Physical Review Research (PRResearch) is a fully open access, peer-reviewed journal welcoming the full spectrum of research topics of interest to the physics community and offering authors and readers the Physical Review experience and quality they value and trust.

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physical review research open access

Research offers insights into the metal-to-insulator transition without breaking symmetry

Metal-to-insulator transition—a process that turns materials from a conductor to an insulator—has been a crucial process behind microelectronic switches, nonvolatile memory, and neuromorphic computing materials. In many ...

Condensed Matter

18 hours ago

physical review research open access

New insights on how light interacts with magnets for better sensors and memory tech

Professor Amir Capua, head of the Spintronics Lab within the Institute of Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, announced a pivotal breakthrough in the realm of light-magnetism interactions. ...

Jan 4, 2024

physical review research open access

Eavesdropping on the electron: A new method for extracting data from noise

A method developed at the University of Duisburg-Essen makes it possible to read data from noisy signals. Theoretical physicists and their experimental colleagues have published their findings in the current issue of Physical ...

Nov 8, 2023

physical review research open access

The catch-22s of reservoir computing: Researchers find overlooked weakness in powerful machine learning tool

In nonlinear dynamic systems, a change in one place can trigger an outsized change elsewhere. The climate, the workings of the human brain, and the behavior of the electric grid are all examples—and all change dramatically ...

General Physics

Sep 28, 2023

physical review research open access

Do measurements produce the reality they show us?

Whenever the precision of a measurement approaches the uncertainty limit defined by quantum mechanics, the outcomes of the measurement depend on the dynamics of the interactions with the meter used to determine a physical ...

Quantum Physics

Aug 24, 2023

physical review research open access

Physicists use a 350-year-old theorem to reveal new properties of light waves

Since the 17th century, when Isaac Newton and Christiaan Huygens first debated the nature of light, scientists have been puzzling over whether light is best viewed as a wave or a particle—or perhaps, at the quantum level, ...

Optics & Photonics

Aug 21, 2023

physical review research open access

New property of hydrogen predicted

Hydrogen is the most common element in the universe. It determines the properties of stars and planets and is crucial for life on Earth—not least because of its role in climate-neutral energy supply. Generations of scientists ...

Plasma Physics

Aug 7, 2023

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Introducing Physical Review Research

The new open access journal will welcome the full spectrum of research of interest to the physics community.

physical review research open access

APS is pleased to announce the newest title in its portfolio of peer-reviewed journals— Physical Review Research (PRResearch). The publication will be fully open access and cover the whole spectrum of research topics of interest to the physics community, including interdisciplinary and newly emerging areas.

Physical Review Research will aim to advance and disseminate scientific research and discovery, promote physics, and serve the broader physics community. In these ways it will directly support the mission at APS, as well as the new APS Strategic Plan .

As APS continues to expand publishing options for our authors, Physical Review Research will become the fourth open access title in our world-leading family of journals in physics and related research areas. All articles published in the new journal will be immediately free to read, and readers anywhere in the world may reuse the content according to the terms of a CC-BY 4.0 International license.   Physical Review Research complements other titles in the portfolio by offering the Physical Review refereeing and publishing experience researchers value and trust, along with a fully open access publishing model for authors who prefer that option or require it to fulfill funder mandates. Acceptance criteria for this new journal will be similar to those of Physical Review A-E , and like those established titles Physical Review Research will publish quality papers that advance a particular field of research.

Visit the Physical Review Research website to learn more and to sign up for email updates.

We look forward to welcoming your high quality research when the journal opens for submissions later this spring.

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Physical Review X : What does it offer? Some opening words from the editors

Today, the American Physical Society officially launches a new, online-only, open access journal, Physical Review X (PRX). One of the foremost questions researchers must have is: What are its scientific standards?

The APS has long had the following mandate for its journals: “accept for publication those manuscripts that significantly advance physics and have been found to be scientifically sound, important to the field, and in satisfactory form.” The implementation of this mandate has led to a whole family of Physical Review journals, not least Physical Review Letters , with high reputations among physics journals worldwide. Building upon that achievement and with the full support from the APS, in particular from its entire publishing arm, we will do our utmost to make scientific excellence a primary defining characteristic of PRX.

