a closer look at.

  • Phineas Gage by John Martin Marlow : One of the most famous case studies comes from the medical field, and it is about the story of Phineas Gage, a man who had a railroad spike driven through his head in 1848. As he was working on a railroad, an explosive charge went off prematurely, sending a railroad rod through his head. Even though he survived this incident, he lost his left eye. However, Phineas Gage was studied extensively over the years because his experiences had a significant, lasting impact on his personality. This served as a case study because his injury showed different parts of the brain have different functions.
  • Kitty Genovese and the bystander effect : This is a tragic case study that discusses the murder of Kitty Genovese, a woman attacked and murdered in Queens, New York City. Shockingly, while numerous neighbors watched the scene, nobody called for help because they assumed someone else would. This case study helped to define the bystander effect, which is when a person fails to intervene during an emergency because other people are around.
  • Henry Molaison and the study of memory : Henry Molaison lost his memory and suffered from debilitating amnesia. He suffered from childhood epilepsy, and medical professionals attempted to remove the part of his brain that was causing his seizures. He had a portion of his brain removed, but it completely took away his ability to hold memories. Even though he went on to live until the age of 82, he was always forced to live in the present moment, as he was completely unable to form new memories.

Case study FAQs

When should you do a case study.

There are several scenarios when conducting a case study can be beneficial. Case studies are often used when there's a "why" or "how" question that needs to be answered. Case studies are also beneficial when trying to understand a complex phenomenon, there's limited research on a topic, or when you're looking for practical solutions to a problem.

How can case study results be used to make business decisions?

You can use the results from a case study to make future business decisions if you find yourself in a similar situation. As you assess the results of a case study, you can identify best practices, evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention, generate new and creative ideas, or get a better understanding of customer needs.

How are case studies different from other research methodologies?

When compared to other research methodologies, such as experimental or qualitative research methodology, a case study does not require a representative sample. For example, if you are performing quantitative research, you have a lot of subjects that expand your sample size. If you are performing experimental research, you may have a random sample in front of you. A case study is usually designed to deliberately focus on unusual situations, which allows it to shed new light on a specific business research problem.

Writing multiple case studies for your business

If you're feeling overwhelmed by the idea of writing a case study and it seems completely foreign, then you aren't alone. Writing a case study for a business is a very big deal, but fortunately, there is help available because an example of a case study doesn't always help.

Mailchimp, a well-known marketing company that provides comprehensive marketing support for all sorts of businesses, can assist you with your case study, or you can review one of their own recently published examples.

Mailchimp can assist you with developing the most effective content strategy to increase your chances of being as successful as possible. Mailchimp's content studio is a great tool that can help your business immensely.

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  • Knowledge Base

Methodology

  • What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods

What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods

Published on May 8, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 20, 2023.

A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.

A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods , but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing , comparing, evaluating and understanding different aspects of a research problem .

Table of contents

When to do a case study, step 1: select a case, step 2: build a theoretical framework, step 3: collect your data, step 4: describe and analyze the case, other interesting articles.

A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. It allows you to explore the key characteristics, meanings, and implications of the case.

Case studies are often a good choice in a thesis or dissertation . They keep your project focused and manageable when you don’t have the time or resources to do large-scale research.

You might use just one complex case study where you explore a single subject in depth, or conduct multiple case studies to compare and illuminate different aspects of your research problem.

Case study examples
Research question Case study
What are the ecological effects of wolf reintroduction? Case study of wolf reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park
How do populist politicians use narratives about history to gain support? Case studies of Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orbán and US president Donald Trump
How can teachers implement active learning strategies in mixed-level classrooms? Case study of a local school that promotes active learning
What are the main advantages and disadvantages of wind farms for rural communities? Case studies of three rural wind farm development projects in different parts of the country
How are viral marketing strategies changing the relationship between companies and consumers? Case study of the iPhone X marketing campaign
How do experiences of work in the gig economy differ by gender, race and age? Case studies of Deliveroo and Uber drivers in London

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions , you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to:

  • Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject
  • Challenge or complicate existing assumptions and theories
  • Propose practical courses of action to resolve a problem
  • Open up new directions for future research

TipIf your research is more practical in nature and aims to simultaneously investigate an issue as you solve it, consider conducting action research instead.

Unlike quantitative or experimental research , a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. In fact, case studies often deliberately focus on unusual, neglected, or outlying cases which may shed new light on the research problem.

Example of an outlying case studyIn the 1960s the town of Roseto, Pennsylvania was discovered to have extremely low rates of heart disease compared to the US average. It became an important case study for understanding previously neglected causes of heart disease.

However, you can also choose a more common or representative case to exemplify a particular category, experience or phenomenon.

Example of a representative case studyIn the 1920s, two sociologists used Muncie, Indiana as a case study of a typical American city that supposedly exemplified the changing culture of the US at the time.

While case studies focus more on concrete details than general theories, they should usually have some connection with theory in the field. This way the case study is not just an isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. It might aim to:

  • Exemplify a theory by showing how it explains the case under investigation
  • Expand on a theory by uncovering new concepts and ideas that need to be incorporated
  • Challenge a theory by exploring an outlier case that doesn’t fit with established assumptions

To ensure that your analysis of the case has a solid academic grounding, you should conduct a literature review of sources related to the topic and develop a theoretical framework . This means identifying key concepts and theories to guide your analysis and interpretation.

There are many different research methods you can use to collect data on your subject. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews , observations , and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g., newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data.

Example of a mixed methods case studyFor a case study of a wind farm development in a rural area, you could collect quantitative data on employment rates and business revenue, collect qualitative data on local people’s perceptions and experiences, and analyze local and national media coverage of the development.

The aim is to gain as thorough an understanding as possible of the case and its context.

In writing up the case study, you need to bring together all the relevant aspects to give as complete a picture as possible of the subject.

How you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard scientific paper or thesis , with separate sections or chapters for the methods , results and discussion .

Others are written in a more narrative style, aiming to explore the case from various angles and analyze its meanings and implications (for example, by using textual analysis or discourse analysis ).

In all cases, though, make sure to give contextual details about the case, connect it back to the literature and theory, and discuss how it fits into wider patterns or debates.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Normal distribution
  • Degrees of freedom
  • Null hypothesis
  • Discourse analysis
  • Control groups
  • Mixed methods research
  • Non-probability sampling
  • Quantitative research
  • Ecological validity

Research bias

  • Rosenthal effect
  • Implicit bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Selection bias
  • Negativity bias
  • Status quo bias

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  • Knowledge Base
  • Methodology
  • Case Study | Definition, Examples & Methods

Case Study | Definition, Examples & Methods

Published on 5 May 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on 30 January 2023.

A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organisation, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.

A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods , but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing , comparing, evaluating, and understanding different aspects of a research problem .

Table of contents

When to do a case study, step 1: select a case, step 2: build a theoretical framework, step 3: collect your data, step 4: describe and analyse the case.

A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. It allows you to explore the key characteristics, meanings, and implications of the case.

Case studies are often a good choice in a thesis or dissertation . They keep your project focused and manageable when you don’t have the time or resources to do large-scale research.

You might use just one complex case study where you explore a single subject in depth, or conduct multiple case studies to compare and illuminate different aspects of your research problem.

Case study examples
Research question Case study
What are the ecological effects of wolf reintroduction? Case study of wolf reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park in the US
How do populist politicians use narratives about history to gain support? Case studies of Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orbán and US president Donald Trump
How can teachers implement active learning strategies in mixed-level classrooms? Case study of a local school that promotes active learning
What are the main advantages and disadvantages of wind farms for rural communities? Case studies of three rural wind farm development projects in different parts of the country
How are viral marketing strategies changing the relationship between companies and consumers? Case study of the iPhone X marketing campaign
How do experiences of work in the gig economy differ by gender, race, and age? Case studies of Deliveroo and Uber drivers in London

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions , you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to:

  • Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject
  • Challenge or complicate existing assumptions and theories
  • Propose practical courses of action to resolve a problem
  • Open up new directions for future research

Unlike quantitative or experimental research, a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. In fact, case studies often deliberately focus on unusual, neglected, or outlying cases which may shed new light on the research problem.

If you find yourself aiming to simultaneously investigate and solve an issue, consider conducting action research . As its name suggests, action research conducts research and takes action at the same time, and is highly iterative and flexible. 

However, you can also choose a more common or representative case to exemplify a particular category, experience, or phenomenon.

While case studies focus more on concrete details than general theories, they should usually have some connection with theory in the field. This way the case study is not just an isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. It might aim to:

  • Exemplify a theory by showing how it explains the case under investigation
  • Expand on a theory by uncovering new concepts and ideas that need to be incorporated
  • Challenge a theory by exploring an outlier case that doesn’t fit with established assumptions

To ensure that your analysis of the case has a solid academic grounding, you should conduct a literature review of sources related to the topic and develop a theoretical framework . This means identifying key concepts and theories to guide your analysis and interpretation.

There are many different research methods you can use to collect data on your subject. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews, observations, and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g., newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data .

The aim is to gain as thorough an understanding as possible of the case and its context.

In writing up the case study, you need to bring together all the relevant aspects to give as complete a picture as possible of the subject.

How you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard scientific paper or thesis, with separate sections or chapters for the methods , results , and discussion .

Others are written in a more narrative style, aiming to explore the case from various angles and analyse its meanings and implications (for example, by using textual analysis or discourse analysis ).

In all cases, though, make sure to give contextual details about the case, connect it back to the literature and theory, and discuss how it fits into wider patterns or debates.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, January 30). Case Study | Definition, Examples & Methods. Scribbr. Retrieved 8 July 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/research-methods/case-studies/

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Shona McCombes

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Other students also liked, correlational research | guide, design & examples, a quick guide to experimental design | 5 steps & examples, descriptive research design | definition, methods & examples.

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Shannon l. sibbald.

1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

2 Department of Family Medicine, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

3 The Schulich Interfaculty Program in Public Health, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Stefan Paciocco

Meghan fournie, rachelle van asseldonk, tiffany scurr.

Case study methodology has grown in popularity within Health Services Research (HSR). However, its use and merit as a methodology are frequently criticized due to its flexible approach and inconsistent application. Nevertheless, case study methodology is well suited to HSR because it can track and examine complex relationships, contexts, and systems as they evolve. Applied appropriately, it can help generate information on how multiple forms of knowledge come together to inform decision-making within healthcare contexts. In this article, we aim to demystify case study methodology by outlining its philosophical underpinnings and three foundational approaches. We provide literature-based guidance to decision-makers, policy-makers, and health leaders on how to engage in and critically appraise case study design. We advocate that researchers work in collaboration with health leaders to detail their research process with an aim of strengthening the validity and integrity of case study for its continued and advanced use in HSR.

Introduction

The popularity of case study research methodology in Health Services Research (HSR) has grown over the past 40 years. 1 This may be attributed to a shift towards the use of implementation research and a newfound appreciation of contextual factors affecting the uptake of evidence-based interventions within diverse settings. 2 Incorporating context-specific information on the delivery and implementation of programs can increase the likelihood of success. 3 , 4 Case study methodology is particularly well suited for implementation research in health services because it can provide insight into the nuances of diverse contexts. 5 , 6 In 1999, Yin 7 published a paper on how to enhance the quality of case study in HSR, which was foundational for the emergence of case study in this field. Yin 7 maintains case study is an appropriate methodology in HSR because health systems are constantly evolving, and the multiple affiliations and diverse motivations are difficult to track and understand with traditional linear methodologies.

Despite its increased popularity, there is debate whether a case study is a methodology (ie, a principle or process that guides research) or a method (ie, a tool to answer research questions). Some criticize case study for its high level of flexibility, perceiving it as less rigorous, and maintain that it generates inadequate results. 8 Others have noted issues with quality and consistency in how case studies are conducted and reported. 9 Reporting is often varied and inconsistent, using a mix of approaches such as case reports, case findings, and/or case study. Authors sometimes use incongruent methods of data collection and analysis or use the case study as a default when other methodologies do not fit. 9 , 10 Despite these criticisms, case study methodology is becoming more common as a viable approach for HSR. 11 An abundance of articles and textbooks are available to guide researchers through case study research, including field-specific resources for business, 12 , 13 nursing, 14 and family medicine. 15 However, there remains confusion and a lack of clarity on the key tenets of case study methodology.

Several common philosophical underpinnings have contributed to the development of case study research 1 which has led to different approaches to planning, data collection, and analysis. This presents challenges in assessing quality and rigour for researchers conducting case studies and stakeholders reading results.

This article discusses the various approaches and philosophical underpinnings to case study methodology. Our goal is to explain it in a way that provides guidance for decision-makers, policy-makers, and health leaders on how to understand, critically appraise, and engage in case study research and design, as such guidance is largely absent in the literature. This article is by no means exhaustive or authoritative. Instead, we aim to provide guidance and encourage dialogue around case study methodology, facilitating critical thinking around the variety of approaches and ways quality and rigour can be bolstered for its use within HSR.

Purpose of case study methodology

Case study methodology is often used to develop an in-depth, holistic understanding of a specific phenomenon within a specified context. 11 It focuses on studying one or multiple cases over time and uses an in-depth analysis of multiple information sources. 16 , 17 It is ideal for situations including, but not limited to, exploring under-researched and real-life phenomena, 18 especially when the contexts are complex and the researcher has little control over the phenomena. 19 , 20 Case studies can be useful when researchers want to understand how interventions are implemented in different contexts, and how context shapes the phenomenon of interest.

