47 case interview examples (from McKinsey, BCG, Bain, etc.)

Case interview examples - McKinsey, BCG, Bain, etc.

One of the best ways to prepare for   case interviews  at firms like McKinsey, BCG, or Bain, is by studying case interview examples. 

There are a lot of free sample cases out there, but it's really hard to know where to start. So in this article, we have listed all the best free case examples available, in one place.

The below list of resources includes interactive case interview samples provided by consulting firms, video case interview demonstrations, case books, and materials developed by the team here at IGotAnOffer. Let's continue to the list.

  • McKinsey examples
  • BCG examples
  • Bain examples
  • Deloitte examples
  • Other firms' examples
  • Case books from consulting clubs
  • Case interview preparation

Click here to practise 1-on-1 with MBB ex-interviewers

1. mckinsey case interview examples.

  • Beautify case interview (McKinsey website)
  • Diconsa case interview (McKinsey website)
  • Electro-light case interview (McKinsey website)
  • GlobaPharm case interview (McKinsey website)
  • National Education case interview (McKinsey website)
  • Talbot Trucks case interview (McKinsey website)
  • Shops Corporation case interview (McKinsey website)
  • Conservation Forever case interview (McKinsey website)
  • McKinsey case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)
  • McKinsey live case interview extract (by IGotAnOffer) - See below

2. BCG case interview examples

  • Foods Inc and GenCo case samples  (BCG website)
  • Chateau Boomerang written case interview  (BCG website)
  • BCG case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)
  • Written cases guide (by IGotAnOffer)
  • BCG live case interview with notes (by IGotAnOffer)
  • BCG mock case interview with ex-BCG associate director - Public sector case (by IGotAnOffer)
  • BCG mock case interview: Revenue problem case (by IGotAnOffer) - See below

3. Bain case interview examples

  • CoffeeCo practice case (Bain website)
  • FashionCo practice case (Bain website)
  • Associate Consultant mock interview video (Bain website)
  • Consultant mock interview video (Bain website)
  • Written case interview tips (Bain website)
  • Bain case interview guide   (by IGotAnOffer)
  • Digital transformation case with ex-Bain consultant
  • Bain case mock interview with ex-Bain manager (below)

4. Deloitte case interview examples

  • Engagement Strategy practice case (Deloitte website)
  • Recreation Unlimited practice case (Deloitte website)
  • Strategic Vision practice case (Deloitte website)
  • Retail Strategy practice case  (Deloitte website)
  • Finance Strategy practice case  (Deloitte website)
  • Talent Management practice case (Deloitte website)
  • Enterprise Resource Management practice case (Deloitte website)
  • Footloose written case  (by Deloitte)
  • Deloitte case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)

5. Accenture case interview examples

  • Case interview workbook (by Accenture)
  • Accenture case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)

6. OC&C case interview examples

  • Leisure Club case example (by OC&C)
  • Imported Spirits case example (by OC&C)

7. Oliver Wyman case interview examples

  • Wumbleworld case sample (Oliver Wyman website)
  • Aqualine case sample (Oliver Wyman website)
  • Oliver Wyman case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)

8. A.T. Kearney case interview examples

  • Promotion planning case question (A.T. Kearney website)
  • Consulting case book and examples (by A.T. Kearney)
  • AT Kearney case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)

9. Strategy& / PWC case interview examples

  • Presentation overview with sample questions (by Strategy& / PWC)
  • Strategy& / PWC case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)

10. L.E.K. Consulting case interview examples

  • Case interview example video walkthrough   (L.E.K. website)
  • Market sizing case example video walkthrough  (L.E.K. website)

11. Roland Berger case interview examples

  • Transit oriented development case webinar part 1  (Roland Berger website)
  • Transit oriented development case webinar part 2   (Roland Berger website)
  • 3D printed hip implants case webinar part 1   (Roland Berger website)
  • 3D printed hip implants case webinar part 2   (Roland Berger website)
  • Roland Berger case interview guide   (by IGotAnOffer)

12. Capital One case interview examples

  • Case interview example video walkthrough  (Capital One website)
  • Capital One case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)

13. Consulting clubs case interview examples

  • Berkeley case book (2006)
  • Columbia case book (2006)
  • Darden case book (2012)
  • Darden case book (2018)
  • Duke case book (2010)
  • Duke case book (2014)
  • ESADE case book (2011)
  • Goizueta case book (2006)
  • Illinois case book (2015)
  • LBS case book (2006)
  • MIT case book (2001)
  • Notre Dame case book (2017)
  • Ross case book (2010)
  • Wharton case book (2010)

Practice with experts

Using case interview examples is a key part of your interview preparation, but it isn’t enough.

At some point you’ll want to practise with friends or family who can give some useful feedback. However, if you really want the best possible preparation for your case interview, you'll also want to work with ex-consultants who have experience running interviews at McKinsey, Bain, BCG, etc.

If you know anyone who fits that description, fantastic! But for most of us, it's tough to find the right connections to make this happen. And it might also be difficult to practice multiple hours with that person unless you know them really well.

Here's the good news. We've already made the connections for you. We’ve created a coaching service where you can do mock case interviews 1-on-1 with ex-interviewers from MBB firms . Start scheduling sessions today!

The IGotAnOffer team

Interview coach and candidate conduct a video call

Hacking The Case Interview

Hacking the Case Interview

Case interview examples

We’ve compiled 50 case interview examples and organized them by industry, function, and consulting firm to give you the best, free case interview practice. Use these case interview examples for practice as you prepare for your consulting interviews.

If you’re looking for a step-by-step shortcut to learn case interviews quickly, enroll in our case interview course . These insider strategies from a former Bain interviewer helped 30,000+ land consulting offers while saving hundreds of hours of prep time.

Case Interview Examples Organized by Industry

Below, we’ve linked all of the case interview examples we could find from consulting firm websites and YouTube videos and organized them by industry. This will be helpful for your case interview practice if there is a specific consulting industry role that you are interviewing for that you need more practice in.

Aerospace, Defense, & Government Case Interview Examples

  • Agency V (Deloitte)
  • The Agency (Deloitte)
  • Federal Finance Agency (Deloitte)
  • Federal Civil Cargo Protection Bureau (Deloitte)

Consumer Products & Retail Case Interview Examples

  • Electro-light (McKinsey)
  • Beautify (McKinsey)
  • Shops Corporation (McKinsey)
  • Climate Case (BCG)
  • Foods Inc. (BCG) *scroll to bottom of page
  • Chateau Boomerang (BCG) *written case interview
  • PrintCo (Bain)
  • Coffee Co. (Bain)
  • Fashion Co. (Bain)
  • Recreation Unlimited (Deloitte)
  • Footlose (Deloitte)
  • National Grocery and Drug Store (Kearney)
  • Whisky Co. (OC&C)
  • Dry Cleaners (Accenture) *scroll to page 15
  • UK Grocery Retail (Strategy&) *scroll to page 24
  • Ice Cream Co. (Capital One)

Healthcare & Life Sciences Case Interview Examples

  • GlobaPharm (McKinsey)
  • GenCo (BCG) *scroll to middle of page
  • PrevenT (BCG)
  • MedX (Deloitte)
  • Medical Consumables (LEK)
  • Medicine Company (HackingTheCaseInterview)
  • Pharma Company (Indian Institute of Management)

Manufacturing & Production Case Interview Examples

  • Aqualine (Oliver Wyman)
  • 3D Printed Hip Implants (Roland Berger)
  • Talbot Trucks (McKinsey)
  • Playworks (Yale School of Management)