To achieve that, we will insist that referees inform the editors of their concrete and substantive assessment of the levels of originality, technical quality, scientific rigor and significance of the papers they review to enable our selection of the best. We have designed our forms of communication with referees to reflect this principle (see, for example, our Advice to Referees ). We will also regularly seek advice about papers from our Editorial Board of distinguished scientists. In so doing, we believe that we can offer researchers one of the most important values they look for in journals: eXcellence!

Researchers will also want to know what areas PRX covers. To answer this question, it is instructive to look at the constantly expanding and varying landscape of global physics research. Physics research that is driven by the needs for new materials, new applications or devices has broadened the reach of physics and enriched it, and so do the vibrant fields of biological physics and interdisciplinary physics of complex systems. Condensed matter physics meets atomic, molecular, and optical physics in systems of ultracold atoms or molecules; quantum chromodynamics meets plasma physics and fluid dynamics in relativistic heavy ion collisions; and molecular liquid physics meets colloidal and polymer physics in glassy systems. The list of such synergetic interactions of topics and fields goes on.

PRX’s coverage will be as broad as this landscape itself, and it will be deliberately welcoming to physics-based research works that cross topical, field, or discipline boundaries. We will strive to be responsive to the changing landscape of physics research through the journal’s coverage. The topical breadth and diversity of our exceptionally committed Editorial Board will be one of our strong resources in this effort.

What more value can Physical Review X offer to individual authors and readers as well as the whole research enterprise? We can name a few aspects here.

  • Global, free access: Open access publishing models have been gaining popularity among institutions, funding agencies, and individuals and support from them. In these models, authors or their institutions pay article-processing fees to have accepted papers published, and the papers are then freely and permanently available for readers to read and re-use without restriction under a Creative Commons license. Physical Review X is a "Gold" open access journal. Supported by a close-to-cost $1500 article-processing charge paid by authors or their institutions, it will make its FULL content free to all readers across the globe. Readers, especially those from developing countries, small research or academic institutions and industries, will definitely benefit from this open access.
  • Flexible publication format: PRX lets authors choose, according to their varying needs, article lengths of up to 20 pages in the standard Physical Review format.
  • Enhanced content delivery: PRX will actively develop means to broaden the reach, and raise the visibility, of published papers to readers. We are starting this effort with what we call “dynamic tagging” of papers, available only on an online platform. This feature allows authors to assign to their papers up to three subject areas, under which their papers will be listed when published. It emphasizes any cross-topic, cross-field, or cross-disciplinary characteristics a paper may have and offers readers multiple browsing or searching routes to the paper.

Our mission is to make Physical Review X a publication venue of value, and of choice, to the broad physics community. With your contributions, as authors and referees as well as readers, we believe that success is eminently possible.

Jorge Pullin, Editor Ling Miao, Associate Editor

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Open Access Publishing in the Physical Review Journals

The American Physical Society (APS), through the Physical Review journals it publishes, aims to offer open access options that meet the needs of all authors across the research communities it serves.

A pioneer in open access publishing, APS launched its first fully open access journal in 1998. In early 2011 APS transformed some of the largest, most-cited, and most-trusted peer-reviewed, primary research titles in physics into hybrid journals by offering authors an option to publish individual articles open access. Since then it has expanded the options it offers authors by launching a number of new hybrid and gold open access titles, including the highest-impact open access journal in physics, Physical Review X (PRX) , and the related family of topical journals, such as PRX Energy and PRX Quantum .

Articles are made immediately open access under a CC-BY 4.0 International license in hybrid and fully gold open access journals upon payment of an article publication charge (APC) by the author, or the author’s institution or funder.

APC Pricing

Current APC pricing for publishing gold open access in hybrid and fully open access Physical Review journals is detailed in the following table. Please note that this APC pricing does not apply to authors covered under open access agreements with research institutions and consortia, and that for some titles the APC level varies with article type. More details about promotional pricing and open access agreements appear below the table.

Promotional APC Pricing

* PRX Energy first-year introductory APC waiver - PRX Energy is a new, highly selective, open access journal covering energy science and technology. The journal began accepting submissions in December 2021, and article publication charges (APCs) will be waived for manuscripts submitted through the end of 2022. Expanding on the excellence and innovation of Physical Review X (PRX), PRX Energy provides a home for and connection between the numerous research communities that make up energy science and technology research. Following the expiration of this promotion, APS intends to align the APC for PRX Energy close to the APC pricing of the journals with a similar degree of selectivity (PRX, PRL).