In addition to demonstrating coherency with the type of questions case study is suited to answer, there are four key tenets to case study methodologies: (1) be transparent in the paradigmatic and theoretical perspectives influencing study design; (2) clearly define the case and phenomenon of interest; (3) clearly define and justify the type of case study design; and (4) use multiple data collection sources and analysis methods to present the findings in ways that are consistent with the methodology and the study’s paradigmatic base. 9 , 16 The goal is to appropriately match the methods to empirical questions and issues and not to universally advocate any single approach for all problems. 21

Approaches to case study methodology

Three authors propose distinct foundational approaches to case study methodology positioned within different paradigms: Yin, 19 , 22 Stake, 5 , 23 and Merriam 24 , 25 ( Table 1 ). Yin is strongly post-positivist whereas Stake and Merriam are grounded in a constructivist paradigm. Researchers should locate their research within a paradigm that explains the philosophies guiding their research 26 and adhere to the underlying paradigmatic assumptions and key tenets of the appropriate author’s methodology. This will enhance the consistency and coherency of the methods and findings. However, researchers often do not report their paradigmatic position, nor do they adhere to one approach. 9 Although deliberately blending methodologies may be defensible and methodologically appropriate, more often it is done in an ad hoc and haphazard way, without consideration for limitations.

Cross-analysis of three case study approaches, adapted from Yazan 2015

Dimension of interestYinStakeMerriam
Case study designLogical sequence = connecting empirical data to initial research question
Four types: single holistic, single embedded, multiple holistic, multiple embedded
Flexible design = allow major changes to take place while the study is proceedingTheoretical framework = literature review to mold research question and emphasis points
Case study paradigmPositivismConstructivism and existentialismConstructivism
Components of study “Progressive focusing” = “the course of the study cannot be charted in advance” (1998, p 22)
Must have 2-3 research questions to structure the study
Collecting dataQuantitative and qualitative evidentiary influenced by:
Qualitative data influenced by:
Qualitative data research must have necessary skills and follow certain procedures to:
Data collection techniques
Data analysisUse both quantitative and qualitative techniques to answer research question
Use researcher’s intuition and impression as a guiding factor for analysis
“it is the process of making meaning” (1998, p 178)
Validating data Use triangulation
Increase internal validity

Ensure reliability and increase external validity

The post-positive paradigm postulates there is one reality that can be objectively described and understood by “bracketing” oneself from the research to remove prejudice or bias. 27 Yin focuses on general explanation and prediction, emphasizing the formulation of propositions, akin to hypothesis testing. This approach is best suited for structured and objective data collection 9 , 11 and is often used for mixed-method studies.

Constructivism assumes that the phenomenon of interest is constructed and influenced by local contexts, including the interaction between researchers, individuals, and their environment. 27 It acknowledges multiple interpretations of reality 24 constructed within the context by the researcher and participants which are unlikely to be replicated, should either change. 5 , 20 Stake and Merriam’s constructivist approaches emphasize a story-like rendering of a problem and an iterative process of constructing the case study. 7 This stance values researcher reflexivity and transparency, 28 acknowledging how researchers’ experiences and disciplinary lenses influence their assumptions and beliefs about the nature of the phenomenon and development of the findings.

Defining a case

A key tenet of case study methodology often underemphasized in literature is the importance of defining the case and phenomenon. Researches should clearly describe the case with sufficient detail to allow readers to fully understand the setting and context and determine applicability. Trying to answer a question that is too broad often leads to an unclear definition of the case and phenomenon. 20 Cases should therefore be bound by time and place to ensure rigor and feasibility. 6

Yin 22 defines a case as “a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context,” (p13) which may contain a single unit of analysis, including individuals, programs, corporations, or clinics 29 (holistic), or be broken into sub-units of analysis, such as projects, meetings, roles, or locations within the case (embedded). 30 Merriam 24 and Stake 5 similarly define a case as a single unit studied within a bounded system. Stake 5 , 23 suggests bounding cases by contexts and experiences where the phenomenon of interest can be a program, process, or experience. However, the line between the case and phenomenon can become muddy. For guidance, Stake 5 , 23 describes the case as the noun or entity and the phenomenon of interest as the verb, functioning, or activity of the case.

Designing the case study approach

Yin’s approach to a case study is rooted in a formal proposition or theory which guides the case and is used to test the outcome. 1 Stake 5 advocates for a flexible design and explicitly states that data collection and analysis may commence at any point. Merriam’s 24 approach blends both Yin and Stake’s, allowing the necessary flexibility in data collection and analysis to meet the needs.

Yin 30 proposed three types of case study approaches—descriptive, explanatory, and exploratory. Each can be designed around single or multiple cases, creating six basic case study methodologies. Descriptive studies provide a rich description of the phenomenon within its context, which can be helpful in developing theories. To test a theory or determine cause and effect relationships, researchers can use an explanatory design. An exploratory model is typically used in the pilot-test phase to develop propositions (eg, Sibbald et al. 31 used this approach to explore interprofessional network complexity). Despite having distinct characteristics, the boundaries between case study types are flexible with significant overlap. 30 Each has five key components: (1) research question; (2) proposition; (3) unit of analysis; (4) logical linking that connects the theory with proposition; and (5) criteria for analyzing findings.

Contrary to Yin, Stake 5 believes the research process cannot be planned in its entirety because research evolves as it is performed. Consequently, researchers can adjust the design of their methods even after data collection has begun. Stake 5 classifies case studies into three categories: intrinsic, instrumental, and collective/multiple. Intrinsic case studies focus on gaining a better understanding of the case. These are often undertaken when the researcher has an interest in a specific case. Instrumental case study is used when the case itself is not of the utmost importance, and the issue or phenomenon (ie, the research question) being explored becomes the focus instead (eg, Paciocco 32 used an instrumental case study to evaluate the implementation of a chronic disease management program). 5 Collective designs are rooted in an instrumental case study and include multiple cases to gain an in-depth understanding of the complexity and particularity of a phenomenon across diverse contexts. 5 , 23 In collective designs, studying similarities and differences between the cases allows the phenomenon to be understood more intimately (for examples of this in the field, see van Zelm et al. 33 and Burrows et al. 34 In addition, Sibbald et al. 35 present an example where a cross-case analysis method is used to compare instrumental cases).

Merriam’s approach is flexible (similar to Stake) as well as stepwise and linear (similar to Yin). She advocates for conducting a literature review before designing the study to better understand the theoretical underpinnings. 24 , 25 Unlike Stake or Yin, Merriam proposes a step-by-step guide for researchers to design a case study. These steps include performing a literature review, creating a theoretical framework, identifying the problem, creating and refining the research question(s), and selecting a study sample that fits the question(s). 24 , 25 , 36

Data collection and analysis

Using multiple data collection methods is a key characteristic of all case study methodology; it enhances the credibility of the findings by allowing different facets and views of the phenomenon to be explored. 23 Common methods include interviews, focus groups, observation, and document analysis. 5 , 37 By seeking patterns within and across data sources, a thick description of the case can be generated to support a greater understanding and interpretation of the whole phenomenon. 5 , 17 , 20 , 23 This technique is called triangulation and is used to explore cases with greater accuracy. 5 Although Stake 5 maintains case study is most often used in qualitative research, Yin 17 supports a mix of both quantitative and qualitative methods to triangulate data. This deliberate convergence of data sources (or mixed methods) allows researchers to find greater depth in their analysis and develop converging lines of inquiry. For example, case studies evaluating interventions commonly use qualitative interviews to describe the implementation process, barriers, and facilitators paired with a quantitative survey of comparative outcomes and effectiveness. 33 , 38 , 39

Yin 30 describes analysis as dependent on the chosen approach, whether it be (1) deductive and rely on theoretical propositions; (2) inductive and analyze data from the “ground up”; (3) organized to create a case description; or (4) used to examine plausible rival explanations. According to Yin’s 40 approach to descriptive case studies, carefully considering theory development is an important part of study design. “Theory” refers to field-relevant propositions, commonly agreed upon assumptions, or fully developed theories. 40 Stake 5 advocates for using the researcher’s intuition and impression to guide analysis through a categorical aggregation and direct interpretation. Merriam 24 uses six different methods to guide the “process of making meaning” (p178) : (1) ethnographic analysis; (2) narrative analysis; (3) phenomenological analysis; (4) constant comparative method; (5) content analysis; and (6) analytic induction.

Drawing upon a theoretical or conceptual framework to inform analysis improves the quality of case study and avoids the risk of description without meaning. 18 Using Stake’s 5 approach, researchers rely on protocols and previous knowledge to help make sense of new ideas; theory can guide the research and assist researchers in understanding how new information fits into existing knowledge.

Practical applications of case study research

Columbia University has recently demonstrated how case studies can help train future health leaders. 41 Case studies encompass components of systems thinking—considering connections and interactions between components of a system, alongside the implications and consequences of those relationships—to equip health leaders with tools to tackle global health issues. 41 Greenwood 42 evaluated Indigenous peoples’ relationship with the healthcare system in British Columbia and used a case study to challenge and educate health leaders across the country to enhance culturally sensitive health service environments.

An important but often omitted step in case study research is an assessment of quality and rigour. We recommend using a framework or set of criteria to assess the rigour of the qualitative research. Suitable resources include Caelli et al., 43 Houghten et al., 44 Ravenek and Rudman, 45 and Tracy. 46

New directions in case study

Although “pragmatic” case studies (ie, utilizing practical and applicable methods) have existed within psychotherapy for some time, 47 , 48 only recently has the applicability of pragmatism as an underlying paradigmatic perspective been considered in HSR. 49 This is marked by uptake of pragmatism in Randomized Control Trials, recognizing that “gold standard” testing conditions do not reflect the reality of clinical settings 50 , 51 nor do a handful of epistemologically guided methodologies suit every research inquiry.

Pragmatism positions the research question as the basis for methodological choices, rather than a theory or epistemology, allowing researchers to pursue the most practical approach to understanding a problem or discovering an actionable solution. 52 Mixed methods are commonly used to create a deeper understanding of the case through converging qualitative and quantitative data. 52 Pragmatic case study is suited to HSR because its flexibility throughout the research process accommodates complexity, ever-changing systems, and disruptions to research plans. 49 , 50 Much like case study, pragmatism has been criticized for its flexibility and use when other approaches are seemingly ill-fit. 53 , 54 Similarly, authors argue that this results from a lack of investigation and proper application rather than a reflection of validity, legitimizing the need for more exploration and conversation among researchers and practitioners. 55

Although occasionally misunderstood as a less rigourous research methodology, 8 case study research is highly flexible and allows for contextual nuances. 5 , 6 Its use is valuable when the researcher desires a thorough understanding of a phenomenon or case bound by context. 11 If needed, multiple similar cases can be studied simultaneously, or one case within another. 16 , 17 There are currently three main approaches to case study, 5 , 17 , 24 each with their own definitions of a case, ontological and epistemological paradigms, methodologies, and data collection and analysis procedures. 37

Individuals’ experiences within health systems are influenced heavily by contextual factors, participant experience, and intricate relationships between different organizations and actors. 55 Case study research is well suited for HSR because it can track and examine these complex relationships and systems as they evolve over time. 6 , 7 It is important that researchers and health leaders using this methodology understand its key tenets and how to conduct a proper case study. Although there are many examples of case study in action, they are often under-reported and, when reported, not rigorously conducted. 9 Thus, decision-makers and health leaders should use these examples with caution. The proper reporting of case studies is necessary to bolster their credibility in HSR literature and provide readers sufficient information to critically assess the methodology. We also call on health leaders who frequently use case studies 56 – 58 to report them in the primary research literature.

The purpose of this article is to advocate for the continued and advanced use of case study in HSR and to provide literature-based guidance for decision-makers, policy-makers, and health leaders on how to engage in, read, and interpret findings from case study research. As health systems progress and evolve, the application of case study research will continue to increase as researchers and health leaders aim to capture the inherent complexities, nuances, and contextual factors. 7

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The Importance of Case Studies

Case studies are, arguably, one of the most essential components of any marketing or communications strategy. They may take time and effort, but the payoffs are well worth their effort and have been seen time and again, from organizations both big and small.

As Business Analysts, we’re often involved in creating or contributing to case studies, so it is important we understand what they are, the purpose they serve, and the benefits that they can bring. 

What Are Case Studies?

In essence, a case study is a report published by a company that highlights its approach to a challenge, the strategy used to solve the issue(s), and the effectiveness of the solution. It presents a holistic, in-depth review with valuable information about the costs involved, the expertise of the company employed, and the benefits achieved.

The Many Benefits of Case Studies

Case studies have a huge range of benefits, from insight to influence. They are used in nearly every industry, from finance to health care and they offer organizations the ability to convert observations into useable data.

importance of case study today

But that barely scratches the surface of the many benefits of case studies. Let’s dig a little deeper and look at some of the long-lasting effects that case studies can have.

1. Boost Customer Confidence

Case studies are an excellent way to display your team’s skill and expertise in action. It’s one thing to propose a plan for improvement, or a solution to a challenge, but some customers may be skeptical of your team’s ability to follow through or produce the appealing results you’re promising. 

Case studies are exactly the type of proof they need to help push them past skepticism and into belief, and possibly, across the finish line to approval of your partnership. If it’s an internal project, case studies could be enough to convince decision-makers to pursue your solution to a challenge.

2. Improve Brand Awareness and Reputation

The reality of the world today is that every company in every industry has competition. Consumers are also becoming smarter about marketing tactics and messaging, so providing proof and backing up claims is essential for presenting your company as genuine in its promises. That’s where case studies come in. 