Social & Non-Profit Case Interview Examples

  • Diconsa (McKinsey)
  • National Education (McKinsey)
  • Conservation Forever (McKinsey)
  • Federal Health Agency (Deloitte)
  • Robinson Philanthropy (Bridgespan)
  • Home Nurses for New Families (Bridgespan)
  • Reach for the Stars (Bridgespan)
  • Venture Philanthropy (Bridgespan)

Technology, Media, & Telecom Case Interview Examples

  • NextGen Tech (Bain)
  • Smart Phone Introduction (Simon-Kucher)
  • MicroTechnos (HackingTheCaseInterview)

Transportation Case Interview Examples

  • Low Cost Carrier Airline (BCG)
  • Transit Oriented Development (Roland Berger)
  • Northeast Airlines (HackingTheCaseInterview)
  • A+ Airline Co. (Yale School of Management)
  • Ryder (HackingTheCaseInterview)

Travel & Entertainment Case Interview Examples

  • Wumbleworld (Oliver Wyman)
  • Theater Co. (LEK)
  • Hotel and Casino Co. (OC&C)

Case Interview Examples Organized by Function

Below, we’ve taken the same cases listed in the “Case Interview Examples Organized by Industry” section and organized them by function instead. This will be helpful for your case interview practice if there is a specific type of case interview that you need more practice with.

Profitability Case Interview Examples

To learn how to solve profitability case interviews, check out our video below:

Market Entry Case Interview Examples

Merger & acquisition case interview examples.

Growth Strategy Case Interview Examples

Pricing case interview examples.

New Product Launch Case Interview Examples

Market sizing case interview examples.

To learn how to solve market sizing case interviews, check out our video below:

Operations Case Interview Examples

Other case interview examples.

These are cases that don’t quite fit into any of the above categories. These cases are the more unusual, atypical, and nontraditional cases out there.

Case Interview Examples Organized by Consulting Firm

Below, we’ve taken the same cases listed previously and organized them by company instead. This will be helpful for your case interview practice if there is a specific company that you are interviewing with.

McKinsey Case Interview Examples

BCG Case Interview Examples

Bain Case Interview Examples

Deloitte Case Interview Examples

Lek case interview examples, kearney case interview examples, oliver wyman case interview examples, roland berger case interview examples, oc&c case interview  examples, bridgespan case interview examples, strategy& case interview examples, accenture case interview examples, simon kutcher case interview examples, capital one case interview examples, case interview examples from mba casebooks.

For more case interview examples, check out our article on 23 MBA consulting casebooks with 700+ free practice cases . There additional cases created by MBA consulting clubs that make for great case interview practice. For your convenience, we’ve listed some of the best MBA consulting casebooks below:

  • Australian Graduate School of Management (2002)
  • Booth (2005)
  • Columbia (2007)
  • Darden (2019)
  • ESADE (2011)
  • Fuqua (2018)
  • Goizueta (2006)
  • Haas (2019)
  • Harvard Business School (2012)
  • Illinois (2015)
  • INSEAD (2011)
  • Johnson (2003)
  • Kellogg (2012)
  • London Business School (2013)
  • McCombs (2018)
  • Notre Dame (2017)
  • Queens (2019)
  • Ross (2010)
  • Sloan (2015)
  • Stern (2018)
  • Tuck (2009)
  • Wharton (2017)
  • Yale (2013)

Consulting casebooks are documents that MBA consulting clubs put together to help their members prepare for consulting case interviews. Consulting casebooks provide some case interview strategies and tips, but they mostly contain case interview practice cases.

While consulting casebooks contain tons of practice cases, there is quite a bit of variety in the sources and formats of these cases.

Some practice cases are taken from actual consulting interviews given by consulting firms. These are the best types of cases to practice with because they closely simulate the length and difficulty of an actual case interview. Other practice cases may be written by the consulting club’s officers. These cases are less realistic, but can still offer great practice.

The formats of the practice cases in consulting casebooks also vary significantly.

Some practice cases are written in a question and answer format. This type of format makes it easy to practice the case by yourself, without a case partner. Other practices cases are written in a dialogue format. These cases are better for practicing with a case interview partner.

MBA consulting casebooks can be a great resource because they are free and provide tons of practice cases to hone your case interview skills. However, there are several caveats that you should be aware of.

  • Similarity to real case interviews : Some cases in MBA consulting casebooks are not representative of actual case interviews because they are written by consulting club officers instead of interviewers from consulting firms
  • Quality of sample answers : While consulting casebooks provide sample solutions, these answers are often not the best or highest quality answers
  • Ease of use : Consulting casebooks are all written in different formats and by different people. Therefore, it can be challenging to find cases that you can consistently use to practice cases by yourself or with a partner

Therefore, we recommend that you first use the case interview examples listed in this article and wait until you’ve exhausted all of them before using MBA consulting casebooks.

Case Interview Examples from HackingTheCaseInterview

Below, we've pulled together several of our very own case interview examples. You can use these case interview examples for your case interview practice.

1. Tech retailer profitability case interview

2. Airline profitability case interview

3. Ride sharing app market entry

4. Increasing Drug Adoption

How to Use Case Interview Examples to Practice Case Interviews

To get the most out of these case interview examples and maximize your time spent on case interview practice, follow these three steps.

1. Understand the case interview structure beforehand

If case interviews are something new to you, we recommend watching the following video to learn the basics of case interviews in under 30 minutes.

Know that there are seven major steps of a case interview.

  • Understanding the case background : Take note while the interviewer gives you the case background information. Afterwards, provide a concise synthesis to confirm your understanding of the situation and objective
  • Asking clarifying questions : Ask questions to better understand the case background and objective
  • Structuring a framework : Lay out a framework of what areas you want to look into in order to answer or solve the case
  • Kicking off the case : Propose an area of your framework that you would like to dive deeper into 
  • Solving quantitative problems : Solve a variety of different quantitative problems, such as market sizing questions and profitability questions. You may also be given charts and graphs to analyze or interpret
  • Answering qualitative questions : You may be asked to brainstorm ideas or be asked to give your business opinion on a particular issue or topic
  • Delivering a recommendation : Summarize the key takeaways from the case to deliver a firm and concise recommendation

2. Learn how to practice case interviews by yourself 

There are 6 steps to practice case interviews by yourself. The goal of these steps is to simulate a real case interview as closely as you can so that you practice the same skills and techniques that you are going to use in a real case interview.

  • Synthesize the case background information out loud : Start the practice case interview by reading the case background information. Then, just as you would do in a live case interview, summarize the case background information out loud
  • Ask clarifying questions out loud : Just as you would do in a live case interview, ask clarifying questions out loud. Although you do not have a case partner that can answer your questions, it is important to practice identifying the critical questions that need to be asked to fully understand the case
  • Structure a framework and present it out loud : Pretend that you are in an actual interview in which you’ll only have a few minutes to put together a comprehensive and coherent framework. Replicate the stress that you will feel in an interview when you are practicing case interviews on your own by giving yourself time pressure.

When you have finished creating your framework, turn your paper around to face an imaginary interviewer and walk through the framework out loud. You will need to get good at presenting your framework concisely and in an easy to understand way.

  • Propose an area to start the case : Propose an area of your framework to start the case. Make sure to say out loud the reasons why you want to start with that particular area
  • Answer each case question out loud : If the question is a quantitative problem, create a structure and walk the interviewer through how you would solve the problem. When doing math, do your calculations out loud and explain the steps that you are taking.

If the question is qualitative, structure your thinking and then brainstorm your ideas out loud. Walk the interviewer through your ideas and opinions.

  • Deliver a recommendation out loud : Just as you would do in a real case interview, ask for a brief moment to collect your thoughts and review your notes. Once you have decided on a recommendation, present your recommendation to the interviewer.