Open Access Agreements with Research Institutions and Consortia

Since January 1, 2018, APS has participated in SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics) and has now signed an agreement with CERN to continue to include three of its world-leading journals in the third three-year phase of SCOAP3, which commences January 1, 2020. APS is extending its participation in SCOAP3 as a continuance of its commitment to open access, as adopted by APS Council in 2009 .

This arrangement means high-energy physics (HEP) articles accepted by Physical Review Letters (PRL), Physical Review C (PRC), and Physical Review D (PRD) will be published open access, under a CC-BY license, and funded by SCOAP3, with no article publication charges (APCs) for authors.

SCOAP3 provides a route for high-energy physics authors to eliminate the financial barriers of disseminating their research in the rapidly expanding open access landscape. The SCOAP3 consortium includes over 3,000 libraries and research institutes. In the conventional model, libraries and other subscribers pay publishers for access to journal articles. Under the SCOAP3 system, the consortium collects funds directly from subscriber institutions and then makes payments to publishers based on the number of articles published as open access papers. This allows high-energy physics papers to be published open access at no direct cost or additional burden to authors.

Which papers are covered by SCOAP3? * HEP papers covered by SCOAP3 are all those posted on arXiv.org – with a primary category of hep-ex, hep-th, hep-ph, or hep-lat – prior to publication in PRL, PRC, or PRD. * HEP papers published in the three participating APS journals on or after January 1, 2018 have been published open access under this initiative, even if the manuscript was originally submitted prior to this date. * Papers may qualify irrespective of the authors’ institutional affiliations or countries of origin.

Which license will be used for SCOAP3 papers? Papers will be published under a Creative Commons CC-BY license . Authors will not be required to pay the open access Article Publication Charge (APC) fees for their articles as these will be covered centrally by SCOAP3. Authors will need to execute the appropriate right-to-publish agreement.

How are SCOAP3 papers identified after publication? Papers published under the agreement will be marked as ‘Funded by SCOAP3’ in the license statement on the first page of the paper.

How are SCOAP3 papers treated during the peer-review process? The peer-review process is independent of whether a paper qualifies for SCOAP3 and is solely based on the scientific merit of the work. Physical Review staff will check arXiv identifiers and verify that papers have an appropriate HEP primary category. Submitting directly from arXiv.org via our Submissions server or providing the arXiv id during the submission process are the preferred methods for conveying a paper’s arXiv id. Papers without an arXiv id which would otherwise likely qualify (based on the content of the paper) will be marked as a SCOAP3 candidate during the peer-review process. Authors will have the opportunity to either supply an arXiv id throughout the peer-review process (all the way through the production proof stage) or to convey their intention not to put the paper on arXiv.org. Candidate papers will be held from final publication until authors explicitly inform us of their choice. Further delays in publication may occur if an author has to redo their right-to-publish agreement because they have changed their mind late in the publication process.

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November 2021 (Volume 30, Number 10)

Physical review x celebrates 10 years of high-quality, open access publishing.

Open access journal articles now account for at least 30 percent of all research papers. This growth has been driven in part by multi-disciplinary “mega-journals,” which collectively publish more than 50,000 articles per year . Their high volume and low selectivity approach serves some needs of some researchers at some moments, but such titles are not suitable in many cases.

“More and more researchers appreciate the value of open access publications, but people are really drowning in information and wanted something that would select what was most relevant and important,” says Jorge Pullin, a theoretical physicist at Louisiana State University, who set out to create a multidisciplinary physics journal to meet those needs and became the first lead editor of PRX.

In 2011, APS launched Physical Review X (PRX) with a goal to publish high-quality research in all areas of pure, applied, and interdisciplinary physics. Over the past 10 years, PRX has gained a reverberant reputation as a highly selective, open access journal that exemplifies APS’s tradition of publishing high-impact science and serving the needs of the broad and diverse community that cuts across physics as well as related disciplines.