Case studies are social proof that the promises and claims that your company is making are true. They provide facts and statistics to show how your company improved productivity for your clients by ‘x’ amount, increased profits by ‘x’ amount, or implemented ‘x’ solution to combat a specific issue. 

Providing such proof of expertise bolsters your reputation and can increase brand awareness. Case studies can be published and distributed to current customers to remind them of why they partnered with you initially, and can help increase your company’s reputation and brand image as new potential customers discover you. 

3. Provide a Strategic Solution

No customer wants to partner with a company that acts erratically or thoughtlessly. Case studies provide insight into real challenges and an in-depth look at how your company goes about solving them. They give you a chance to display your strategic thinking and approach, your expertise and innovation, and your ability to follow through on your promised solution. 

4. Assist with Furthering Research

A case study helps show how different aspects of your business work together. They highlight a problem and how the executed solution provided value. They can also play a role in broader research. As you explore and analyze new ideas, other theories and methods can surface. This additional information can help you refine your strategies and further grow the value you provide. Case studies make great reference points that can show, not only how innovative, productive, and proficient your company and teams have become, but how trends have unfolded within your customers and services.

Final Thoughts

As you can see, case studies play a crucial role in the communication of how your team and you, as a Business Analyst, face challenging situations head-on and provide strategic, value-driven solutions for your customers. Once you have a better understanding of case studies and the deep benefits they provide to you and your brand, it’s easy to justify the time and effort that goes into creating them. As you create your next case study, use it as a reminder to take pride in the hard work you’ve done and the results you’ve achieved.

– Written by Jeremy Aschenbrenner, The BA Guide

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Research Method

Home » Case Study – Methods, Examples and Guide

Case Study – Methods, Examples and Guide

Table of Contents

Case Study Research

A case study is a research method that involves an in-depth examination and analysis of a particular phenomenon or case, such as an individual, organization, community, event, or situation.

It is a qualitative research approach that aims to provide a detailed and comprehensive understanding of the case being studied. Case studies typically involve multiple sources of data, including interviews, observations, documents, and artifacts, which are analyzed using various techniques, such as content analysis, thematic analysis, and grounded theory. The findings of a case study are often used to develop theories, inform policy or practice, or generate new research questions.

Types of Case Study

Types and Methods of Case Study are as follows:

Single-Case Study

A single-case study is an in-depth analysis of a single case. This type of case study is useful when the researcher wants to understand a specific phenomenon in detail.

For Example , A researcher might conduct a single-case study on a particular individual to understand their experiences with a particular health condition or a specific organization to explore their management practices. The researcher collects data from multiple sources, such as interviews, observations, and documents, and uses various techniques to analyze the data, such as content analysis or thematic analysis. The findings of a single-case study are often used to generate new research questions, develop theories, or inform policy or practice.

Multiple-Case Study

A multiple-case study involves the analysis of several cases that are similar in nature. This type of case study is useful when the researcher wants to identify similarities and differences between the cases.

For Example, a researcher might conduct a multiple-case study on several companies to explore the factors that contribute to their success or failure. The researcher collects data from each case, compares and contrasts the findings, and uses various techniques to analyze the data, such as comparative analysis or pattern-matching. The findings of a multiple-case study can be used to develop theories, inform policy or practice, or generate new research questions.

Exploratory Case Study

An exploratory case study is used to explore a new or understudied phenomenon. This type of case study is useful when the researcher wants to generate hypotheses or theories about the phenomenon.

For Example, a researcher might conduct an exploratory case study on a new technology to understand its potential impact on society. The researcher collects data from multiple sources, such as interviews, observations, and documents, and uses various techniques to analyze the data, such as grounded theory or content analysis. The findings of an exploratory case study can be used to generate new research questions, develop theories, or inform policy or practice.

Descriptive Case Study

A descriptive case study is used to describe a particular phenomenon in detail. This type of case study is useful when the researcher wants to provide a comprehensive account of the phenomenon.

For Example, a researcher might conduct a descriptive case study on a particular community to understand its social and economic characteristics. The researcher collects data from multiple sources, such as interviews, observations, and documents, and uses various techniques to analyze the data, such as content analysis or thematic analysis. The findings of a descriptive case study can be used to inform policy or practice or generate new research questions.

Instrumental Case Study

An instrumental case study is used to understand a particular phenomenon that is instrumental in achieving a particular goal. This type of case study is useful when the researcher wants to understand the role of the phenomenon in achieving the goal.

For Example, a researcher might conduct an instrumental case study on a particular policy to understand its impact on achieving a particular goal, such as reducing poverty. The researcher collects data from multiple sources, such as interviews, observations, and documents, and uses various techniques to analyze the data, such as content analysis or thematic analysis. The findings of an instrumental case study can be used to inform policy or practice or generate new research questions.

Case Study Data Collection Methods

Here are some common data collection methods for case studies:

Interviews involve asking questions to individuals who have knowledge or experience relevant to the case study. Interviews can be structured (where the same questions are asked to all participants) or unstructured (where the interviewer follows up on the responses with further questions). Interviews can be conducted in person, over the phone, or through video conferencing.

Observations

Observations involve watching and recording the behavior and activities of individuals or groups relevant to the case study. Observations can be participant (where the researcher actively participates in the activities) or non-participant (where the researcher observes from a distance). Observations can be recorded using notes, audio or video recordings, or photographs.

Documents can be used as a source of information for case studies. Documents can include reports, memos, emails, letters, and other written materials related to the case study. Documents can be collected from the case study participants or from public sources.

Surveys involve asking a set of questions to a sample of individuals relevant to the case study. Surveys can be administered in person, over the phone, through mail or email, or online. Surveys can be used to gather information on attitudes, opinions, or behaviors related to the case study.

Artifacts are physical objects relevant to the case study. Artifacts can include tools, equipment, products, or other objects that provide insights into the case study phenomenon.

How to conduct Case Study Research

Conducting a case study research involves several steps that need to be followed to ensure the quality and rigor of the study. Here are the steps to conduct case study research:

  • Define the research questions: The first step in conducting a case study research is to define the research questions. The research questions should be specific, measurable, and relevant to the case study phenomenon under investigation.
  • Select the case: The next step is to select the case or cases to be studied. The case should be relevant to the research questions and should provide rich and diverse data that can be used to answer the research questions.
  • Collect data: Data can be collected using various methods, such as interviews, observations, documents, surveys, and artifacts. The data collection method should be selected based on the research questions and the nature of the case study phenomenon.
  • Analyze the data: The data collected from the case study should be analyzed using various techniques, such as content analysis, thematic analysis, or grounded theory. The analysis should be guided by the research questions and should aim to provide insights and conclusions relevant to the research questions.
  • Draw conclusions: The conclusions drawn from the case study should be based on the data analysis and should be relevant to the research questions. The conclusions should be supported by evidence and should be clearly stated.
  • Validate the findings: The findings of the case study should be validated by reviewing the data and the analysis with participants or other experts in the field. This helps to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings.
  • Write the report: The final step is to write the report of the case study research. The report should provide a clear description of the case study phenomenon, the research questions, the data collection methods, the data analysis, the findings, and the conclusions. The report should be written in a clear and concise manner and should follow the guidelines for academic writing.

Examples of Case Study

Here are some examples of case study research:

  • The Hawthorne Studies : Conducted between 1924 and 1932, the Hawthorne Studies were a series of case studies conducted by Elton Mayo and his colleagues to examine the impact of work environment on employee productivity. The studies were conducted at the Hawthorne Works plant of the Western Electric Company in Chicago and included interviews, observations, and experiments.
  • The Stanford Prison Experiment: Conducted in 1971, the Stanford Prison Experiment was a case study conducted by Philip Zimbardo to examine the psychological effects of power and authority. The study involved simulating a prison environment and assigning participants to the role of guards or prisoners. The study was controversial due to the ethical issues it raised.
  • The Challenger Disaster: The Challenger Disaster was a case study conducted to examine the causes of the Space Shuttle Challenger explosion in 1986. The study included interviews, observations, and analysis of data to identify the technical, organizational, and cultural factors that contributed to the disaster.
  • The Enron Scandal: The Enron Scandal was a case study conducted to examine the causes of the Enron Corporation’s bankruptcy in 2001. The study included interviews, analysis of financial data, and review of documents to identify the accounting practices, corporate culture, and ethical issues that led to the company’s downfall.
  • The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster : The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster was a case study conducted to examine the causes of the nuclear accident that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan in 2011. The study included interviews, analysis of data, and review of documents to identify the technical, organizational, and cultural factors that contributed to the disaster.

Application of Case Study

Case studies have a wide range of applications across various fields and industries. Here are some examples:

Business and Management

Case studies are widely used in business and management to examine real-life situations and develop problem-solving skills. Case studies can help students and professionals to develop a deep understanding of business concepts, theories, and best practices.

Case studies are used in healthcare to examine patient care, treatment options, and outcomes. Case studies can help healthcare professionals to develop critical thinking skills, diagnose complex medical conditions, and develop effective treatment plans.

Case studies are used in education to examine teaching and learning practices. Case studies can help educators to develop effective teaching strategies, evaluate student progress, and identify areas for improvement.

Social Sciences

Case studies are widely used in social sciences to examine human behavior, social phenomena, and cultural practices. Case studies can help researchers to develop theories, test hypotheses, and gain insights into complex social issues.

Law and Ethics

Case studies are used in law and ethics to examine legal and ethical dilemmas. Case studies can help lawyers, policymakers, and ethical professionals to develop critical thinking skills, analyze complex cases, and make informed decisions.

Purpose of Case Study

The purpose of a case study is to provide a detailed analysis of a specific phenomenon, issue, or problem in its real-life context. A case study is a qualitative research method that involves the in-depth exploration and analysis of a particular case, which can be an individual, group, organization, event, or community.

The primary purpose of a case study is to generate a comprehensive and nuanced understanding of the case, including its history, context, and dynamics. Case studies can help researchers to identify and examine the underlying factors, processes, and mechanisms that contribute to the case and its outcomes. This can help to develop a more accurate and detailed understanding of the case, which can inform future research, practice, or policy.

Case studies can also serve other purposes, including:

  • Illustrating a theory or concept: Case studies can be used to illustrate and explain theoretical concepts and frameworks, providing concrete examples of how they can be applied in real-life situations.
  • Developing hypotheses: Case studies can help to generate hypotheses about the causal relationships between different factors and outcomes, which can be tested through further research.
  • Providing insight into complex issues: Case studies can provide insights into complex and multifaceted issues, which may be difficult to understand through other research methods.
  • Informing practice or policy: Case studies can be used to inform practice or policy by identifying best practices, lessons learned, or areas for improvement.

Advantages of Case Study Research

There are several advantages of case study research, including:

  • In-depth exploration: Case study research allows for a detailed exploration and analysis of a specific phenomenon, issue, or problem in its real-life context. This can provide a comprehensive understanding of the case and its dynamics, which may not be possible through other research methods.
  • Rich data: Case study research can generate rich and detailed data, including qualitative data such as interviews, observations, and documents. This can provide a nuanced understanding of the case and its complexity.
  • Holistic perspective: Case study research allows for a holistic perspective of the case, taking into account the various factors, processes, and mechanisms that contribute to the case and its outcomes. This can help to develop a more accurate and comprehensive understanding of the case.
  • Theory development: Case study research can help to develop and refine theories and concepts by providing empirical evidence and concrete examples of how they can be applied in real-life situations.
  • Practical application: Case study research can inform practice or policy by identifying best practices, lessons learned, or areas for improvement.
  • Contextualization: Case study research takes into account the specific context in which the case is situated, which can help to understand how the case is influenced by the social, cultural, and historical factors of its environment.

Limitations of Case Study Research

There are several limitations of case study research, including:

  • Limited generalizability : Case studies are typically focused on a single case or a small number of cases, which limits the generalizability of the findings. The unique characteristics of the case may not be applicable to other contexts or populations, which may limit the external validity of the research.
  • Biased sampling: Case studies may rely on purposive or convenience sampling, which can introduce bias into the sample selection process. This may limit the representativeness of the sample and the generalizability of the findings.
  • Subjectivity: Case studies rely on the interpretation of the researcher, which can introduce subjectivity into the analysis. The researcher’s own biases, assumptions, and perspectives may influence the findings, which may limit the objectivity of the research.
  • Limited control: Case studies are typically conducted in naturalistic settings, which limits the control that the researcher has over the environment and the variables being studied. This may limit the ability to establish causal relationships between variables.
  • Time-consuming: Case studies can be time-consuming to conduct, as they typically involve a detailed exploration and analysis of a specific case. This may limit the feasibility of conducting multiple case studies or conducting case studies in a timely manner.
  • Resource-intensive: Case studies may require significant resources, including time, funding, and expertise. This may limit the ability of researchers to conduct case studies in resource-constrained settings.

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Hertz CEO Kathryn Marinello with CFO Jamere Jackson and other members of the executive team in 2017

Top 40 Most Popular Case Studies of 2021

Two cases about Hertz claimed top spots in 2021's Top 40 Most Popular Case Studies

Two cases on the uses of debt and equity at Hertz claimed top spots in the CRDT’s (Case Research and Development Team) 2021 top 40 review of cases.

Hertz (A) took the top spot. The case details the financial structure of the rental car company through the end of 2019. Hertz (B), which ranked third in CRDT’s list, describes the company’s struggles during the early part of the COVID pandemic and its eventual need to enter Chapter 11 bankruptcy. 