3. Follow best practices while practicing case interviews :    

You’ll most likely be watching, reading, or working through these case interview examples by yourself. To get the most practice and learnings out of each case interview example, follow these tips: 

  • Don’t have notes or a calculator out when you are practicing since you won’t have these in your actual interview
  • Don’t take breaks in the middle of a mock case interview
  • Don’t read the case answer until you completely finish answering each question
  • Talk through everything out loud as if there were an interviewer in the room
  • Occasionally record yourself to understand what you look like and sound like when you speak

4. Identify improvement areas to work on

When the case is completed, review your framework and answers and compare them to the model answers that the case provides. Reflect on how you could have made your framework or answers stronger.

Also, take the time to reflect on what parts of the case you could have done better. Could your case synthesis be more concise? Was your framework mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive? Could your math calculations be done more smoothly? Was your recommendation structured enough?

This is the most important part of practicing case interviews by yourself. Since you have no partner to provide you feedback, you will need to be introspective and identify your own improvement areas.

At the end of each practice case interview, you should have a list of new things that you have learned and a list of improvement areas to work on in future practice cases. You’ll continue to work on your improvement areas in future practice cases either by yourself or with a partner.

5. Eventually find a case partner to practice with

You can only do so many practice case interviews by yourself before your learning will start to plateau. Eventually, you should be practicing case interviews with a case partner.

Practicing with a case partner is the best way to simulate a real case interview. There are many aspects of case interviews that you won’t be able to improve on unless you practice live with a partner:

  • Driving the direction of the case
  • Asking for more information
  • Collaborating to get the right approach or structure
  • Answering follow-up questions

If you are practicing with a case partner, decide who is going to be giving the case and who is going to be receiving the case.

If you are giving the case, read the entire case information carefully. It may be helpful to read through everything twice so that you are familiar with all of the information and can answer any question that your partner asks you to clarify.

As the person giving the case, you need to be the case expert.

You should become familiar with the overall direction of the case. In other words, you should know what the major questions of the case are and what the major areas of investigation are. This will help you run the mock case interview more smoothly.  

Depending on whether you want the case interview to be interviewer-led or candidate-led, you will need to decide how much you want to steer the direction of the case.

If your partner gets stuck and is taking a long time, you may need to step in and provide suggestions or hints. If your partner is proceeding down a wrong direction, you will need to direct them towards the right direction.

Where to Find More Case Interview Examples

To find more case interview examples, you can use a variety of different case interview prep books, online courses, and coaching. We'll cover each of these different categories of resources for more case interview practice in more detail.

Case Interview Prep Books

Case interview prep books are great resources to use because they are fairly inexpensive, only costing $20 to $30. They contain a tremendous amount of information that you can read, digest, and re-read at your own pace.

Based on our comprehensive review of the 12 popular case interview prep books , we ranked nearly all of the case prep books in the market.

The three case interview prep books we recommend using are:

  • Hacking the Case Interview : In this book, learn exactly what to do and what to say in every step of the case interview. This is the perfect book for beginners that are looking to learn the basics of case interviews quickly.
  • The Ultimate Case Interview Workbook : In this book, hone your case interview skills through 65+ problems tailored towards each type of question asked in case interviews and 15 full-length practice cases. This book is great for intermediates looking to get quality practice.
  • Case Interview Secrets : This book provides great explanations of essential case interview concepts and fundamentals. The stories and anecdotes that the author provides are entertaining and help paint a clear picture of what to expect in a case interview, what interviewers are looking for, and how to solve a case interview.

Case Interview Courses

Case interview courses are more expensive to use than case interview prep books, but offer more efficient and effective learning. You’ll learn much more quickly from watching someone teach you the material, provide examples, and then walk through practice problems than from reading a book by yourself.

Courses typically cost anywhere between $200 to $400.

If you are looking for a single resource to learn the best case interview strategies in the most efficient way possible, enroll in our comprehensive case interview course .

Through 70+ concise video lessons and 20 full-length practice cases based on real interviews from top-tier consulting firms, you’ll learn step-by-step how to crush your case interview.

We’ve had students pass their consulting first round interview with just a week of preparation, but know that your success depends on the amount of effort you put in and your starting capabilities.

Case Interview Coaching

With case interview coaching, you’ll pay anywhere between $100 to $300 for a 40- to 60-minute mock case interview session with a case coach. Typically, case coaches are former consultants or interviewers that have worked at top-tier consulting firms.

Although very expensive, case interview coaching can provide you with high quality feedback that can significantly improve your case interview performance. By working with a case coach, you will be practicing high quality cases with an expert. You’ll get detailed feedback that ordinary case interview partners are not able to provide.

Know that you do not need to purchase case interview coaching to receive a consulting job offer. The vast majority of candidates that receive offers from top firms did not purchase case interview coaching. By purchasing case interview coaching, you are essentially purchasing convenience and learning efficiency.

Case interview coaching is best for those that have already learned as much as they can about case interviews on their own and feel that they have reached a plateau in their learning. For case interview beginners and intermediates, it may be a better use of their money to first purchase a case interview course or case interview prep book before purchasing expensive coaching sessions.

If you do decide to eventually use a case interview coach, consider using our case coaching service .

There is a wide range of quality among coaches, so ensure that you are working with someone that is invested in your development and success. If possible, ask for reviews from previous candidates that your coach has worked with.

Summary of the Best Case Interview Resources

To prepare for consulting case interviews, we recommend the following resources to find more case interview examples and practice:

  • Comprehensive Case Interview Course (our #1 recommendation): The only resource you need. Whether you have no business background, rusty math skills, or are short on time, this step-by-step course will transform you into a top 1% caser that lands multiple consulting offers.
  • Hacking the Case Interview Book   (available on Amazon): Perfect for beginners that are short on time. Transform yourself from a stressed-out case interview newbie to a confident intermediate in under a week. Some readers finish this book in a day and can already tackle tough cases.
  • The Ultimate Case Interview Workbook (available on Amazon): Perfect for intermediates struggling with frameworks, case math, or generating business insights. No need to find a case partner – these drills, practice problems, and full-length cases can all be done by yourself.
  • Case Interview Coaching : Personalized, one-on-one coaching with former consulting interviewers
  • Behavioral & Fit Interview Course : Be prepared for 98% of behavioral and fit questions in just a few hours. We'll teach you exactly how to draft answers that will impress your interviewer
  • Resume Review & Editing : Transform your resume into one that will get you multiple interviews

Land Multiple Consulting Offers

Complete, step-by-step case interview course. 30,000+ happy customers.

Financial Services Case Interview: 4 Tips on How to Pass

  • Last Updated May, 2024

A good case structure will get through any consulting case interview question. But some industries have specific issues that make it a lot easier to pass the case if you know what to expect. Financial services case interviews are like that.

Government regulation of financial institutions, their corporate structure, and business models are quite different from other industries, so it’s good to brush up on the financial services industry before facing a case.

In this article, we’ll discuss:

  • Differences between financial services firms and other firms.
  • Common types of financial services case interviews.
  • A financial services case example.
  • 4 Tips on acing your financial services case interview.

Let’s get started!

Differences Between Financial Services Firms & Other Firms

Financial services case interview example, common types of financial services case interviews.

5 Tips On Acing Your Financial Services Case Interview

Financial services firms don’t make cars or serve hamburgers to customers to generate revenue the way an auto company or a fast-food restaurant does. Instead, they provide retail customers (individual consumers – people like you and me) and businesses with loans, deposit accounts, or insurance policies. Or they help them invest their money in stocks, bonds, or other financial instruments.