PRX logo

“PRX currently publishes about 250 papers per year, covering all areas of physics. This is a very small number to select, but sets the highest standard of what’s important and what’s impactful while ensuring topically and geographically diverse coverage,” says Ling Miao, Managing Editor of PRX. “One [role of PRX] is to disseminate the best, cutting-edge knowledge to a broad audience.”

The APS Editor in Chief at the time, Gene Sprouse, tasked Pullin and Miao with developing editorial standards for the new journal.

“We reached out to the community, and we asked for advice from the founding Editorial Board. What we heard was loud and clear,” says Pullin, who served as lead editor of PRX until 2016.

As authors, researchers had expressed a need for small journals that offered high editorial standards and high visibility for their own work, and as readers, they strongly indicated that what they needed from an open-access journal was selectivity based on reliable and consistent scholarly standards.

“APS’s dedication to meeting the needs of the research communities it serves is reflected in the fact that, year after year, PRX ranks first in Impact Factor among fully open access journals in the Physics, Multidisciplinary category,” says APS Director of Publishing Jeff Lewandowski. “Our recent launch of a new set of highly-selective open access journals—including PRX Quantum , PRX Energy , and more to follow—also speaks to just how much researchers appreciate and value the PRX model, as well as to APS’s continued commitment to serving the changing needs of researchers. These new titles are inspired by and named after PRX, and will complement the original.”

Supported by countless authors, referees, and readers, as well as an engaged editorial board of distinguished scientists, all from across the globe, PRX has continued to grow in submissions, quality, impact, and visibility.

“Some of the top players of physics are sending their papers to PRX, and the editorial team has expanded,” says Pullin. “PRX has established itself as the premier open access venue for innovative physics research with long-term impact.”

In March 2016, Pullin passed PRX’s lead editor baton on to Cristina Marchetti (University of California, Santa Barbara) and Jean-Michel Raimond (Sorbonne Université). "Our role has been pretty easy because the goals were set, we had in mind what we wanted to be,” says Raimond.“We hope PRX will continue to become more impactful.”

PRX complements Physical Review Letters (PRL), APS’s long-standing flagship title, by offering authors more flexibility to choose which venue is most appropriate for their publishing needs.

“While PRL typically publishes reports of influential developments in physics in the form of short letters—around four pages—PRX allows for longer articles, without a length limit,” says APS Editor in Chief Michael Thoennessen. “Its online-only model allows PRX to offer flexibility on length and format to its authors that they can, and do, use to best communicate their work to both broad audiences and specialists in their field. It also presents a top-quality fully open access option for authors who prefer or are required to publish under that model”

A hallmark of PRX is a focus on truly innovative research, the editors say, regardless of whether that research is particularly eye-catching or flashy.

“PRX has proved that there are many varieties of papers that can make a big impact in physics, or in science more broadly” says Miao. “Impact can mean making people think about what they might do differently, or inspiring them to see a different piece of the physics world, or providing them incredibly important and innovative tools to solve new problems, or giving them food for thought."

While PRX has grown steadily in visibility and citations performance—now with an impact factor of 15.762—and continues to be a top-tier journal in the Physical Review family, the hope for the next ten years is to see it continue to play its unique and important role that is highly valued by the community.

“PRX is the best open access journal covering all of physics, and it can become even better,” says Raimond.

©1995 - 2024, AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY APS encourages the redistribution of the materials included in this newspaper provided that attribution to the source is noted and the materials are not truncated or changed.

Staff Science Writer: Leah Poffenberger Contributing Correspondents: Sophia Chen, Alaina G. Levine

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Physical Review Research

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Reinforcement-learning-based matter-wave interferometer in a shaken optical lattice

Liang-ying chih and murray holland, phys. rev. research 3 , 033279 – published 27 september 2021.

  • Citing Articles (7)
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PHYSICAL MODEL
  • MODEL-FREE REINFORCEMENT LEARNING FOR…
  • COMPONENT DESIGN
  • STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We demonstrate the design of a matter-wave interferometer to measure acceleration in one dimension with high precision. The system we base this on consists of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice potential created by interfering laser beams. Our approach uses reinforcement learning, a branch of machine learning that generates the protocols needed to realize lattice-based analogs of optical components including a beam splitter, a mirror, and a recombiner. The performance of these components is evaluated by comparison with their optical analogs. The interferometer's sensitivity to acceleration is quantitatively evaluated using a Bayesian statistical approach. We find the sensitivity to surpass that of standard Bragg interferometry, demonstrating the future potential for this design methodology.