The success of the Hertz cases was unprecedented for the top 40 list. Usually, cases take a number of years to gain popularity, but the Hertz cases claimed top spots in their first year of release. Hertz (A) also became the first ‘cooked’ case to top the annual review, as all of the other winners had been web-based ‘raw’ cases.

Besides introducing students to the complicated financing required to maintain an enormous fleet of cars, the Hertz cases also expanded the diversity of case protagonists. Kathyrn Marinello was the CEO of Hertz during this period and the CFO, Jamere Jackson is black.

Sandwiched between the two Hertz cases, Coffee 2016, a perennial best seller, finished second. “Glory, Glory, Man United!” a case about an English football team’s IPO made a surprise move to number four.  Cases on search fund boards, the future of malls,  Norway’s Sovereign Wealth fund, Prodigy Finance, the Mayo Clinic, and Cadbury rounded out the top ten.

Other year-end data for 2021 showed:

  • Online “raw” case usage remained steady as compared to 2020 with over 35K users from 170 countries and all 50 U.S. states interacting with 196 cases.
  • Fifty four percent of raw case users came from outside the U.S..
  • The Yale School of Management (SOM) case study directory pages received over 160K page views from 177 countries with approximately a third originating in India followed by the U.S. and the Philippines.
  • Twenty-six of the cases in the list are raw cases.
  • A third of the cases feature a woman protagonist.
  • Orders for Yale SOM case studies increased by almost 50% compared to 2020.
  • The top 40 cases were supervised by 19 different Yale SOM faculty members, several supervising multiple cases.

CRDT compiled the Top 40 list by combining data from its case store, Google Analytics, and other measures of interest and adoption.

All of this year’s Top 40 cases are available for purchase from the Yale Management Media store .

And the Top 40 cases studies of 2021 are:

1.   Hertz Global Holdings (A): Uses of Debt and Equity

2.   Coffee 2016

3.   Hertz Global Holdings (B): Uses of Debt and Equity 2020

4.   Glory, Glory Man United!

5.   Search Fund Company Boards: How CEOs Can Build Boards to Help Them Thrive

6.   The Future of Malls: Was Decline Inevitable?

7.   Strategy for Norway's Pension Fund Global

8.   Prodigy Finance

9.   Design at Mayo

10. Cadbury

11. City Hospital Emergency Room

13. Volkswagen

14. Marina Bay Sands

15. Shake Shack IPO

16. Mastercard

17. Netflix

18. Ant Financial

19. AXA: Creating the New CR Metrics

20. IBM Corporate Service Corps

21. Business Leadership in South Africa's 1994 Reforms

22. Alternative Meat Industry

23. Children's Premier

24. Khalil Tawil and Umi (A)

25. Palm Oil 2016

26. Teach For All: Designing a Global Network

27. What's Next? Search Fund Entrepreneurs Reflect on Life After Exit

28. Searching for a Search Fund Structure: A Student Takes a Tour of Various Options

30. Project Sammaan

31. Commonfund ESG

32. Polaroid

33. Connecticut Green Bank 2018: After the Raid

34. FieldFresh Foods

35. The Alibaba Group

36. 360 State Street: Real Options

37. Herman Miller

38. AgBiome

39. Nathan Cummings Foundation

40. Toyota 2010

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Unveiling the Importance of Case Studies in Psychology: Insights and Examples

importance of case study today

Have you ever wondered how psychologists gain a deeper understanding of individual behavior or study rare phenomena? Case studies in psychology play a crucial role in unraveling the complexities of the human mind. From providing real-life examples to formulating hypotheses, these studies offer valuable insights into various psychological concepts.

In this article, we will explore why case studies are important, how they are conducted, famous examples, and ethical considerations in the field of psychology. Join us on this fascinating journey into the world of case studies in psychology.

  • Case studies provide in-depth understanding of individual behavior in psychology.
  • Real-life examples in case studies are crucial for understanding complex psychological phenomena.
  • Case studies allow for the study of rare occurrences and aid in hypothesis formulation in psychology.
  • 1 What Are Case Studies in Psychology?
  • 2.1 In-depth Understanding of Individual Behavior
  • 2.2 Provides Real-life Examples
  • 2.3 Allows for the Study of Rare Phenomena
  • 2.4 Helps in Formulating Hypotheses
  • 3.1 Selecting the Case
  • 3.2 Collecting Data
  • 3.3 Analyzing the Data
  • 3.4 Writing the Case Study Report
  • 4.1 The Case of Little Hans
  • 4.2 The Case of Phineas Gage
  • 4.3 The Case of Genie
  • 4.4 The Case of H.M.
  • 5.1 Informed Consent
  • 5.2 Confidentiality
  • 5.3 Debriefing
  • 5.4 Avoiding Harm and Exploitation
  • 6.1 What are case studies in psychology?
  • 6.2 How are case studies used in psychology?
  • 6.3 What makes case studies important in psychology?
  • 6.4 What are some examples of famous case studies in psychology?
  • 6.5 How do case studies benefit the field of psychology?
  • 6.6 Can case studies be used to generalize findings?

What Are Case Studies in Psychology?

Case studies in psychology are detailed investigations of a single individual, group, or event that aim to provide a comprehensive analysis of behavior and underlying psychological phenomena.

These studies offer a unique opportunity to dive deep into specific cases, allowing researchers to gather rich, in-depth data that may not be possible through other research methods.

They play a significant role in cognitive psychology by elucidating intricate mental processes, emotional responses, and thought patterns.

Case studies are valuable tools in clinical psychology, providing insights into the effectiveness of various treatments and interventions.

Why Are Case Studies Important in Psychology?

Case studies hold significant importance in psychology as they offer deep insights into individual behavior, aiding in the understanding of complex psychological phenomena and their real-world implications.

By diving into specific cases in detail, psychologists can not only apply theoretical concepts better but also observe how these theories manifest in actual human experiences. The in-depth examination of unique cases can reveal patterns, exceptions, and nuances that contribute to the broader understanding of human behavior. These findings from case studies can then inform the development of effective therapeutic strategies and interventions tailored to individual needs, leading to better outcomes in clinical practice.

In-depth Understanding of Individual Behavior

Case studies provide a unique opportunity to delve deeply into individual behavior, allowing researchers to explore cognitive processes, motivations, and changes over extended periods through longitudinal studies .

By closely observing a single human subject or a small group over a prolonged period, researchers can gain a detailed understanding of how cognitive functions develop or change over time. These detailed accounts offer valuable insights into the intricate behavioral patterns and choices made by individuals in various contexts. Through longitudinal studies, researchers can track the evolution of these behaviors and mental processes, shedding light on the complex interplay between nature and nurture in shaping human behavior.

Provides Real-life Examples

Case studies provide psychologists with real-life examples that bridge the gap between theoretical frameworks and practical applications in research and educational settings.

These insightful investigations offer in-depth explorations of unique scenarios that enable professionals to understand how theoretical concepts manifest in daily life. By diving into specific cases,

educational

institutions can enhance their curriculum with relevant, relatable material, fostering a deeper understanding of complex theories . Researchers can draw valuable insights from these rich narratives to inform future studies, ultimately advancing the field’s knowledge base. The practical implications derived from case studies give the power to practitioners with actionable strategies and solutions for real-world challenges.

Allows for the Study of Rare Phenomena

Case studies enable the exploration of rare phenomena or unique cases that may not be easily studied through traditional research methods, facilitating comparative case studies and in-depth analysis.

By diving into specific instances of behavior, interactions, or occurrences, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complexities of human psychology. Phenomena that are considered outliers or atypical can be thoroughly examined, shedding light on the underlying mechanisms and contributing to a broader understanding of the subject. The use of comparative case studies allows for the identification of patterns, differences, and similarities across different scenarios, leading to richer data interpretations and enhanced theoretical frameworks.

Helps in Formulating Hypotheses

Case studies play a crucial role in formulating hypotheses by examining individual cases in detail, uncovering patterns, and drawing implications that contribute to diagnosis and intervention strategies.

When analyzing a specific case, researchers can delve deeply into the patient’s history, symptoms, and responses to treatments, allowing them to identify unique characteristics and potential correlations. By conducting a thorough investigation, healthcare professionals can not only understand the complexities of a condition but also recognize commonalities or outliers that may inform future research or clinical practice.

  • This careful scrutiny of individual cases lays the foundation for recognizing broader trends that could have significant implications for population-based health outcomes. By categorizing and synthesizing multiple case studies, professionals can discern patterns, risk factors, or treatment responses that may have gone unnoticed in larger studies.
  • Furthermore, these in-depth analyses can offer valuable insights for refining diagnostic criteria, creating personalized treatment plans, or developing novel intervention strategies tailored to specific patient characteristics.

How Are Case Studies Conducted in Psychology?

The conduct of case studies in psychology involves a meticulous process that includes selecting the case, collecting relevant data, analyzing the information, and presenting detailed reports following ethical guidelines and methodological strategies.

When selecting a case for study, researchers must consider various factors such as the uniqueness of the case, its relevance to the research question, and the potential insights it can offer.

Data collection techniques in case studies can range from direct observations and interviews to surveys and document analysis, enabling a comprehensive understanding of the case under investigation.

The methodology employed in case study research often involves a qualitative approach, focusing on in-depth analysis and interpretation of the gathered data to extract meaningful patterns and insights.

Ethical considerations play a crucial role in case studies, ensuring the protection of participants’ confidentiality, consent, and well-being throughout the research process.

Selecting the Case

The initial step in conducting a case study involves selecting a suitable case that aligns with the research objectives, whether it be for comparative studies , exploratory research , or theoretical investigations.

Case selection serves as a crucial foundation for the study’s success. When opting for cases in comparative studies, researchers consider similarities and differences among cases to draw meaningful conclusions. In exploratory research, the selection process aims to unearth new perspectives and ideas by choosing cases that offer unique insights. In theoretical investigations, the emphasis lies on selecting cases that challenge existing theories or provide data to support new theoretical frameworks.

Collecting Data

Data collection in case studies involves gathering relevant information through various sources, methods, and techniques to build a comprehensive dataset for analysis, especially in longitudinal studies that track changes over time.

Longitudinal studies are essential for capturing the nuances of evolving phenomena, providing valuable insights into trends, patterns, and causal relationships. These studies often involve collecting data at multiple time points, allowing researchers to observe fluctuations and better understand underlying mechanisms.

Researchers employ a mix of quantitative and qualitative tools for data collection, such as surveys, interviews, observations, and document analysis. Each method contributes unique perspectives, enriching the depth of the analysis and generating holistic understandings of the phenomenon under investigation.

The rigor and consistency in data collection procedures are crucial for ensuring the reliability and validity of the research findings. By meticulously documenting the sources, procedures, and instruments used, researchers can enhance the transparency and reproducibility of their analyses for the benefit of the scientific community.

Analyzing the Data

Data analysis in case studies involves examining the collected information, identifying patterns, drawing conclusions, and deriving meaningful findings that contribute to theoretical frameworks and clinical psychology.

Researchers employ various techniques such as statistical analysis , coding qualitative data, and creating visual representations like charts and graphs to delve into the depths of their findings. These methods help in uncovering hidden relationships and insights within the data, offering valuable contributions to the theoretical understanding of the subject matter. The interpretations derived from these analyses play a crucial role in shaping the direction of future research inquiries and influencing the practical applications in clinical psychology .

Writing the Case Study Report

The final stage of case study conduct involves documenting the findings, insights, and implications in a detailed report that follows a structured methodology and offers practical recommendations based on the analysis.

These reports in psychology play a crucial role in not only summarizing the research process but also in showcasing the practical applications of theoretical concepts in real-life scenarios. The structure of a comprehensive case study report typically includes an introduction detailing the background and objectives, a methodology section outlining the research design and data collection methods, a results section presenting the key findings, a discussion segment interpreting the results, and a conclusion summarizing the key takeaways and providing actionable recommendations.

Examples of Famous Case Studies in Psychology

Several famous case studies in psychology have provided valuable insights and shaped our understanding of human behavior, such as the cases of Genie Wiley, Freud’s patients, and other notable individuals.

One of the most striking cases is that of Genie Wiley, a young girl who was subjected to extreme social isolation during her childhood. Discovered at the age of 13, Genie had spent most of her life confined to a small room, deprived of normal human interaction. This case highlighted the critical period hypothesis and the crucial role of early experiences in cognitive and social development.

Similarly, Freud’s patients, often referred to as the pioneers of clinical psychology, offered invaluable insights into the complexity of the human psyche. Their struggles and breakthroughs during therapy sessions helped shape Freud’s psychoanalytic theories and laid the groundwork for modern diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions.

The Case of Little Hans

The case of Little Hans , studied by Sigmund Freud, remains a classic example in psychology, illustrating the application of psychoanalytic principles in understanding childhood fears and phobias.

Little Hans, a boy from Vienna, became the subject of Freud’s detailed case study, shedding light on the complex interplay of early experiences and development of phobias. Through in-depth analysis, Freud made connections between Hans’ fear of horses and underlying unconscious desires and conflicts.

Freud’s exploration of the case highlighted the importance of parental influences and early childhood experiences in shaping one’s psyche. By diving into Hans’ dreams and fantasies, Freud introduced key concepts such as the Oedipus complex and castration anxiety, paving the way for further advancements in the field of clinical psychology.

The Case of Phineas Gage

The case of Phineas Gage , a railroad worker with a unique brain injury, has been pivotal in cognitive psychology research, highlighting the role of brain regions in personality and behavior.