Corporate Structure

There are many different types of financial institutions and they exist both on paper (e.g., online banks) and in actual brick-and-mortar form (e.g., retail bank branches with ATMs). Typical financial institutions include:

  • Commercial banks (provide business loans, home mortgage loans, and savings/checking accounts)
  • Investment banks and securities firms (help people buy and sell stocks and bonds and help companies issue them)
  • Insurance companies (provide insurance for homes, cars, business risk, health, etc.)
  • Mutual funds and pension funds (manage retirement savings or savings for other goals, e.g., education, health, etc., by investing it in stocks, bonds, and other assets)
  • Microfinance companies (provide small loans to populations underserved by traditional financial institutions)

Businesses that “make stuff” have a factory where parts go in one end and cars or hamburgers go out the other. Financial institutions, on the other hand, have people who handle the bank accounts, stocks purchases/sales, or insurance products that they provide, and all the investment decisions and paperwork that go with that service.

Business Model

Unlike other sectors, the financial services industry’s business model is largely based on interest, fees, and premiums. Don’t get bogged down by the variety of products and services that a financial institution has to offer. You only need to remember:

  • Key income sources: interest earned by selling retail and corporate loans, premiums earned on insurance policies, fees earned on financial advisory (e.g., stockbroking) or on deposit accounts, etc.
  • Key costs: interest paid on deposits from retail investors and corporates, insurance claims/payouts, branch operations, manpower, SG&A, etc.

Always confirm and validate the drivers of revenue and cost with your interviewer before jumping to solving any financial services case.

Regulation and Risk

A well-functioning financial system is vital for the economy, businesses, and consumers. When a financial institution fails, it can create problems for the wider economy as the 2007-2009 financial crisis showed us. Financial services firms, therefore, attract high levels of scrutiny and oversight.

Government regulation helps make sure that these institutions have good management so they don’t make bad investments or become too risky. They require that financial institutions hold “shock absorbers” (i.e., capital) to help deal with bad investments. Each country has its own set of norms and regulations that create the framework and operating model for financial institutions.

In a financial services case, therefore, it’s always important to include regulation as a category in your issue tree. You can check with your interviewer on which aspects of financial regulation and risk are relevant to ensure that ideas you brainstorm in the case won’t break laws. Aligning on this upfront increases your credibility with the interviewer, but regulation is not typically the focus of the case.

Nail the case & fit interview with strategies from former MBB Interviewers that have helped 89.6% of our clients pass the case interview.

Financial services cases can include revenue growth, cost reduction, or new product introduction like they would for any other industry. They can also include managing the “back office” where financial account information is maintained or stock and bond trades are cleared.

Here are some financial services case interview examples:

  • Disconsa – A McKinsey case on developing better financial service offerings for a not-for-profit entity serving remote Mexican communities.
  • Internet Bank – An L.E.K. case on product diversification for a large insurance company in Europe.
  • Big Bucks Bank – A Deloitte case on technology transformation for a large US-based bank.
  • Bank of Zurich – A Deloitte case on developing a strategy to structure the organization’s data program.

We’ve also curated a list of case examples , to help you hone your business problem-solving skills. Head to Our Ultimate Guide to Case Interview Prep to learn what a case interview is and its various stages (i.e., opening, structure, analysis, and conclusion). The best way to get smarter about answering financial services case interview questions is to master this general four-part approach first and then apply financial services specifics as appropriate.

Let’s dive into a financial services case example.

Case Question

“Your client is Go-for-Growth bank, a large bank in a frontier market that wants to rapidly build its agent network to grow revenue for its payment and banking business. How should they go about it?”

First, repeat the main information in the prompt to the interviewer to make sure you got it right, and ask clarifying questions. If you don’t know what a frontier market is or who banking agents are, ask your interviewer.

Frontier market is a classification made by Standard & Poors, a financial rating agency, that’s used to classify less advanced economies in the developing world, e.g., Vietnam, Kenya, Nigeria, Cambodia, etc.

A banking agent is a retail or a postal outlet contracted out by a financial institution (in this case Go-for-Growth bank) to process clients’ transactions. Typically, in less advanced economies, the population has little access to banks but significantly higher interaction with establishments such as pharmacies, grocery stores, post offices, and beauty salons. The agents help the banks get new customers and typically make money on commissions.

Take a moment to develop your own hypothesis for the Go-for-Growth bank case.

Financial Services Case Hypothesis

Your hypothesis could be that a banking agent is a cost-efficient way for the bank to acquire customers and distribute financial products vs. having to set up their own branches across the country (including paying rent for office space and hiring staff in each location).

Next, validate your understanding of the bank’s business model, corporate structure, and applicable regulations. Here, the bank is a traditional commercial bank that wants to add agents as a channel to acquire retail customers and sell traditional financial products and services (e.g., loans, deposits, etc.) Building an agent network is allowed within the regulatory framework of the country.

A great candidate would also establish:

  • The purpose of agent acquisition: “Why agents?” “Why now?” and “What is the size of the opportunity (or market) that the bank is chasing?” Here, the interviewer can confirm your hypothesis about agents being cost-efficient vs. Go-for-Growth Bank having to set up brick-and-mortar establishments.
  • The size of the opportunity: Establishing an agent network is a big undertaking so it’s worth ensuring the opportunity size is big enough to justify the cost. In this case, the total opportunity size is $3 billion given the country is largely underpenetrated with only 10-20% of the total population of 100+ million having access to financial services, so the opportunity is worth it. (Note that to make this a short case or one that would be appropriate for undergrad summer interns, sizing the market could be the sole focus.)
  • The client’s key success metrics : “What does success look like to Go-for-Growth Bank?” Here, you should clarify the target network size and the target timeframe to meet the client’s growth target. Say, your interviewer adds that they want to scale up to a size of 200,000 agents in 2 years to achieve the topline impact of $3+ billion.

You’d now ask for a minute to lay down your thoughts so that you can build your structure.

Take a moment to think about how you would structure this case before reading ahead. That will give you a sense of what business issues come naturally to you in a financial services case and where you need to push your thinking further.

Here’s a sample case structure:

  • Which services/revenue streams should Go-for-Growth Bank market via the agents and to which end customers?
  • Which of the existing products and services are most profitable?
  • Which products and services don’t need extensive training for agents to sell?
  • Which products and services best meet the needs of the customers who agents serve (e.g., payments and basic deposit accounts and loans, not more sophisticated financial products).
  • Is there a segmentation of customers who should be targeted by the agents?
  • Will the bank need to tweak their products to make them profitable to customers acquired through the agent network? (An A+ answer would note that clients with low incomes or lumpy earnings might need bank accounts with lower minimums.)
  • Is there opportunity for cross-sell/ up-sell of products to customers?
  • How to reach the agents? (sales force/feet on the ground vs. email campaign)
  • How to get them interested in becoming a channel partner? Will one-time, up-front incentives be required?
  • What is the process to get them on board?
  • What cut can be given to the agents (so the bank continues to be profitable)?
  • What will be meaningful for the agents?
  • Can gamification reward schemes be introduced?
  • Would certification or co-branding, such as a sticker to display the agent’s affiliation with Go-for-Growth Bank, appeal to potential agents?
  • What banking products can be sold to the agents?
  • Can the agents be offered discounted pricing on the products?
  • What is the up-front effort/cost to acquire agents?
  • What is the expected revenue or profit uplift per agent to the bank?
  • How much should each agent sell annually/monthly to continue being profitable to the bank?
  • What are the recurring costs to maintain the agent network?
  • Which metrics should be used for tracking performance?
  • Can low performers be segmented further based on their potential?
  • What will be the plan of action for consistent low-performing agents?
  • Which training(s) and products’ brochures should be offered to agents to keep the customer conversion rate high?
  • How can we create a community within the agent network to provide product information updates and support agency retention (such as Facebook or WhatsApp groups)?
  • How can we set up the right operating model for providing cash to agents as needed?
  • How can we make sure the agents have the right processes in place to ensure Go-for-Growth Bank’s cash is safeguarded?