Figure

  • Received 21 June 2021
  • Accepted 30 August 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevResearch.3.033279

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Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

Published by the American Physical Society

Physics Subject Headings (PhySH)

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Authors & Affiliations

  • JILA, NIST, and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, 440 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA

Article Text

Vol. 3, Iss. 3 — September - November 2021

Subject Areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics
  • Quantum Physics

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Interferometers are composed of (i) a beam splitter, (ii) mirrors, and (iii) a recombiner. Examples shown are (a) an optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer (using half-silvered or conventional mirrors), (b) a Bragg interferometer (using three short light pulses of varying pulse area, π / 2 or π ), and (c) a shaken lattice interferometer. In (c), the shaken lattice mimics the interferometer components by splitting, reflecting, and recombining the atoms through design of a specific shaking function for each case.

Framework of reinforcement learning. The agent chooses an action, the environment responds to the action and gives the next state and a reward as feedback. In our design task, the action is the translation of the optical lattice, the environment evolves according to the Schrödinger equation, the observation is the momentum population distribution, and the reward is a function of the quantum fidelity. Illustrated on the left is an example neural network as the decision-making agent. The neural network takes the state represented on its input layer, passes it through a hidden layer, and generates a vector of Q-values at its output layer.

Shaking function for splitting. The learned lattice phase, ϕ ( t ) , (top) is allowed to take on one of a discrete set of five possible values that span the range shown. The momentum probability distribution (bottom) is initialized to the ground state of the lattice and at the terminal time well approximates the desired superposition for a beam splitter.

Shaking function for reflection. The learned lattice phase, ϕ ( t ) , (top) is sinusoidal and the amplitude is allowed to take on any one of a discrete set of five values at each half cycle. The momentum distribution (bottom) is prepared in − 4 ℏ k L and well approximates 4 ℏ k L at the terminal time.

Time evolution of the matter-wave density throughout the entire interferometry sequence. The white dotted lines separate the plot into five regions. In region I, we apply the splitting protocol. In region II, we allow the matter wave to propagate freely in the lattice. The appearance of two wave packets traveling in opposite directions shows that the beam splitter operates as expected. In region III, we apply the mirror shaking function. The matter wave undergoes free propagation in region IV again, and the two wave packets switch directions, demonstrating the functionality of the mirror. Last, we apply the recombining protocol in region V. Apart from the main closed diamond-shaped paths, we observe that there are auxiliary paths that are fainter but still clearly evident. They arise due to the imperfection of the components and also due to the side peaks arising from the third-excited Bloch state.

(a) Posterior probability density of the acceleration for the first 100 atoms. The true acceleration that we aim to reveal by the measurements is − 3 × 10 − 3 ω r v r (red line), and the measurements are sampled from the momentum distribution at the end of the interferometry sequence, as shown in the inset. (b) Standard deviation of the acceleration estimated using Bayes theorem for up to 10 4 atoms. We show the results from both the shaken lattice interferometer (SLI) and the Bragg interferometer and conclude that the SLI has a higher sensitivity. The standard deviations σ a are roughly inversely proportional to the square root of the number of measurements N , for N > 10 2 . The black dashed lines are the Cramér-Rao (CR) lower bounds and scale exactly as 1 / N .

An example topology of the network that we used in the deep Q-algorithm.

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The next chapter for frontiers: to the open access tipping point.

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Reorganization for a first-class publishing service securing quality at scale  

A proposed reduction of 600 roles across 23 countries  

Optimizing our management framework to react rapidly to market shifts  

New solutions to drive the open access transition to the tipping point   

Frontiers announces a strategic reorganization and team resizing to focus on researcher-centric, technology-empowered teams to provide a first class publishing experience and secure sustainable quality publishing at scale. This change marks the next chapter in our journey to make open access the default science publishing model.   

Background  

The COVID-19 pandemic brought to the fore several transformative trends in science publishing:  

An increase in article submissions during the lockdown highlighted the speed with which the scientific community can respond to save the day when faced with a global crisis,  

A preference for open access as the immediacy of sharing knowledge became the obvious author choice,  

A notable increase in submissions to Frontiers’ Research Topics , demonstrating researchers' needs to combine disciplines in new ways, free from the constraints of traditional journal structures, to address urgent questions more quickly. 