Phineas Gage’s story, due to the unfortunate accident involving an iron rod that pierced through his skull, revealed remarkable insights into the connection between brain functions and behavior. This case demonstrated how specific brain regions correlate with cognitive processes, leading to groundbreaking findings in the field. Researchers delved into Gage’s life post-injury, unveiling the intricate mechanisms of cognitive functioning. His experience paved the way for further investigations into how brain trauma can affect cognition and personality, reshaping our understanding of the complexities underlying human behavior.

The Case of Genie

The case of Genie , a feral child discovered in the 1970s, has provided critical insights into developmental psychology through longitudinal studies that tracked her progress and challenges of social reintegration.

Genie’s case highlighted the severe impacts of early deprivation on language acquisition, emotional development, and social interaction. Longitudinal studies spanning decades revealed both remarkable progress and lingering difficulties she faced. These studies offered valuable data on the potential for rehabilitation and the critical period hypothesis in language development.

The ethical considerations surrounding studying feral children like Genie raise questions about informed consent, privacy, and the boundaries of research ethics. Researchers must navigate these complex issues carefully to balance knowledge gain with the well-being and rights of the individuals involved.

The Case of H.M.

The case of H.M. , a patient with severe amnesia studied extensively in neuropsychology, has provided foundational insights into memory processes, brain localization, and the effects of neurological damage.

Henry Molaison, known as H.M., underwent brain surgery in 1953 to treat his severe epilepsy, which resulted in the inadvertent removal of parts of his hippocampus. This operation left him with anterograde amnesia, where he could not form new memories.

Researchers extensively studied H.M.’s case, leading to significant discoveries about different types of memory and the critical role of the hippocampus in memory consolidation.

Understanding the mechanisms behind H.M.’s memory deficits paved the way for further research in neuropsychology, highlighting the importance of various brain structures in memory formation and recall. This case also underscored the interconnected nature of memory systems in the brain and revolutionized our understanding of how memories are stored and retrieved.

Ethical Considerations in Case Studies in Psychology

Ethical considerations are paramount in conducting case studies in psychology, involving practices such as obtaining informed consent, maintaining confidentiality, providing debriefing, and ensuring the avoidance of harm and exploitation.

Theoretical frameworks play a crucial role in guiding the design and implementation of case studies, providing a structured approach to analyzing data and drawing conclusions. When conducting qualitative research , researchers must adhere to rigorous ethical guidelines to protect the well-being and rights of participants.

For example, a psychologist undertaking a case study on the impact of trauma on cognitive development must ensure that participants are fully aware of the study’s purpose, risks, and benefits before agreeing to participate. Confidentiality is a key aspect to safeguard the identities and personal information of individuals involved, maintaining trust and preserving their privacy.

Once the study is completed, researchers must conduct debriefing sessions to address any issues that may have arisen during the study, provide additional support if necessary, and ensure that participants leave the study feeling informed and respected.

Informed Consent

Obtaining informed consent is a crucial ethical requirement in case studies, ensuring that participants understand the research objectives, risks, and implications of their involvement before agreeing to participate.

In the realm of case studies, obtaining informed consent is not only essential from a moral standpoint but also legally mandated. It safeguards the rights and well-being of participants, upholding fundamental principles of research ethics. Researchers must adhere to established procedures for obtaining consent, such as clearly explaining the study’s purpose, procedures, potential risks, and benefits.

Transparent communication throughout the research process is key to maintaining trust and integrity with participants. Ethical considerations and respectful treatment of individuals are at the core of informed consent in case studies.

Confidentiality

Maintaining confidentiality is a core ethical principle in case studies, safeguarding the privacy and sensitive information of participants, thereby building trust and upholding research integrity.

Confidentiality is crucial in data-driven research, ensuring that participants’ trust is not breached and their data remains secure throughout the study. This involves implementing strict protocols for data handling, storage, and sharing to prevent unauthorized access or disclosure. Anonymity is often maintained by assigning pseudonyms or codes to participants, further protecting their identities. Research methodologies should also include clear guidelines on protecting confidential data and following ethical standards to respect participants’ privacy rights.

Debriefing participants after a case study is critical for addressing any emotional or psychological impact, providing closure, and discussing the practical implications of the research findings.

During a post-study debriefing session, participants are given the opportunity to reflect on their experience, express any concerns, and understand the purpose and outcomes of the study. This process not only ensures that participants are emotionally supported and informed, but it also aids in maintaining the integrity and credibility of the research.

Practical strategies such as employing trained facilitators, using clear language, and respecting confidentiality play a significant role in conducting effective debriefing sessions.

Avoiding Harm and Exploitation

Preventing harm and exploitation is a fundamental ethical duty when conducting case studies in psychology, necessitating careful planning, risk assessment, and continuous monitoring to protect participants’ well-being.

One of the key considerations in ensuring research practices prioritize the welfare of individuals is establishing clear guidelines and protocols to mitigate risks and safeguard participants from potential harm. Utilizing a participant-centered approach guides researchers to prioritize the safety and well-being of those involved in the study. Implementing robust informed consent procedures, maintaining confidentiality, and providing appropriate debriefing are integral components in upholding ethical standards.

Researchers must be vigilant in regularly assessing and addressing any emerging ethical dilemmas that may arise during the course of the study. It is crucial to conduct thorough evaluations of the potential implications of the research and to continuously reflect on the ethical considerations involved in the methodology to ensure that the rights and dignity of participants are respected and protected.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are case studies in psychology.

Case studies in psychology are detailed and in-depth investigations of a single individual, group, or event, often used to explore complex and unique psychological phenomena.

How are case studies used in psychology?

Case studies are used in psychology to provide insights into specific psychological issues, develop and test theories, and provide support for interventions and treatment approaches.

What makes case studies important in psychology?

Case studies are important in psychology because they allow for a deep understanding of complex and individualized psychological processes, providing valuable insights into human behavior and mental processes.

What are some examples of famous case studies in psychology?

Some examples of famous case studies in psychology include the study of Phineas Gage, the case of Little Albert, and the study of Genie, all of which have provided important insights into psychological concepts and theories.

How do case studies benefit the field of psychology?

Case studies benefit the field of psychology by providing a rich and detailed source of data for research and theory development, helping to improve our understanding of human behavior and mental processes.

Can case studies be used to generalize findings?

While case studies cannot be used to make broad generalizations about the entire population, they can provide valuable insights and hypotheses for further research, making them an important tool in the field of psychology.

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Vanessa Patel is an expert in positive psychology, dedicated to studying happiness, resilience, and the factors that contribute to a fulfilling life. Her writing explores techniques for enhancing well-being, overcoming adversity, and building positive relationships and communities. Vanessa’s articles are a resource for anyone looking to find more joy and meaning in their daily lives, backed by the latest research in the field.

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Everything you should know about the Case study

Case Study

You might have heard a common term “ CASE STUDY ” during various training sessions – in your course books, from your lecturers, and more. Also, you might have a general idea of what case studies are. But this isn’t enough especially when you’re a management aspirant or a start-up.

So, today we are going to discuss what case studies actually are, why they are important and a few crucial tips to create them.

Case Studies – Definition

Case studies are a powerful marketing tactic that helps businesses tell how valuable their products and services are – through research based facts and evidences.

In simpler words, case studies are real life examples that prove the worth of your brand, products and/or services.

Case studies usually involve the stories of your current customers or clients who have used your products and services and enjoyed satisfactory results.

Case Studies – Significance

It is undeniable that businesses using case studies as their marketing tool are more successful than those who don’t.

  • Case Studies help dig deeper to understand how your services or products have satisfied your current customers. These provide detailed information about your products to your buyers.
  • These help your win over new customers based on the facts and figures you present them in the form of compelling stories.
  • Case studies are evidences to prove that your products or services are capable enough to serve buyers & satisfy them with desired outcomes.

Also Read:  Best way to measure customer satisfaction

Case Studies – Creation Tips

  • Determine your ideal customer and create your case study around them. For instance, if your ideal customers are from the automobile industry, create case study around automobile repair, auto parts and accessories.
  • Present your story with a beginning and a proper end. Include in your story:
  • Who was the customer?
  • What they do?
  • What was their problem/need?
  • How your product/service helped them satisfy their needs or solve their problem.
  • Use proper structure and formatting to make your case study more readable. Use good formatting elements like headers, bulleted lists, images, bold and italicised text. Also, make your case study SEO optimised.
  • Do not forget to add real numbers in your case studies as these are the most important part. Case studies are research based content hence whatever numbers you retrieve should be added in your case study. But be accurate and clear. Avoid ambiguity.
  • Discuss about the strategies you used to achieve a particular goal or fulfil a customer’s need. Talk about what made you decide the strategy for this particular situation and how you implemented it step-by-step.

To conclude, it can be said that using Case Studies in the right way can help your B2B marketing regime successful.

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What Is The Purpose Of A Case Study?

A case study serves the purpose of deeply examining a specific subject or phenomenon within its real-life context. By meticulously analyzing a single case in detail, researchers aim to gain a comprehensive understanding of the complexities, nuances, and dynamics involved in the subject matter under investigation. Case studies offer a unique opportunity to explore and elucidate how various factors interact and influence outcomes, providing valuable insights that can inform theories, practices, and decision-making processes within academic disciplines and professional fields alike. They offer a means to investigate rare or exceptional situations, shed light on causal processes, and generate rich empirical data, all of which contribute to the advancement of knowledge and understanding.

What Is The Purpose Of A Case Study?

Table of Contents

Definition of a case study

A case study is a research strategy that involves an in-depth examination of a particular individual, group, organization, or event. It aims to provide comprehensive and detailed insights into the chosen subject of study, delving into the complexities of real-life situations. A case study typically involves multiple data sources, including interviews, observations, documents, and other relevant materials. The findings of a case study can be used to generate insights, develop solutions, and inform decision-making processes.

Importance of case studies

Case studies hold significant importance in various academic fields, including psychology, sociology, business, and medicine, among others. They provide researchers with a unique opportunity to explore complex phenomena in their natural settings, allowing for a thorough understanding of real-life situations. Furthermore, case studies enable researchers to test and refine theories, explore new perspectives, and generate knowledge that can be applied in practical contexts. They also help bridge the gap between theory and practice, offering practitioners valuable insights and lessons learned.

Understanding the Problem

Identifying the research question.

Before embarking on a case study, it is crucial to identify a clear research question that will guide the investigation. The research question should be specific, focused, and relevant to the field of study. It should address an existing knowledge gap or seek to uncover new insights. The research question will serve as a compass throughout the case study, ensuring that the investigation remains focused and coherent.

Exploring the background and context

To fully understand the problem at hand, it is essential to explore the background and context surrounding the chosen case study subject. This involves gathering information about the historical, social, economic, and cultural factors that may influence the subject. By comprehensively examining the context, researchers can gain a deeper understanding of the complexities and dynamics involved, allowing for a more nuanced analysis of the case.

Research Design

Choosing the case study approach.

When designing a case study, researchers must choose the appropriate approach that aligns with the research question and objectives. There are several types of case study approaches, including exploratory, explanatory, and descriptive. Exploratory case studies aim to generate hypotheses and explore new areas of research. Explanatory case studies seek to determine cause-and-effect relationships. Descriptive case studies aim to provide a detailed account of a specific phenomenon. The chosen approach will shape the overall research design and methodology.

Selecting the appropriate case

Selecting the appropriate case for study is a critical decision that impacts the validity and generalizability of the findings. Researchers must consider various factors when selecting a case, such as relevance, uniqueness, and feasibility. The case should be relevant to the research question and offer valuable insights into the phenomena of interest. It should also possess unique characteristics or features that make it worthy of investigation. Additionally, the feasibility of accessing data and conducting the study should be carefully evaluated.

Data Collection

Determining data sources.

Data sources play a crucial role in case study research. These sources can include interviews, observations, documents, archival records, and other relevant materials. Typically, a combination of primary and secondary data sources is used to provide a comprehensive understanding of the case. Primary data sources involve firsthand information collected directly from participants or through direct observations. Secondary data sources involve pre-existing information that is analyzed in relation to the case study.

Collecting primary data

Collecting primary data involves engaging with participants or observing the case firsthand. This can be achieved through various methods, such as interviews, focus groups, surveys, or participant observation. Interviews allow researchers to gather detailed information and explore participants’ perspectives, experiences, and motivations. Focus groups provide a platform for participants to engage in group discussions and share insights. Surveys offer a structured way to collect data from a larger sample. Participant observation involves immersing oneself in the case study environment to directly observe and record behaviors and interactions.

Gathering secondary data

Secondary data sources complement primary data and enhance the richness of the case study. These sources include existing documents, archival records, scholarly articles, industry reports, and other relevant materials. Researchers must carefully select and analyze secondary data, ensuring it aligns with the research question and complements the primary data. A thorough examination of secondary data can contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the case and provide historical or background contextual information.

What Is The Purpose Of A Case Study?

Data Analysis

Applying data analysis techniques.

Data analysis is a crucial step in case study research and involves transforming raw data into meaningful insights. Various data analysis techniques can be employed, including thematic analysis, content analysis, narrative analysis, and statistical analysis, among others. Thematic analysis involves identifying and categorizing themes or patterns within the data. Content analysis focuses on identifying and analyzing specific words, phrases, or concepts within the data. Narrative analysis seeks to uncover the underlying stories and narratives that emerge from the data. Statistical analysis involves quantifying and analyzing numerical data.