This structure is quite exhaustive. Don’t worry if you didn’t have every bullet point in your structure. In practice, since you only have about 2 minutes to lay this out, you don’t need to write full questions on your piece of paper but only a couple of keywords for each bucket and each sub-bucket.

We recommend going through our article on Issue Trees to learn more about how to create a case structure.

After you lay out your case structure, your interviewer would prompt you to brainstorm which agents to acquire and which products and services to sell, so if you’ve already alluded to it in your structure, that gives you a headstart.

Here, your interviewer would hand you a few exhibits that detail population density by region, classification of the retail stores with metrics on annual revenue, footfall, etc., a list of Go-for-Growth Bank’s products and the associated profitability of each product, and the results of a survey that details the wishlist of financial services and products by underserved consumers and small businesses.

On brainstorming ideas, you’ll be rated on both your structure and your creativity. Make sure to always articulate the logic behind your ideas, using your past experience, analogies, or your general knowledge.

Ideas for Increasing Go-for-Growth Bank’s Revenue

  • Target the agents that receive the highest customer footfall (grocery stores) AND/OR agents that are well-versed in handling legal/administrative documentation (postal outlets). Let’s assume the bank can cover 60% of the untapped population by acquiring grocery stores and postal outlets as agents in the Tier 2 cities.
  • Sell products that are profitable to the bank and at the same time relevant to the customers (payment transfer, insurance products, working capital loans, home loans, etc.)
  • Onboard agents as customers first to establish other customers’ trust in the bank’s products. Given it’s a less advanced economy where customers rely on heavy interactions with retail stores for information on financial products, word-of-mouth from the agent will establish trust upfront and lead to longer lifetime value (LTV) for the bank.

Ideas on Incentives for Agents

  • Provide commission to agents of 0.15% on each insurance/loan product.
  • Organize monthly or quarterly leagues with leaderboards to recognize top performers, e.g., highest transaction value, highest growth, highest customer acquisition, etc.
  • Leverage social media to build an agent community via Facebook or WhatsApp groups. These groups can create engagement and serve as an efficient mode of communication, allowing the bank to solicit agent referrals and publish leaderboards.
  • Introduce friendly competitions like “Best shop-front display” to increase the visibility of Go-for-Growth Bank’s products.
  • Test if affiliation with the Bank’s brand in the country is a motivator for agents.

You could classify “high performers” as agents with transaction volume and transaction value in the top 10%. Agent’s potential information (e.g., footfall, turnover, location potential) can also be collected to have a more nuanced segmentation for tracking and governance purposes.

Running the Numbers on Go-for-Growth’s Agent Strategy

Finally, you should consider pressure testing the unit economics of each agent to ensure the bank’s targets are met. To do this, you’ll need to leverage the information you were provided during the opening of the case as well as make some assumptions. A quick way to round this up would be:

  • Total # of customers = % of population targeted * Annual conversion rate per agent = 60% of population targeted * 10% conversion rate = 60% * (80% [% of population currently underserved by financial institutions] * 100 million [total population]) * 10% [conversion rate]= 4.8 million customers
  • Revenue per customer = Avg # of banking products sold per customer * Annual price per product = 1.5 avg # of products * $500 price 1 = $750 annual revenue per customer.

1 Based on data from interviewer.

  • Therefore, Topline impact = 4.8 million * $750 = $3600 million = $3.6 billion (validated as this meets the $3+ billion target)

Keep drawing on the interviewer to test the assumptions and/or ask for industry benchmarks on conversion rates, average number of products, prices, etc. to make your analysis rigorous.

A great candidate would also establish bottom line impact for the bank:

  • Total bottom line opportunity = Topline opportunity * Profit margin = $3.6 billion * (5-7% profit margin – 0.15% cut to agents) = $175 to $250 million.

“Go-for-Growth Bank’s CEO walks into the team room and asks you about your findings. What do you tell her?”

You should lead with your recommendation to the client and detail the key reasons supporting that recommendation. Then, mention any risks to consider which might impact the outcome and the next steps that you’d suggest to double down on the analysis. There is no need to repeat everything you covered during the case: be succinct and stick to the key arguments.

What would you say? Give it a try before reading ahead.

“We recommend acquiring the grocery stores and postal outlets in the Tier-2 cities as agents for the bank to help sell loan and insurance products at a profit margin of 5-7% to retail and small business clients with a 0.15% cut to the agents. This way, we cover 60%+ of the underpenetrated population with our highest profitability products and provide an additional source of income to the agents at no additional cost to them. The high perceived value in being affiliated with the Go-for-Growth Bank brand will attract agent interest. This will allow us to add $3 billion to the top line and $175-$250 million to the bottom line annually.

One concern we’d like to address next is whether competitors could potentially take away our first-mover advantage by luring away agents with better commissions, especially in densely populous areas. We should address this potential problem with contract terms and incentives in our agent agreements.”

Congrats, you made it through your first financial services case interview!

4 Tips On Acing Your Financial Services Case Interview

1. validate corporate structure and business model.

Always remember to validate the corporate structure and business model of the financial institution in your financial services case interview. You don’t want to end up confusing a commercial bank with an investment bank!

As a candidate, you’re not expected to know everything. Therefore, ask as many questions as possible to understand what you’re really dealing with. For instance, you could say, “Hey, I’m not familiar with the corporate structure and the business model of a pension fund, could you please explain that to me so I can start to understand the drivers of value for the business a bit better.”

2. Align on the Success Metrics

To be able to reach your destination, you must know what the destination is. This is especially relevant in the financial services case interview, where there could be dozens of metrics that can be solved for. Therefore, it’s critical to align on the North Star with your interviewer so you can solve for the target the client cares most about.

3. Apply First-Principles Thinking to Structure the Case

To navigate through a financial services case interview, you need to think on your toes. Chances are the corporate structure, business model, regulatory environment, and risk aspects will be unfamiliar to you. Instead of feeling bogged down by these nuances, take a big picture lens and apply first-principles thinking to structure the case.

You may not know the industry terms such as “net interest margin” or “dividend-adjusted return,” but you can always ask the first-principles question on “What drives value for the business?” and engage with your interviewer to identify the underlying sources of value.

Demonstrating intellectual curiosity in financial services cases will hold you in good stead. Start with “Why?” then get to the “What?” and only then solve for “How?”

4. Remain Calm and Confident

It’s easy to lose nerve when you’re out of your comfort zone. If financial services case interviews tend to throw you off, practice staying calm while solving the case. During your practice, monitor yourself for signs of nervousness. Pause, take a deep breath, smile, and then continue solving the case. The more practice you put in, the calmer your nerves will become. Also, include elements such as reading financial news, financial statements, etc., into your case prep so that you become familiar with industry terminologies. Incorporating these habits into your holistic practice will boost your confidence naturally.

– – – – –

In this article, we’ve covered:

  • Key differences between financial services firms and other firms,
  • Common types of financial services case interviews,
  • A financial services case interview example, and
  • 4 tips on acing your financial services case interview.

Still have questions?

If you have more questions about financial services case interviews, leave them in the comments below. One of My Consulting Offer’s case coaches will answer them.

Other people prepping for consulting case interviews found the following pages helpful:

  • Our Ultimate Guide to Case Interview Prep
  • Issue Trees
  • Market-sizing Case Interview
  • Revenue Growth Case Interview
  • Cost Reduction Case Interview
  • Pricing Case Interview
  • Supply Chain Case Interview

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35 Case Interviews Examples from MBB / Big Four Firms

Studying case interview examples is one of the first steps in preparing for the  management consulting  recruitment process. If you don’t want to spend hours searching the web, this article presents a comprehensive and convenient list for you – with 35 example cases, 16 case books, along with a case video accompanied by detailed feedback on tips and techniques.