The pandemic also brought along an industry-wide trend for more fraudulent manuscripts. Frontiers responded with sweeping audits of its articles, journals, and Research Topics, introduced additional research integrity controls, and deployed AI-powered quality checks. These additional controls led to an increase in rejection rates, underscoring our commitment to quality - see quality at Frontiers for more details on our response. 

By the end of the pandemic, the publishing market saw a downturn. This reinforced the importance for resilience and agility amidst market shifts.  

These insights prompted a major reorganization in Frontiers throughout 2023 to form multi-expert teams empowered with AI technology to provide the full spectrum of publishing services tailored to our more than 2,000 academic communities. We also optimized our operational model and management framework to easily adapt to changes in the market.  

In the current market conditions, we are increasing efficiency further by proposing to significantly resize our workforce of about 2,000 employees across 23 countries to about 1,400 employees. Together with the management and operational changes made in 2023, this makes Frontiers a leaner and more agile organization, with enhanced financial resilience amidst market shifts.  

The changes also allow us to preserve our significant sponsorship of academic communities:  

Our inclusivity program that subsidizes article costs to ensure that no author is left behind,  

Our editor and reviewer recognition and awards program,  

Our continued advocacy for open science on global challenges ,  

Our free to publish-and-access journal for kids that is preparing the next generation on the latest science,  

The Frontiers Planet Prize that aims at mobilizing scientists to protect the planet from crossing irreversible tipping points. 

Frontiers is ready for the future. During the pandemic, governments recognized the importance of science when faced with a global crisis and of open science to accelerate solutions. They responded with increased investments and mandated open access to articles and data. We are also anticipating a shift in authors' preference for open access as it becomes ever more evident that it is the right thing to do. We expect that this, combined with the potential acceleration in science that AI may bring, will lead to increased growth in scientific output over the coming years. 

Why is open access so urgent?  

Despite the encouraging shift to open access during the pandemic, the open access transition is not progressing fast enough for science to make a significant contribution to other global challenges that humanity faces, or to enable a green economy on time (see A Race Against Time ).  

Our Frontiers Foundation therefore launched the Open Science Charter calling all publishers to transition to the fully open access model with adherence to quality peer-review and with a transparent pricing model based on quality of services provided.  

We also introduced the flat fee agreement as an industry-first solution to allow institutions unlimited open access publishing as an alternative to the article processing charge (APC) and subscription model. The two first national agreements were made between Frontiers and the German Library Consortium and Swedish Library Consortium . This Transformed Agreement brings stability, transparency, and affordability to institutional library budgets. 

Dr Kamila Markram, Frontiers' CEO, stated: “Our organization thrives on the passion and expertise of its people, and I am confident that these changes will empower us to amplify their contributions to open science publishing. I am sad we need to let go of so many talented colleagues and I am very grateful for their invaluable contributions to making science open. This is without a doubt the most difficult decision we have ever had to make in our journey towards open science. But we need to shape a Frontiers primed for the future. This signifies a more agile and efficient model for open access publishing to serve the global community of researchers, institutions, and funders. By providing an open access publishing service based on quality, we can boost sharing of scientific knowledge, foster global collaborations, accelerate the innovation cycle, increase return on investment in science, and build public trust in science. Society must not wait any longer for open access to science.”  

About Frontiers  

Founded in 2007, Frontiers is the 3rd most-cited and 6th largest scientific publisher. We publish rigorously peer-reviewed, quality-certified research by the world's top experts. Scientists empower society and our mission is to accelerate scientific collaboration by making science open. We place the researcher at the center of everything we do and enable the research community to develop the solutions we need to live healthy lives on a healthy planet. Featuring custom-built technology, artificial intelligence, and rigorous quality standards, our research articles have been viewed more than 2.4 billion times, reflecting the power of research that is open for all.    

For further details, reach out to our public relations team at [email protected]

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Physical Review B

Covering condensed matter and materials physics.

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Quantum signal processing with the one-dimensional quantum Ising model

V. m. bastidas, s. zeytinoğlu, z. m. rossi, i. l. chuang, and w. j. munro, phys. rev. b 109 , 014306 – published 10 january 2024.