Identifying patterns and themes

During the data analysis process, researchers must carefully examine the data to identify patterns, themes, and relationships. This involves organizing and categorizing the data based on recurring ideas, concepts, or patterns that emerge. By identifying these patterns and themes, researchers can gain insights into the relationships and dynamics present in the case study. It allows for a deeper understanding of the complexities and nuances within the data and supports the generation of meaningful conclusions.

Generating Insights

Linking findings to research question.

The findings derived from the data analysis should be linked back to the research question and objectives of the case study. It is essential to establish the relevance and significance of the findings in relation to the original research question. By establishing this link, researchers can validate the findings and ensure their alignment with the objectives of the study. This step is crucial for generating insights that contribute to the existing knowledge base and address the research question effectively.

Drawing meaningful conclusions

Drawing meaningful conclusions from the case study involves synthesizing the key findings and deriving insights from the analysis. Researchers must critically evaluate the findings, considering their strengths and limitations, and interpret them in light of the research question and relevant literature. The conclusions should be justified and supported by empirical evidence. Meaningful conclusions will contribute to a deeper understanding of the case, provide practical implications, and pave the way for further research or the development of solutions.

Developing Solutions

Identifying potential solutions.

Based on the insights generated from the case study, researchers can identify potential solutions to the problem at hand. These solutions should be grounded in empirical evidence and address the key issues identified through the research. It is crucial to consider multiple perspectives and approaches when identifying potential solutions, evaluating their feasibility, effectiveness, and ethical implications. The solutions should align with the objectives of the case study and offer practical recommendations for addressing the problem.

Evaluating feasibility and effectiveness

After identifying potential solutions, it is important to evaluate their feasibility and effectiveness. This involves considering the resources, constraints, and practical implications associated with implementing the proposed solutions. Feasibility assessment involves evaluating whether the proposed solutions can be realistically implemented within the given context, timeframe, and available resources. Effectiveness evaluation involves assessing the potential impact of the solutions and their ability to address the identified problem.

Knowledge Application

Informing decision-making.

The findings and insights derived from a case study can be instrumental in informing decision-making processes. Decision-makers can draw upon the knowledge generated through the case study to make informed choices and develop strategies. The detailed analysis of the case, combined with the empirical evidence and practical implications, provides decision-makers with valuable insights and evidence-based recommendations. By utilizing the knowledge gained from case studies, decision-makers can optimize outcomes and enhance the effectiveness of their decisions.

Sharing lessons learned

Case studies also serve as a valuable source of knowledge dissemination. Sharing the lessons learned from a case study can benefit researchers, practitioners, academics, and other stakeholders in the field. By presenting the findings, insights, and recommendations, case studies contribute to the existing knowledge base, spark further discussions, and inspire new research. Sharing lessons learned facilitates the exchange of ideas, promotes collaboration, and supports ongoing learning and development within the respective field.

Strengths and Limitations

Highlighting advantages of case studies.

Case studies offer various advantages as a research method. They provide researchers with the opportunity to explore real-life phenomena in their natural context, offering a deep understanding of complex situations. Case studies can generate rich and detailed data, allowing for in-depth analysis and insights. They also provide a holistic perspective, considering multiple factors and variables. Case studies are particularly useful for exploring complex and dynamic phenomena that cannot be easily captured through quantitative methods.

Addressing potential biases

Like any research method, case studies are not without limitations. One potential limitation is the presence of biases in the data collection and analysis process. Researchers must be aware of their own biases and take steps to minimize their influence on the findings. To address this limitation, researchers can engage in reflexivity, seeking to critically evaluate their own perspectives and assumptions throughout the research process. Additionally, triangulation, the use of multiple data sources and perspectives, can help mitigate potential biases and enhance the validity of the findings.

Promoting Further Research

Building on existing knowledge.

Case studies often uncover new areas of research and generate additional questions for further investigation. Researchers can build on existing knowledge by exploring gaps identified through the case study and proposing new research avenues. The in-depth analysis and insights gained from the case study can inform the development of hypotheses or theories, which can then be tested through quantitative research methods. By building on existing knowledge, researchers contribute to the advancement of the field and foster ongoing exploration and discovery.

Exploring new perspectives

Case studies provide an opportunity to explore new perspectives and alternative approaches to understanding a phenomenon. Researchers can use the detailed analysis and insights gained from a case study to challenge existing theories or assumptions and propose new perspectives. This exploration of new perspectives can lead to innovative insights and alternative explanations for complex phenomena. By embracing diverse perspectives and exploring new avenues, researchers can push the boundaries of knowledge and stimulate new lines of inquiry.

In conclusion, case studies serve as a valuable research strategy for gaining an in-depth understanding of complex phenomena. By employing a systematic approach for each stage of the case study process, researchers can ensure rigor, validity, and relevance to the research question. Case studies have the potential to generate rich insights, inform decision-making, and contribute to the existing knowledge base within various academic fields. However, it is important to acknowledge the strengths and limitations of case studies and continually strive to promote further research and exploration of new perspectives.

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Essay Assignment Writing Tips for Students of MBA, Masters, PhD Level

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What is the Impact and Importance of Case Study in Education?

Before we explain the significance of case study in education these days for high education, let us explain the first, ‘What is a case study? However, it consists of three major parts that you need to consider for writing. Starting with a problem, outline different available solutions, and offer proven results exhibits that the product or service is an optimum solution for the problem.

Importance of Case Study in Education

What is a Case Study in Education?

Well, a case study is a method of research regarding any specific questions, which allows a person to investigate why and how it happens. Based on education, a case study is that who can use the research for many purposes. It lets the student describe various factors and interaction with each other in authentic contexts. It offers multiple learning opportunities and experiences for scholars by influencing the diverse practice of theories.

Importance of Case Study in Education

It is also considered the source of valuable data regarding diversity and complexity of educational commitments and settings. It plays a vital role in putting theories into regular practice. It is always necessary for the student to realize the clarity in nature and focus of the case study. Considering the significance, Casestudyhelp.com brings the best Case Study Help Any Academic Level for students exerting for acquiring top grades.

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What are the Advantages of Case Studies in Class ?

Case studies are assigned to higher classes students, which proved very beneficial to the students, especially in the classroom. Students can actively engage in the discovery of the principles by conceptualizing from the examples. Furthermore, they develop skills like

  • Problem-solving
  • Coping with ambiguities
  • Analytical/ quantitative/qualitative tools according to the case and
  • Decision making in complex situations

Method of a Writing Case Study at Casestudyhelp.com!

When teachers give students a Case Study Topic by a teacher, they have to attack each case with the following checklist or go for best and reasonable Case Study Help for Any Topic at casestudyhelp.com!

  • Thoroughly read the case and formulate own opinions before sharing ideas with others in the class. You must identify the problems on your own, and offer solutions and best alternatives alongside. Before the study converses, you need to form your own outline and course of action.
  • Focus on the three major parts of a case study considering the starting with a problem, outline different accessible solutions, offer predictable results that exhibit the product/service is an optimal solution for the problem.
  • Prepare to engage in data collection, collecting data in the field, carry out data evaluation and analysis to write the report.

If you want to save your crucial time for in-depth academic studies, hire our  Case study research writers competent with all categories of analysis to write excellent category case studies.

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Making Learning Relevant With Case Studies

The open-ended problems presented in case studies give students work that feels connected to their lives.

Students working on projects in a classroom

To prepare students for jobs that haven’t been created yet, we need to teach them how to be great problem solvers so that they’ll be ready for anything. One way to do this is by teaching content and skills using real-world case studies, a learning model that’s focused on reflection during the problem-solving process. It’s similar to project-based learning, but PBL is more focused on students creating a product.

Case studies have been used for years by businesses, law and medical schools, physicians on rounds, and artists critiquing work. Like other forms of problem-based learning, case studies can be accessible for every age group, both in one subject and in interdisciplinary work.

You can get started with case studies by tackling relatable questions like these with your students:

  • How can we limit food waste in the cafeteria?
  • How can we get our school to recycle and compost waste? (Or, if you want to be more complex, how can our school reduce its carbon footprint?)
  • How can we improve school attendance?
  • How can we reduce the number of people who get sick at school during cold and flu season?

Addressing questions like these leads students to identify topics they need to learn more about. In researching the first question, for example, students may see that they need to research food chains and nutrition. Students often ask, reasonably, why they need to learn something, or when they’ll use their knowledge in the future. Learning is most successful for students when the content and skills they’re studying are relevant, and case studies offer one way to create that sense of relevance.

Teaching With Case Studies

Ultimately, a case study is simply an interesting problem with many correct answers. What does case study work look like in classrooms? Teachers generally start by having students read the case or watch a video that summarizes the case. Students then work in small groups or individually to solve the case study. Teachers set milestones defining what students should accomplish to help them manage their time.

During the case study learning process, student assessment of learning should be focused on reflection. Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick’s Learning and Leading With Habits of Mind gives several examples of what this reflection can look like in a classroom: 

Journaling: At the end of each work period, have students write an entry summarizing what they worked on, what worked well, what didn’t, and why. Sentence starters and clear rubrics or guidelines will help students be successful. At the end of a case study project, as Costa and Kallick write, it’s helpful to have students “select significant learnings, envision how they could apply these learnings to future situations, and commit to an action plan to consciously modify their behaviors.”

Interviews: While working on a case study, students can interview each other about their progress and learning. Teachers can interview students individually or in small groups to assess their learning process and their progress.

Student discussion: Discussions can be unstructured—students can talk about what they worked on that day in a think-pair-share or as a full class—or structured, using Socratic seminars or fishbowl discussions. If your class is tackling a case study in small groups, create a second set of small groups with a representative from each of the case study groups so that the groups can share their learning.

4 Tips for Setting Up a Case Study

1. Identify a problem to investigate: This should be something accessible and relevant to students’ lives. The problem should also be challenging and complex enough to yield multiple solutions with many layers.

2. Give context: Think of this step as a movie preview or book summary. Hook the learners to help them understand just enough about the problem to want to learn more.

3. Have a clear rubric: Giving structure to your definition of quality group work and products will lead to stronger end products. You may be able to have your learners help build these definitions.

4. Provide structures for presenting solutions: The amount of scaffolding you build in depends on your students’ skill level and development. A case study product can be something like several pieces of evidence of students collaborating to solve the case study, and ultimately presenting their solution with a detailed slide deck or an essay—you can scaffold this by providing specified headings for the sections of the essay.

Problem-Based Teaching Resources

There are many high-quality, peer-reviewed resources that are open source and easily accessible online.

  • The National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science at the University at Buffalo built an online collection of more than 800 cases that cover topics ranging from biochemistry to economics. There are resources for middle and high school students.
  • Models of Excellence , a project maintained by EL Education and the Harvard Graduate School of Education, has examples of great problem- and project-based tasks—and corresponding exemplary student work—for grades pre-K to 12.
  • The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning at Purdue University is an open-source journal that publishes examples of problem-based learning in K–12 and post-secondary classrooms.
  • The Tech Edvocate has a list of websites and tools related to problem-based learning.

In their book Problems as Possibilities , Linda Torp and Sara Sage write that at the elementary school level, students particularly appreciate how they feel that they are taken seriously when solving case studies. At the middle school level, “researchers stress the importance of relating middle school curriculum to issues of student concern and interest.” And high schoolers, they write, find the case study method “beneficial in preparing them for their future.”

importance of case study today

Importance of a Case Study

Aug 1, 2018 | coursework writing , case study , research paper , Writing

importance of case study today

A case study is research method that involves an up-close, in-depth and detailed investigation of a subject of study and its related contextual position. They can be produced following a form of research. A case study helps in bringing the understanding of a complex issue or object. It can extend experience or add strength to the existing knowledge through previous research. Their contextual analysis revolves around a limited number of events or conditions and how they relate. The case study has been used by researchers for a long time and has been applied in different disciplines. It has been widely used in social sciences as a qualitative research method to investigate contemporary real-life situations and has provided a foundation of application of ideas and extension of methods.

It has been defined as an empirical inquiry that examines a contemporary phenomenon within the context of its real life. However, some people have disagreed with this research method arguing that the study of a small number of cases does not offer enough ground to establish reliability or generality of findings. Others have argued that a case study is only used when applied as an exploratory tool, yet most researchers continue using it successfully in carefully planned studies that concern real-life situations, problems, and issues.

Case studies will more often than not appear in journals or professional conferences instead of popular works. A case study may be an individual, organization, action, event existing in a given time and place. For instance, there are case studies of individuals and clinical practices. When the term “case” is used in a claim, an argument, or a proposition; it can be the subject of a litany of research methods. A case study will involve quantitative and qualitative methods of research.

Researchers, on the other hand, are always spoilt for choice when they are determining the tools to use in dealing with their research question. This is because there is an array of both qualitative and quantitative research tools. They can be based on in-depth case studies or desk-based literature reviews. When using case study, the researcher will get an in-depth investigation of a phenomenon, individual, or an event. They help in investigating and understanding the underlying principles in an occurrence within a real-life context.