A clear understanding of “what is a case interview” is essential for effective use of these examples. I suggest reading our  Case Interview 101  guide, if you haven’t done so.

McKinsey case interview examples

Mckinsey practice cases.

  • Diconsa Case
  • Electro-Light Case
  • GlobaPharm Case
  • National Education Case

What should I know about McKinsey Case interviews?

At McKinsey, case interviews often follow the interviewer-led format , where the interviewer asks you multiple questions for you to answer with short pitches.

How do you nail these cases? Since the questions can be grouped into predictable types, an efficient approach is to master each question type. However, do that after you’ve mastered the case interview fundamentals!

For a detailed guide on interviewer-led cases, check out our article on McKinsey Case Interview .

BCG & Bain case interview examples

Bcg practice cases.

  • BCG – Written Case – Chateau Boomerang

Bain practice cases

  • Bain – Coffee Shop Co.
  • Bain – Fashion Co.
  • Bain – Mock Interview – Associate Consultant
  • Bain – Mock Interview – Consultant

What should I know about BCG & Bain case interviews?

Unlike McKinsey, BCG and Bain case interviews typically follow the candidate-led format – which is the opposite of interviewer-led, with the candidate driving the case progress by actively breaking down problems in their own way.

The key to acing candidate-led cases is to master the case interview fundamental concepts as well as the frameworks.

Some BCG and Bain offices also utilize written case interviews – you have to go through a pile of data slides, select the most relevant ones to answer a set of interviewer questions, then deliver those answers in a presentation.

For a detailed guide on candidate-led cases, check out our article on BCG & Bain Case Interview .

Deloitte case interview examples

Deloitte practice cases.

Undergrad Cases

  • Human Capital – Technology Institute
  • Human Capital – Agency V
  • Strategy – Federal Benefits Provider
  • Strategy – Extreme Athletes
  • Technology – Green Apron
  • Technology – Big Bucks Bank
  • Technology – Top Engine
  • Technology – Finance Agency

Advanced Cases

  • Human Capital – Civil Cargo Bureau
  • Human Capital – Capital Airlines
  • Strategy – Club Co
  • Strategy – Health Agency
  • Technology – Waste Management
  • Technology – Bank of Zurich
  • Technology – Galaxy Fitness

What should I know about Deloitte case interviews?

Case interviews at Deloitte also lean towards the candidate-led format like BCG and Bain.

The Deloitte consultant recruitment process also features group case interviews , which not only test analytical skills but also place a great deal on interpersonal handling.

Accenture case interview examples

Accenture divides its cases into three types with very cool-sounding names.

Sorted in descending order of popularity, they are:

These are similar to candidate-led cases at Bain and BCG. albeit shorter – the key is to develop a suitable framework and ask the right questions to extract data from the interviewer.

These are similar to the market-sizing and guesstimate questions asked in interviewer-led cases – demonstrate your calculations in structured, clear-cut, logical steps and you’ll nail the case.

These cases have you sort through a deluge of data to draw solutions; however, this type of case is rare.

Capital One case interview examples

Capital One is the odd one on this list – it is a bank-holding company. Nonetheless, this being one of the biggest banks in America, it’s interesting to see how its cases differ from the consulting ones.

Having gone through Capital One’s guide to its cases, I can’t help but notice the less-MECE structure of the sample answers. Additionally, there seems to be a greater focus on the numbers.

Nonetheless, having a solid knowledge of the basics of case interviews will not hurt you – if anything, your presentation will be much more in-depth, comprehensive, and understandable!

See Capital One Business Analyst Case Interview for an example case and answers.

Other firms case interview examples

Besides the leading ones, we have some examples from other major consulting firms as well.

  • Oliver Wyman – Wumbleworld
  • Oliver Wyman – Aqualine
  • LEK – Cinema
  • LEK – Market Sizing
  • Kearney – Promotional Planning
  • OC&C – Imported Spirits
  • OC&C – Leisure Clubs

Consulting clubs case books

In addition to official cases, here are a few case books you can use as learning materials.

Do keep in mind: don’t base your study on frameworks and individual case types, but master the fundamentals so you can tackle any kind of case.

  • Wharton Consulting Club Case Book
  • Tuck Consulting Club Case Book
  • MIT Sloan Consulting Club Case Book
  • LBS Consulting Club Case Book
  • Kellogg Consulting Club Case Book
  • INSEAD Consulting Club Case Book
  • Harvard Consulting Club Case Book
  • ESADE Consulting Club Case Book
  • Darden Consulting Club Case Book
  • Berkeley Consulting Club Case Book
  • Notre-Dame Consulting Club Case Book
  • Illinois Consulting Club Case Book
  • Columbia Consulting Club Case Book
  • Duke Consulting Club Case Book
  • Ross Consulting Club Case Book
  • Kearney Case Book

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Case interview example – Case video

The limitation of most official case interview examples is that they are either too short and vague, or in text format, or both.

To solve that problem for you, we’ve extracted a 30-minute-long, feedback-rich case sample from our Case Interview End-to-End Secrets Program .

This is a candidate-led, profitability case on an internet music broadcasting company called Pandora.

In 30 minutes, this candidate demonstrates the exact kind of shortcoming that most candidates suffer during real case interviews – they come in with sharp business senses, then hurt their own chances with inadequate techniques.

Here are seven notable areas where the candidate (and you) can improve:

Thanking Throughout the case, as especially in the opening, he should have shown more appreciation for the time the interviewer spent with him.

Structured opening The candidate’s opening of the case feels unstructured. He could have improved it by not mixing the playback and clarification parts. You can learn to nail the case in a 3-minute start through this video on How to Open Any Case Perfectly .

Explicitness A lot of the candidate’s thought process remains in his head; in a case interview, it’s better to be as explicit as possible – draw your issue tree out and point to it as you speak; state your hypothesis when you move into a branch; when you receive data, acknowledge it out loud.

Avoiding silence The silence in his case performance is too long, including his timeout and various gaps in his speech; either ask for timeout (and keep it as short as possible) or think out loud to fill those gaps.

Proactivity The candidate relies too much on the interviewer (e.g: asking for data when it can easily be calculated); you don’t want to appear lazy before your interviewer, so avoid this.

Avoiding repeating mistakes Making one mistake twice is a big no-no in consulting interviews; one key part of the consulting skill set is the ability to learn, and repeating your mistakes (especially if the interviewer has pointed it out) makes you look like someone who doesn’t learn.

Note-taking Given the mistakes this candidate makes, he’s probably not taking his notes well. I can show you how to get it right if you watch this video on Case Interview Note-Taking .

Nonetheless, there are three good points you can learn from the candidate:

The candidate sums up what he’s covered and announces his upcoming approach at the start and at key points in the case – this is a very good habit that gives you a sense of direction and shows that you’re an organized person.

The candidate performs a “reality check” on whether his actions match the issue tree; in a case interview it’s easy to lose track of what you’re doing, so remember to do this every once in a while.

The candidate prompts the interviewer to give out more data than he asked for; if anything, this actually matches a habit of real consultants, and if you’re lucky, your interviewer may actually give out important pieces you haven’t thought of.

These are only part of the “ninja tips” taught In our Case Interview E2E Secrets Program – besides the math and business intuition for long-term development, a key feature is the instant-result tips and techniques for case interviews.

Once you’ve mastered them, you can nail any case they throw at you!

For more “quality” practice, let’s have a mock case interview with former consultants from McKinsey, BCG, Bain, Oliver Wyman, Strategy& and many other consulting firms. They will help you identify your problem areas and give you actionable feedback, making your preparation much easier and faster.