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  • INTRODUCTION
  • QUANTUM SIGNAL PROCESSING (QSP)…
  • QSP WITH THE ONSAGER LIE ALGEBRA
  • THE ONSAGER LIE ALGEBRA AND THE…
  • JORDAN-WIGNER TRANSFORMATION AND QSP IN…
  • APPLICATIONS AND EXAMPLES OF QSP WITH…
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Quantum signal processing (QSP) has emerged as a promising framework to manipulate and determine properties of quantum systems. QSP not only unifies most existing quantum algorithms but also provides tools to discover new ones. Quantum signal processing is applicable to single-qubit or multiqubit systems that can be “qubitized” so one can exploit the SU(2) structure of system evolution within special invariant two-dimensional subspaces. In the context of quantum algorithms, this SU(2) structure is artificially imposed on the system through highly nonlocal evolution operators that are difficult to implement on near-term quantum devices. In this work, we propose QSP protocols for the infinite-dimensional Onsager Lie algebra, which is relevant to the physical dynamics of quantum devices that can simulate the transverse-field Ising model. To this end, we consider QSP sequences in the Heisenberg picture, allowing us to exploit the emergent SU(2) structure in momentum space and “synthesize” QSP sequences for the Onsager algebra. Our results demonstrate a concrete connection between QSP techniques and noisy intermediate scale quantum protocols. We provide examples and applications of our approach in diverse fields ranging from space-time dual quantum circuits and quantum simulation to quantum control.

Figure

  • Received 28 September 2023
  • Revised 12 December 2023
  • Accepted 13 December 2023

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.109.014306

©2024 American Physical Society

Physics Subject Headings (PhySH)

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  • Physical Systems

Authors & Affiliations

  • 1 NTT Basic Research Laboratories & Research Center for Theoretical Quantum Physics, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa, 243-0198, Japan
  • 2 Physics and Informatics Laboratory, NTT Research, Inc., 940 Stewart Dr., Sunnyvale, California 94085, USA
  • 3 Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
  • 4 Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
  • * These authors contributed equally to this work.
  • [email protected]

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Vol. 109, Iss. 1 — 1 January 2024

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QSP with the Ising chain and Kramers-Wannier duality. Here (a) and (b) illustrate the Ising chain and its dual. Moreover, (c) and (d) depict the corresponding quantum circuit to implement the QSP sequence dependent on the Onsager algebra. Under the duality transformation, lattice sites map to links in the dual lattice and vice versa. The dashed lines in (a) and (b) show the links and sites of the dual and original lattice, respectively. In terms of a practical implementation of our ideas in NISQ devices, the lattice sites and bonds in (a) and (b) represent the single- and two-qubit gates in (c) and (d), respectively.

Spectral properties of a QSP sequence and its space-time dual. (a) Depicts the Floquet exponent μ k of the iterator as a function of the error and the quasimomentum k . There are both 0 and π gaps and the Floquet exponents are independent on the error for k = π / 2 , as we predicted using QSP methods. The critical point at ε = 1 4 is ensured by space-time duality (see main text). (b) Depicts the phase diagram determining the features of the spectrum of the space-time dual QSP sequence. For parameters within the white region the eigenvalues satisfy the condition | λ k DST | = 1 and the evolution is unitary. For the self-dual point ε = 1 4 of the space-time dual quantum circuit there is a singularity at momenta k = 0 and | k | = π in correspondence with the gapless excitation spectrum in shown in (a).

Probability | 〈 + | k U k | + 〉 k | 2 = cos 2 ( E k T ) corresponding to the cluster Hamiltonian ( 38 ) in momentum space. We set parameters g = J and γ = 0 .

BB1 QSP sequence in momentum space and its effect on the transition probability. The green curve depicts the transition probability R k in Eq. ( 52 ) without signal processing. The blue curve shows the transition probability R k BB1 in Eq. ( 53 ) after applying the BB1 sequence.

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    Quantum signal processing (QSP) has emerged as a promising framework to manipulate and determine properties of quantum systems. QSP not only unifies most existing quantum algorithms but also provides tools to discover new ones. Quantum signal processing is applicable to single-qubit or multiqubit systems that can be ``qubitized'' so one can exploit the SU(2) structure of system evolution ...