  • They are comprehensive Case studies enable a holistic review. A researcher can use a range of tools which he would otherwise not apply when using other stand-alone research techniques. This gives his time to develop an in-depth understanding of the topic and establish a credible platform to investigate the factors that affect a case study in extensive detail.
  • Case studies reduce bias They give room to the diversity of perspectives as opposed to when one is using a single view of a person you get with a survey response or an interview. It eliminates chances of potential bias by giving an opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the subject under investigation. Lack of bias dilutes the agenda of a given individual.
  • Broad relevance One of the criticisms that case study method gets is that the findings cannot be generalized. However, when a case study is part of broader research can explore common problems in detail.
  • Permissions The identity of the research participants is crucial in painting a real picture of whatever that is taking place. Many researchers have found out that participants are more comfortable in situation s where they are sure that the identity will remain anonymous. However, this presents a challenge given the comprehensive nature of the study. In-depth case studies will require one to seek confirmation that the leading research participant agrees that the material is accurate and anonymous. This enables the confidence on the part of the researcher as well as the participant. Gaining permission can take quite some time and could culminate to additional restatements of the published research.
  • Time Case studies consume time. You have to plan for multiple interviews, waiting for the data to come in; coordinating focus groups can take quite a substantial, amount of time. For instance, if you are depending on a voluntary case study participant who is going on with his daily business, that might present a challenge. You can overcome these issues by offering incentives to your participants and then outline what you expect from each of them from the onset and sending deadline notifications in advance. This helps in receiving the data early enough.
  • Decide and define the research questions
  • Select your case studies and determine the techniques for data collection and analysis
  • Prepare to engage in data collection
  • Collect data in the field
  • Cary out data evaluation and analysis
  • Write your report

You have to decide on the questions you want to use in your research . They are a referral for the researcher as he seeks to provide answers to them. The researcher has to establish the focus of the student by coming up with questions that concern the problem or the situation being studied and to determine the purpose of the study. The case study here might involve a program, an entity, a person, or a group of people. Each object has a relationship that is connected to social, political, historical, and personal issues. This provides wide-ranging possibilities for questions and adds complexities to the case study.

The case study must answer questions that begin with “why” or “how.” These questions are directed to a limited number of events or conditions and their inter-relationships. One way that enables researchers to formulate these questions is by conducting a literature review. This allows them to establish what previous researchers found out, and they enable in formulating insightful questions necessary for the examination of the problem. Well defined questions from the onset direct one on where to get more evidence and also helps in determining analysis method for the study, The definition of case study purpose, the literature review and the early decision on the potential audience for the final report will help in providing guidance on how the study will be conducted and published.

The design phase of the case study research gives the researcher an opportunity to decide what the approach will be when it comes to selecting the single or multiple real-life cases for examination. It will also help in deciding the data gathering approaches and the instruments used. When working with multiple cases, each case is treated individually. The conclusion of the individual case can be used as information that contributes to the whole study.

Excellent case studies often select and carefully examine the existing choices in the research tools at disposal with the objective of raising the study validity. You can create boundaries when you do careful discrimination when you are carrying out the selection. One of the strengths of case study method is by the use of multiple techniques and sources in the process of gathering data. The researcher makes an early determination of the evidence he has to gather and the analysis method he will apply for him to answer the research questions. The data gathered may be largely qualitative but can also be quantitative. One can use surveys, interviews, observation, documentation review, or the collection of physical artifacts as tools of data collection. The researcher ought to distribute the data gathering tools systematically when collecting the evidence. The researcher must ensure that the research is constructed to achieve, internal validity, external validity, construct validity and reliability. This should be achieved during the design phase.

Case study often generates big amounts of data from multiple sources. As such, it is important to organize your data systematically to prevent cases of confusion or getting overwhelmed by the incoming data. This helps the researcher to maintain sight of the original research purpose and questions.

One can prepare databases to help in sorting, categorizing, storing, and retrieving data for analysis. Some of the best case studies carries out training for the researchers to establish clear protocols and procedures early enough before the fieldwork kicks off. They also conduct a pilot study well in advance to remove barriers and problems in the field. Once the training is done, the last step is to select a pilot site where each data gathering method is put to the test to uncover problem areas and correct them early.

The researcher must ensure that the evidence and the issue under investigation are have maintained their relationship. It is possible for the researcher to enter data into a database and physically store it. However, he has to document, classify, and cross-reference all evidence for it to be efficiently recalled for examination and sorting as the study continues.

The researcher must collect and store data comprehensively and systematically. This should be done in formats that are easy to reference and sort to enable him in identifying possible lines of inquiry. Successful case studies utilize field notes and databases in categorizing and referencing data, so that is it readily available for interpretation. Field notes take records of feelings, intuitive hunches; pose questions, document work in progress. Stories, testimonies, and illustrations are useful in later reports. Some techniques require the researcher to place information into arrays, matrices of categories, flow charts or other displays as well as tabulations of event frequency. If there is conflicting evidence, the researcher must probe the differences deeper and identify the source of conflict. The researcher must provide answers to the “how” and “why” research questions.

The researcher has to examine raw data using different interpretations. This enables him to draw linkages between the outcomes and the research object bearing in mind the research questions. The researcher must have an open mind during the data evaluation and analysis process. The researcher can strengthen the research findings and conclusion thanks to the multiple data collection methods and analysis techniques he had applied.

The kind of tactics used by the researcher during the analysis compels him to go beyond the initial impressions to improve chances of reliable and accurate findings.

  • Preparing the report

Excellent case studies interpret data in ways that they make it easy to understand a problem hitherto complex. It allows the reader to question and examine the study and arrive at an understanding that the researcher was independence. The written report aims to convey to the reader a simplified experience of the issue that was once complex. With case studies, the reader can access the information publicly in ways that may lead him to utilize the experience in his real-life situation.

The report can be written in a manner that handles each case on its separate chapter or giving it a chronological recounting. The researchers at times use the report writing process to do a critical examination of the document to identify ways through which the report might be incomplete. The researcher can use the representative audience to carry out a review and present comments on the same. The comments are the premise upon which the revisions of the documents are made. Sometimes it is recommended to have a journalist in the review audience whereas others argue that the participants should review the document. Those are the steps used in a case study research.

With case studies, the researcher will get a more concrete and unbiased understanding of a given complex situation. This is achieved using a range of search tools. With a real-life view, the research can give leeway for the recommendation of practical solutions to challenges. Case studies are important, and the challenges involved can be surmounted planning, background research and an informed selection of all the participants. If the case study approach works for you, utilize it.

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After Supreme Court ruling, judge considers Trump's immunity claim in classified docs case

importance of case study today

Donald Trump is seeking to build on his Supreme Court victory, which provided immunity from criminal prosecution for his official acts as president, by asking judges in his federal classified documents case and in his New York hush money conviction to throw out all of those charges.

U.S. District Judge Aileen Cannon postponed deadlines Saturday to debate evidence in the classified documents case and instead asked for written arguments about Trump’s immunity in the next two weeks.

Trump’s lawyers asked Cannon on Friday to halt all action in the classified documents case until she rules whether the charges are valid.

New York Judge Juan Merchan postponed sentencing Trump for his hush-money conviction of 34 counts of falsifying business records, which had been scheduled for Thursday, until September.

When the Supreme Court formally returns the election-interference case to U.S. District Judge Tanya Chutkan, she must weigh which charges are still valid to prosecute.

Neither Justice Department special counsel Jack Smith nor Manhattan District Attorney Alvin Bragg has responded to the Supreme Court’s decision yet.

Trump’s lawyers, Todd Blanche and Christopher Kise, have argued the high court’s ruling means each of the judges will have to determine which conduct is official or unofficial – and not use any official conduct as evidence for charges against unofficial conduct.

Here is where the cases stand:

Supreme Court orders 'close analysis' of whether Trump conduct was unofficial

The reason for uncertainty about criminal charges against Trump is because no former president has ever been charged before and the Supreme Court hadn’t ruled on whether they could be.

Until July 1. That’s when Chief Justice John Roberts wrote for a 6-3 majority that former presidents can’t be tried for their official acts, but could potentially be charged for unofficial acts.

The ruling said presidents discussing policy with executive agencies can’t even be questioned about their motives. This ruled out charges involving Trump urging his acting attorney general to pursue allegations of election fraud with officials in swing states.

But the ruling left open the possibility of charges dealing with Trump’s recruitment of fake presidential electors to support him in states President Joe Biden won. Roberts wrote that determining whether Trump's pressure on then-Vice President Mike Pence "requires a close analysis of the indictment’s extensive and interrelated allegations."

“The President is not above the law,” Roberts wrote. “But under our system of separated powers, the President may not be prosecuted for exercising his core constitutional powers, and he is entitled to at least presumptive immunity from prosecution for his official acts."

Trial judges must now determine whether Trump’s conduct for the various charges was official or unofficial.

Judge postpones filings in classified documents case to study Trump's immunity claim

Trump was charged with retaining national defense records and conspiring to hide them from government authorities until FBI agents seized them during a search of Mar-a-Lago, his Florida estate, in August 2022.

Prosecutors have noted the entire case involves conduct after Trump left the White House in January 2021. Smith's team office said Trump did not have legal authority to designate secret national security documents as personal records and send them to his private home. But Trump’s lawyers have argued his decision to ship the documents to Mar-a-Lago was an official act.

In an order Saturday, Cannon scrapped a Monday deadline for Trump to disclose his experts and Wednesday deadlines for prosecutors and defense lawyers to share more evidence in the case.

Instead, Cannon set a deadline July 18 for Smith to respond to Trump’s request for immunity. Trump will have until July 21 to respond.

Cannon hasn’t set a date for a hearing, but said she could still collect more evidence.

Trump’s lawyers want Cannon to only move forward on two issues in the case: Smith's request for a gag order preventing Trump from making comments that could incite threats against FBI agents working the case, and whether Smith was properly appointed to his job as special counsel.

In the Supreme Court’s ruling on immunity, Justice Clarence Thomas, wrote  a concurrence  questioning Smith's appointment, even though that wasn't at issue in the case and many special counsels have been previously appointed under similar circumstances.

Judge in federal election interference must also determine unofficial conduct

The Supreme Court hasn’t formally returned Trump’s election-interference case to Chutkan, under what is called a “mandate,” which might not happen until Aug. 2.

“The judgment or mandate of this Court will not issue for at least thirty-two days,” Supreme Court clerk Scott Harris wrote July 1 to the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals.

Chutkan will have to review which charges – if any – can go to trial once she gets the case back.

New York sentencing postponed because of potential immunity

Merchan previously postponed sentencing Trump in the hush-money case, which had been scheduled Thursday, until Sept. 18.

But that’s only if necessary. Merchan plans to decide Sept. 6 whether Trump is immune from the charges, even though his case involves state charges and the Supreme Court was reviewing federal charges.

Trump was convicted May 30 of falsifying records to hide his reimbursement to private lawyer Michael Cohen, who paid $130,000 to silence porn actress Stormy Daniels about alleged sex with Trump before the 2016 election.

The financial arrangements between Cohen and Daniels happened before Trump was elected president. But his series of 11 payments to Cohen – through his private company – happened the first year of his presidency.

Merchan previously ruled that Trump filed an immunity argument in the case too late to be considered.

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3 Lessons from The Washington Post’s Leadership Turmoil

  • Adam Bryant

importance of case study today

What to do when a new leader gets off to a controversial or rocky start.

The leadership questions surrounding new Washington Post CEO Will Lewis serve as a case study in the challenges of bringing in an outsider to lead an organization, highlighting the importance of transparency and alignment with company values. This article offers three lessons leaders can draw from it — as well as advice on how the Post and Lewis can move forward.

It’s never good for a newspaper when it becomes the story.

  • Adam Bryant is the senior managing director of the ExCo Group, an executive mentoring and leadership development firm. He is a coauthor, with Kevin Sharer, of The CEO Test: Master the Challenges That Make or Break All Leaders (Harvard Business Review Press, 2021) and the author of The Leap to Leader: How Ambitious Managers Make the Jump to Leadership (Harvard Business Review Press, 2023).

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Taurus (April 20-May 20)

This is a great day to entertain at home. (Plus, you know that people like to be invited to your table.) Stock the fridge and invite friends and family over! If you serve good food and drink, everyone will be happy. This could lead to an expansion of your family, in some way.

Gemini (May 21-June 20)

Today you're optimistic and upbeat! Because you're in such a positive frame of mind, you will be happy. Not only that, others will enjoy your company because people like to be around happy people. It's the perfect day for a short trip. Strong day for writers and people in sales, teaching and acting.

Cancer (June 21-July 22)

Financial matters will benefit you today. Keep your eyes open. You might see ways to boost your income; however, if you're spending money, you might be pleased with your purchases. Something to do with friends and groups might also benefit you in practical or financial terms.

Leo (July 23-Aug. 22)

This is a lovely day because the Moon is in your sign dancing with lucky Jupiter, which encourages domestic peace and happiness and a positive outlook. This is also a good time for any kind of business, especially dealing with groups or friends. (You'll be laughing all the way to the bank.)

Virgo (Aug. 23-Sept. 22)

This is a feel-good day because the Moon is hiding in your chart in a very pleasant place. That's why you have a warm feeling in your tummy. Personally, you're excited about big plans that you can see opening up for you in the near future. Life is good.

Libra (Sept. 23-Oct. 22)

Enjoy the company of friends plus, groups and organizations today because you're in a sociable mood. You will love talking to people from other cultures. You might make travel plans for the future. You have a strong urge right now (that will last throughout this year) to expand your world!

Scorpio (Oct. 23-Nov. 21)

You're high viz. today. People notice you more than usual. The good news is that the way they see you is very positive. You appear to them to be confident, successful and affluent (even if you aren't). Since appearances are everything - play this card to your advantage!

Sagittarius (Nov. 22-Dec. 21)

Today you want adventure and stimulation! Different people or new ideas in your life. You need to break free from routine. Obviously, travel will be an excellent choice. Why not be a tourist in your own neighbourhood?

Capricorn (Dec. 22-Jan. 19)

Financial matters favour you today. Explore ideas about how to share something because the result will be in your favour. This is also a good day to discuss wills, inheritances and jointly-held property. If you need an increased budget or equipment at work - ask for it.