Hi! This is Kim and welcome to another performance in the Tips & Techniques part of our amazing End-to-end program. You are about to hear a really interesting performance.

There is a common Myth that Profitability cases are easier. Well, for beginners, that’s may make sense, but I would argue that Profitability cases can be really tricky and candidates without good foundation will make about the same level of mistakes regardless of type of cases given.

The profitability case we are about to watch will show that. It’s a very unconventional

Profitability. It started out like a typical one but getting more and more tricky toward the end.

The candidate is fairly good in term of business intuition, but the Tips & Techniques aspect needs a lot of fine tune! Now let’s go ahead and get started! 

It’s actually a little better to playback the case information and ask clarifications. The candidate does not distinguish between the two and do both at a same time. Also, the candidate was asking these clarifications in an unorganized and unstructured fashion. This is not something terrible, but could have been better, especially when this is the very first part of the case, where the crucial first impression is being formed.

My pitch would sound like this:

“That’s a very interesting problem and I am happy to get the chance to solve it. First of all let me tell you my understanding of the case context and key objectives. Then I would like to ask a few clarifying questions regarding a few terminology and concepts. Both of these are to make sure that I will be solving the right problem.

So here is my understanding of the case: The client is ABC. Here are some DEF facts about the situation we just talked about. And the key case question is XYZ.

Does that correctly and adequately summarize the case?”

Once the interviewer confirms, I would move to the clarification part as follows: “Now I would like to ask a few clarification questions. There are three of them: No 1, … No 2, … and No 3, …”

You may see above pitch as obvious but that’s a perfect example of how you should open any cases. Every details matters. We will point out those details in just a second. But before we do that, it’s actually very helpful if you can go back, listen carefully to the above pitch, and try to point out the great components yourselves. Only after that, go back to this point and learn it all together.

Alright, let’s break down the perfect opening.

First of all, you hear me say: “That’s a very interesting problem and I am happy to get a chance to solve it”. This seems trivial but very beneficial in multiple ways:

1. I bought myself a couple of seconds to calm down and get focused. 2. By nature, we as human unconsciously like those who give us compliments. Nothing better than opening the case with a modest compliment to the interviewer.

And (c) I showed my great attitude towards the case, which the interviewer would assume is the same for real future consulting business problems.

You should do that in your interviews too. Say it and accompany it with the best smile you can give. It shows that you are not afraid of any problems. In fact, you love them and you are always ready for them.

Secondly, I did what I refer to as the “map habit”, which is to always say what you are about to do and then do it. Just like somebody in the car showing the drivers the route before cruising on the road. The driver would love it. This is where I said: “Let me tell you my understanding of the case context and key objectives. Then ABC…”.

Third, right at the beginning of the case, I try to be crystal clear and easy to follow. I don’t let the interviewer confused between playing the case vs. asking clarification questions. I distinguish between the two really carefully. This habit probably doesn’t change the outcome of how the case goes that much, but it certainly significantly changes the impression the interviewer has of me.

Fourth, in playing back the case, each person would have a different way to re-phrase. But there are three buckets to always include:

1. Who is the client 2. The facts regarding the client and the situation and (c) The key question and the objective of the case.

Fifth, after playing the case context and objectives, I pause for a second and ALIGN with the interviewer: “Does it correctly and adequately summarize the case?”. This is a habit that every consulting manager loves for young consultants to do. Nobody wants first-year folks to spend weeks of passion and hard-work building an excel model that the team can’t use. This habit is extensively taught at McKinsey, Bain and BCG, so therefore interviewers would love somebody that exhibits this habit often in case interview.

Lastly, when asking clarification questions, you hear me number them very carefully to create the strong impression that I am very organized and structured. I said I have three clarifying questions. Then I number them as I go through each. No.1, No.2, and No.3.

Sometimes, during interviews it’s hard to know exactly how many items you are going to get. One way is to take timeout often to carefully plan your pitch. If this is not possible in certain situations, you may skip telling how many items you have; but you should definitely still number your question: No.1, No.2; and so on. 

Just a moment ago, the candidate actually exhibited a good habit. After going through his clarification questions, the candidate ended by asking the “is there anything else” question. In this case, I actually give out an important piece of data.

Though this is not very common as not every interviewer is that generous in giving out data. But this is a habit management consultants have to have every day when talking to experts, clients, or key stakeholders. The key is to get the most data and insights out of every interview and this is the type of open-ended question every consultant asks several times a day.

To show of this habit in a case interview is very good!

There are three things I would like you to pay attention to:

First, it took the candidate up to 72 seconds to “gather his thoughts”. This is a little too long in a case interview. I intentionally leave the 72 seconds of silence in the recording so you get an idea of how long that is in real situations. But it’s worth-noting here is not only that. While in some very complicated and weird cases, it’s ok to take that long to really think and gather ideas. In this case, the approach as proposed by the candidate is very simple. For this very approach, I think no more than 15 to 20 seconds should be used.

No.2, with that said, I have told I really like the fact that this candidate exhibits the “map” habit. Before going straight to the approach he draws the overall approach first.

No.3. You also see here that the candidate tried to align the approach with me by asking my thoughts on it. As I just said on the previous comment, this is a great habit to have. Not only does it help reduce chance of going into the wrong direction in case interviews, but it also creates a good impression. Consulting interviewers love people doing it often!

Here we see a not-really-bad response that for sure could be much better. The candidate was going into the first branch of the analysis which is Revenue. I would fix this in 3 aspects:

First, even though we just talked about the overall approach, it’s still better to briefly set up the issue tree first then clearly note that you are going into one branch.

Second, this is not a must, but I always try to make my hypothesis as explicitly clear as possible. Here the candidate just implicitly made a hypothesis that the problem is on the revenue side. The best way to show our hypothesis-driven mindset is to explicitly say it.

Third, you hear this a ton of times in our End-to-End program but I am going to repeat it again and again. It is better to show the habit of aligning here too. Don’t just go into revenue, before doing that, give the interviewer a chance to agree or to actually guide you to Cost.

So, summarizing the above insights, my pitch would sound something like this:

“So as we just discussed, a profit problem is either caused by revenue or by cost. Unless you would like to go into cost first, let’s hypothesize that the problem is on revenue side. I would like to look deeper into Revenue. Do we have any data on the revenue?”

And while saying this, you should literally draw an issue tree and point to each as you speak.

There is an interesting case interview tip I want to point out here. Notice how the candidate responds after receiving two data points from me. He went straight into the next question without at least acknowledging the data received and also without briefly analyzing it.

I am glad that the candidate makes this mistakes… well, not glad for him but for the greater audience of this program. I would like to introduce to you the perfect habit of what you should react and do every time you have any piece of data during case interviews. So three things you need to do:

Step 1: Say … that’s an interesting piece of data. This helps the interviewer acknowledge that you have received and understand the data. This also buys you a little time. And furthermore, it’s always a good thing to give out modest compliments to the interviewer.

Step 2: Describe the data, how it looks, is there any special noteworthy trend? In this case, we should point out that revenue actually grew by more than 50%.

Also notice here that I immediately quantified the difference in specific quantitative measurement (in this case, percentage). Saying revenue went up is good, but it’s great to be able to say revenue went up by more than 50%.

Step 3: Link the trend identified back to the original case question and the hypothesis you have. Does it prove, disprove, or open up new investigation to really test the hypothesis? In this case, this data piece actually opened up new investigating areas to test the hypothesis that the bottleneck is within revenue.

My sample pitch for this step 3 would sound like this: “It’s interesting that revenue went up quite a bit. However, to be able to fully reject our hypothesis on the revenue, I would like to compare our revenue to that of the competitors as well.”