Aquarius (Jan. 20-Feb. 18)

Because you feel warm hearted to friends, spouses and partners, relations with others will be successful today. You might join forces to make improvements at home or within your family. You'll enjoy dealing with children. Grab a vacation getaway.

Pisces (Feb. 19-March 20)

You feel healthy and alert today! You're also ready to work because you have an upbeat energy. Do be aware that if you work in conjunction with others, you'll get more done. This is a great day to make home improvements as well.

If Your Birthday Is Today

Comedian Jim Gaffigan (1966) shares your birthday today. You are a creative dreamer who has an amazing imagination. Your open honesty makes you appealing to others. This year is about creating solid foundations in your life. Work to build external and internal structures. Simplicity is the key for you this year. Physical exercise will be important to you.

Find more Georgia Nicols horoscopes at georgianicols.com .

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Expanding Data Pool for CAR T-Cell Treatment Demonstrates Consistent Efficacy Across Refractory Rheumatic Diseases

Ted Bosworth

July 08, 2024

VIENNA — From a dozen or so studies and sessions devoted to the role of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells in rheumatic diseases at the European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology (EULAR) 2024 Annual Meeting , the message was uniformly positive, supporting growing evidence that drugs in this class are heading toward a paradigm shift in refractory rheumatic diseases.

photo of Dr Georg Schett

Of the reports, an update from a 15-patient case series with at least 1 year of follow-up provides "the first long-term evidence of safety and efficacy in multiple rheumatic diseases," according to Georg Schett, MD, PhD, director of Rheumatology and Immunology, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

The high rates of activity and low relative risk for serious adverse events from the same series was published earlier this year in The New England Journal of Medicine when the median follow-up was 15 months. Almost all of the patients have now completed at least 1 year of follow-up and about a third have completed more than 2 years.

SLE Is Frequently Targeted in CAR T-Cell Studies

The three rheumatic diseases represented in this series of patients, all of whom had failed multiple previous immune suppressive treatments, were systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM), and systemic sclerosis (SSc). After the autologous T cells were harvested, they were expanded and transfected with the CD19 CAR. The proprietary investigational product, called MB-CART19.1 (Miltenyi Biotec), was administered in a single dose of one million cells per kg bodyweight.

The response rates have been, and continue to be, impressive. For the eight patients with SLE, all achieved the definition of remission in SLE criteria after one dose of treatment. Complete resolution of all major symptom types was achieved after 6 months of follow-up. So far, no patient has relapsed.

For the three patients with IIM, all reached the American College of Rheumatology–EULAR criteria for a major response. All creatine kinase levels had normalized by 3 months. In this group, there was one relapse, which occurred after 18 months of follow-up.

All four patients with SSc achieved a major response on the European Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) group activity index. The median reduction from baseline in the EUSTAR score was 4.2 points, and this has been maintained in follow-up to date.

Remissions Have Persisted Off All Therapies

These remissions were achieved and maintained after a single dose of CAR T-cell therapy despite discontinuation of all immunosuppressive therapies. With the exception of the single relapse, all remissions have persisted through follow-up to date.

These responses were achieved with manageable side effects, according to Schett. The most serious adverse event was a grade 4 neutropenia that developed 4 months after receiving CAR T cells. It resolved with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) has occurred in 10 patients, but it was grade 1 in eight patients and grade 2 in the others. There has been no neurotoxicity.

Almost all patients have experienced an infection during follow-up, but there has been no discernible pattern in relationship to the timing or types of infections. The most common have involved the upper respiratory tract and have been of mild severity, with cases disseminated similarly over early vs late follow-up. There was one case of pneumonia involving antibiotic treatment and a hospital stay, but it resolved.

Schett acknowledged that safety is a bigger concern in autoimmune diseases, which are often serious but rarely fatal, than in the hematologic malignancies for which CAR T cells were initially tested, but the low rates of serious adverse events in his and other early studies have supported the premise that the risks are not the same.

Asked specifically if CAR T cells can be considered a game changer in autoimmune rheumatic diseases, Schett was cautious. One reason is the CAR T cells are a complex therapy relative to biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. He thinks, therefore, that much more data are needed to confirm safety and efficacy. In addition, they are expensive, so it is not yet clear how they will be integrated with other options.

Yet, he thinks the evidence so far suggests a profound effect on the fundamental drivers of autoimmune disease. Their specific mechanism of benefit is still being evaluated, but he considers the clinical responses consistent with a "reset" hypothesis.

After a response, "we are seeing drug-free remissions in some patients as long as they have been followed," Schett said. Based on the fact that disease control is being observed off all other therapies, "this only makes sense to me if there is some sort of immunologic reset."

CAR T-Cell Studies in Autoimmune Diseases Are Proliferating

At last count, there were about 40 studies being performed with CAR T cells in various autoimmune diseases, most of which were rheumatologic disorders, according to Schett. He noted that funding is coming from multinational drug companies, small biotech startups, and investigator-initiated studies at academic centers.

At EULAR, beyond case studies and anecdotal reports, all of the clinical studies were still at the level of phase 1 or 1/2. Consistent with the data presented by Schett, the drugs have been nearly uniformly effective, with major responses persisting in patients off other therapies. Adverse events have been manageable.

Examples include a phase 1/2 multinational study with the investigational CAR T-cell therapy YTB323 (Novartis), which demonstrated acceptable safety and a strong signal of benefit in six patients with SLE. In this report, CRS was also common, but no case of CRS was more severe than grade 2. There was no neurotoxicity. Infections did occur but were of relatively mild grades and resolved with treatment.

For efficacy in the ongoing follow-up, SLE symptoms as measured with the SLE Disease Activity Index began to abate at about 14 days after the single-infusion treatment. Improvement on the Physician Global Assessment was also observed between 14 and 28 days. C3 and C4 complement levels started to rise at about 28 days. While the responses have correlated with the observed changes in biomarkers of immune function, they have endured through a median follow-up that now exceeds 6 months.

Complete B-Cell Depletion Is Followed by Full Recovery

"Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies revealed peak expansion of CAR T cells approximately 13-21 days post infusion, which was accompanied by deep B-cell depletion followed by subsequent B-cell recovery," reported Josefina Cortés-Hernández, MD, PhD, a senior lecturer at Vall d'Hebron Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain.

Schett had reported the same pattern of expansion followed by a rapid elimination of detectable CAR T cells despite the sustained clinical benefit.

Cortés-Hernández said that the signal of efficacy in the context of acceptable safety supports an expansion of clinical studies with this CAR T-cell product in SLE and perhaps other autoimmune disorders.

photo of  Greg Deener

In another early-stage study, patients with SLE who had failed multiple prior lines of therapy have been enrolled in an ongoing study with a compound CAR (cCAR) T cell. This experimental proprietary product (iCAR Bio Therapeutics, Zhongshan, China) targets both the B-cell maturation antigen and CD19, according to Greg Deener, the chief executive officer of iCell Gene Therapeutics, New York City.

cCAR T-Cell Construct Targets Immune Reset

With this construct, the goal is to deplete long-lived plasma cells as well as B cells in order to achieve a more complete humoral reset. While preliminary data from the phase 1 trial were published earlier this year in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases , Deener focused his presentation at EULAR 2024 on 12 patients with SLE and lupus nephritis, a severe form of SLE that threatens glomerular structures and can lead to end-stage liver disease.

B cells in the peripheral blood could not be detected within 10 days of the cCAR infusion, and the immunoglobulins IgM and IgA were undetectable by day 42.

However, after B-cell recovery by day 150, "flow cytometry and B-cell receptor sequencing confirmed full humoral reset was achieved," Deener said.

The remission has been durable in 11 of the 12 patients after a mean follow-up of 458 days, Deener reported. He noted that an improvement in renal function has been observed in the majority of patients.

Like others, he reported that treatment has been relatively well tolerated. In this series of patients, there have been no cases of CRS more severe than grade 1.

Overall, the cCAR data in lupus nephritis support the hypothesis that CAR T cells are reprogramming the immune system, according to Deener.

Combined with a reasonable safety profile, the consistency of benefit from CAR T cells in autoimmune rheumatic diseases is good news, but all of the investigators who spoke at EULAR agreed that there are still many unanswered questions. Not least, it is unclear whether patients can be effectively and safely retreated when and if relapses occur. Even though Schett did report a response with retreatment following a relapse, he said that there is no conclusion to draw from a single patient.

Yet, the high rates of remissions in patients with disease refractory to other therapeutic options is highly encouraging, particularly with the manageable side effects now reported by multiple investigators using different CAR T-cell products.

"Roughly 100 patients with rheumatic diseases have been treated with CAR T-cells, and we have not seen a high-grade CRS or neurotoxicity," he said.

Long-term efficacy is less clear. With the first clinical studies in autoimmune diseases initiated in 2021, few patients have been followed for more than 2 years. Even with the high rates of response that will certainly fuel efforts to rapidly bring these treatments forward, long-term data are now the missing piece.

Other Case Series Presented at EULAR

Several other abstracts reported on patients with SSc who were treated with CD19-targeting CAR T cells:

  • Three patients for whom autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was contraindicated or unsuccessful were successfully and safely treated.
  • Six patients with diffuse and progressive disease achieved stable disease activity without additional immunosuppression for up to 1 year after treatment.

Schett reported no potential conflicts of interest, and the study he presented was not funded by industry. Cortés-Hernández reported a financial relationship with GlaxoSmithKline, which was not involved in the study she presented. Deener is an employee of iCell Gene Therapeutics, which provided funding for the trial he presented.

Send comments and news tips to [email protected] .

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The Bible in Public Schools? Oklahoma Pushes Limits of Long Tradition.

The Bible has a deep history in American classrooms, but the state’s provocative superintendent wants to broadly expand its influence.

A man with a beard pores over a notepad at a desk with an American flag behind him.

By Sarah Mervosh and Ruth Graham

Sarah Mervosh reports on education, and Ruth Graham reports on religion.

The Bible has been a presence in American classrooms to at least some degree since before the origins of the country’s public school system in the 19th century.

But the announcement by Oklahoma’s state superintendent on Thursday that all public schools in the state must teach the Bible represented a major effort to expand its role and bring a Christian historical perspective to most all students. Schools have become the arena for an array of moral and cultural conflicts, and conservative Christians are asserting their political muscle even as they decline as a share of the American population.

“In Oklahoma, we are very proud to lead the country on pushing back on the leftists trying to rewrite history and say, No, we will teach from the Bible,” the superintendent, Ryan Walters, said in an interview on Friday.

Mr. Walters, a Christian conservative and former history teacher, said the mandate would focus on fifth through 12th grades, with an emphasis on the Bible’s influence in history and literature, areas where the Bible has historically been accepted in public education.

For example, he said, the Bible could be used in a lesson to understand the preamble to the Declaration of Independence, which says that all men are “endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights,” or in a study of the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “Letter From Birmingham Jail,” which includes references to Jesus and his teachings.

But he went further, saying that the Bible would also be woven across subjects including math and science, in which students could examine its influence on leading thinkers and ideas. Biblical instruction could also be offered in younger grades when applicable.

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Raiders QBs Share Important Skill

Carter landis | jul 6, 2024.

Dec 14, 2023; Paradise, Nevada, USA; Las Vegas Raiders quarterback Aidan O'Connell (4) throws a pass in the fourth quarter against the Los Angeles Chargers at Allegiant Stadium. Mandatory Credit: Stephen R. Sylvanie-USA TODAY Sports

  • Las Vegas Raiders

The Las Vegas Raiders brought in veteran quarterback Gardner Minshew II to compete with Aidan O’Connell, who posted an admirable rookie season given his circumstances.

This won’t be an easy decision for the Raiders. O’Connell showed promise and has the support of his teammates and coaching staff, but Minshew has been a winner with the Jacksonville Jaguars, Philadelphia Eagles, and Indianapolis Colts.

Whoever the starter is when the Raiders take on the Los Angeles Chargers in Week 1, they’ll have plenty of weapons around them to carry some of the weight of the offense.

O’Connell and Minshew have their own unique strengths. Minshew is better at using his legs to extend plays, while O’Connell is a much better processor.

However, the two share a similar skill set or body of skill sets.

They are both excellent at throwing with anticipation and making quick decisions. This is a valuable skill for quarterbacks, as the Raiders can play with tempo next season if they want to.

O’Connell thrived at Purdue as a decision-maker because of his accuracy and ability to get the ball out quickly. He even drew comparisons to Tom Brady because of it.

While he didn’t have the full season to show it, there was enough that O’Connell put on tape last season to show that he will be able to do it as a starter in the NFL. For a fourth-round pick to be thrown into the fire midway through the season, he put up some impressive performances showing off those skills.

Minshew throws with excellent anticipation and accuracy. As a career backup, his arm has kept teams afloat. He can move outside of the pocket and make throws into tight windows, which has led to multiple opportunities on the field.

New Offensive Coordinator Luke Getsy can do a lot with either quarterback. Both quarterbacks are cerebral and will not turn the ball over, which should lead to longer, more sustained drives and, eventually, more points on the board.

Some Raiders fans may want O’Connell to start, while others may want Minshew . One thing, however, will be consistent with both of them: they’ll both be accurate and make good decisions with the football.

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Carter Landis

CARTER LANDIS

Carter Landis studied journalism at Michigan State University where I graduated in May of 2022. He currently is a sports reporter for a local television station, and is a writer covering the Las Vegas Raiders

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