Then only at this point, after going through 3 steps above, I ask for the competitors’ revenue like the candidate did.

Notice here that I ended up asking the same question the candidate did. This shows that the candidate does have a good intuition and thought process. It’s just that he did all of these implicitly on his head.

In consulting case interview, it’s always good to do everything as explicitly as possible. Not only is it easier to follow but it helps show your great thought process.

… the rest of the transcript is available in our End To End Case Interview

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Do you want to get access to over 280 free case interview examples (with answers)?

If you have interviews planned at McKinsey ,  The Boston Consulting Group , or any other consulting firm, you are probably looking for case interview examples.

So, to help you prepare, I have compiled a list of 280 free case interview examples:

  • Over 30 free case interview examples (+ interview prep tips) from the websites of top consulting firms
  • More than 250 free case interview examples from top business school case books

Moreover, you’ll get  my take on which case studies you will likely have in interviews.

In short, the resources listed hereafter will be very helpful if you are starting out or have already made good progress in preparing for your case interviews.

One last word : check out this free case-cracking course to learn how to crack the most recent types of case questions consulting firms use in actual interviews.

Let’s get started!

Table of Contents

Get the latest data about salaries in consulting, mckinsey: tips and case interview examples.

McKinsey & Company’s website is definitely one of my favorites.

Because this gives so much insightful information about the role of a consultant and what the hiring process looks like.

Therefore, I highly recommend spending time on their website, even if you are not targeting McKinsey.

In the meantime, here are 8 McKinsey case interview examples

  • Electro-light
  • GlobaPharma
  • National Education
  • Talbot trucks
  • Shops corporation
  • Conservation forever

McKinsey hub

Check out the McKinsey Hub : A library of 20+ free resources that cover everything you need to secure a job offer at McKinsey.

Besides, here is another McKinsey case interview example.

This case interview question has been recently asked in a real interview:

𝘦𝘊𝘢𝘳𝘊𝘰, 𝘢 𝘑𝘢𝘱𝘢𝘯𝘦𝘴𝘦 𝘭𝘦𝘢𝘥𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘮𝘢𝘯𝘶𝘧𝘢𝘤𝘵𝘶𝘳𝘦𝘳 𝘰𝘧 𝘦𝘭𝘦𝘤𝘵𝘳𝘪𝘤 𝘱𝘢𝘴𝘴𝘦𝘯𝘨𝘦𝘳 𝘷𝘦𝘩𝘪𝘤𝘭𝘦𝘴, 𝘩𝘢𝘴 𝘣𝘦𝘦𝘯 𝘴𝘵𝘳𝘶𝘨𝘨𝘭𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘸𝘪𝘵𝘩 𝘢 𝘭𝘰𝘸 𝘮𝘢𝘳𝘬𝘦𝘵 𝘴𝘩𝘢𝘳𝘦 𝘪𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘉2𝘉 𝘴𝘦𝘨𝘮𝘦𝘯𝘵. 𝘛𝘩𝘦𝘺 𝘦𝘯𝘫𝘰𝘺 𝘴𝘵𝘳𝘰𝘯𝘨 𝘱𝘰𝘴𝘪𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘴 𝘪𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘉2𝘊 𝘴𝘱𝘢𝘤𝘦, 𝘣𝘰𝘵𝘩 𝘥𝘰𝘮𝘦𝘴𝘵𝘪𝘤𝘢𝘭𝘭𝘺 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘪𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘪𝘯𝘵𝘦𝘳𝘯𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘢𝘭 𝘮𝘢𝘳𝘬𝘦𝘵. 𝘏𝘰𝘸𝘦𝘷𝘦𝘳, 𝘦𝘊𝘢𝘳𝘊𝘰’𝘴 𝘴𝘢𝘭𝘦𝘴 𝘵𝘰 𝘴𝘮𝘢𝘭𝘭 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘮𝘦𝘥𝘪𝘶𝘮 𝘴𝘪𝘻𝘦 𝘣𝘶𝘴𝘪𝘯𝘦𝘴𝘴𝘦𝘴 𝘤𝘰𝘯𝘵𝘪𝘯𝘶𝘦 𝘴𝘵𝘢𝘺𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘧𝘢𝘳 𝘣𝘦𝘭𝘰𝘸 𝘦𝘹𝘱𝘦𝘤𝘵𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘴. 𝘛𝘩𝘦 𝘊𝘌𝘖 𝘩𝘢𝘴 𝘪𝘯𝘷𝘪𝘵𝘦𝘥 𝘺𝘰𝘶 𝘵𝘰 𝘩𝘦𝘭𝘱 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘮 𝘰𝘶𝘵.

How would you approach this business problem?

When ready, check this video below where I present how to approach this problem.

BCG: Tips And Case Interview Examples

The Boston Consulting Group website  states something very important: the goal of the hiring process is to get to know you better, which means, in the context of Consulting interviews, understanding how you solve problems .

Remember this: in case interviews,  to show how you think is MUCH MORE IMPORTANT than to find an answer to the case .

As a result, you will have case study questions to showcase your problem-solving skills. Likewise, fit interviews have the same purpose: to show what problems you faced and how you resolved them.

  • BCG interview prep tips
  • BCG’s interactive case tool
  • BCG case interview example: climate change challenge
  • BCG case interview example: GenCo
  • BCG case interview example: FoodCo

interview case study examples finance

Check out the BCG Hub : A library of 20+ free resources that cover everything you need to secure a job offer at BCG.

Bain: Tips And Case Interview Examples

Bain & Company’s website highlights something very important: successful applicants manage to turn a case interview into a conversation between two consultants .

In other words, you don’t want to appear as a candidate but as a consultant !

To do this, you need to master the main problem-solving techniques that consulting firms want to see.

  • Bain interview prep tips here and here
  • Bain case interview examples: coffee , fashioco
  • Bain case interview sample videos: a first video , a second video

interview case study examples finance

Check out the Bain Hub : A library of 20+ free resources that cover everything you need to secure a job offer at Bain & Company.

Deloitte: Tips And Case Interview Examples

As for the BCG’s section above, the Deloitte website clearly states that in case interviews , it is much more important to show how you think and interact with your interviewer than to find the right answer to the case.

  • Deloitte interview prep tips
  • Deloitte case interview examples: here (more than 15 case interview examples)
  • Deloitte case interview example: Federal Agency
  • Deloitte case interview example: Recreation Unlimited
  • Deloitte case interview example: Federal benefits Provider
  • Deloitte case interview example: Federal Civil Cargo protection Bureau

Get 4 Complete Case Interview Courses For Free

interview case study examples finance

You need 4 skills to be successful in all case interviews: Case Structuring, Case Leadership, Case Analytics, and Communication. Join this free training and learn how to ace ANY case questions.

Oliver Wyman: Tips And Case Interview Examples

Like the Deloitte website, Oliver Wyman’s website points out that, above all,  you must demonstrate your ability to think in a structured, analytical, and creative way.

In other words, there are no right or wrong answers, but only showing how you solve problems matters.

  • Oliver Wyman interview prep tips
  • Oliver Wyman case interview examples: here (Aqualine) and here (Wumbleworld)

Kearney: Tips And Case Interview Examples

Now it’s time to tell you something you could have heard a hundred times.

Yet too many candidates do it.

Do NOT force your solution to adapt to a standard framework . As a result, this will only take you to a place you don’t want to go: the pool of rejected candidates .

To learn more about this, check the “What Not To Do” section on the AT Kearney website .

  • Kearney interview prep tips
  • Kearney case interview examples: here and here
  • Kearney case book: here

Strategy&: Interview Prep Tips

Strategy& doesn’t provide case study examples on its website, but it shares insights on career progression, which I recommend reading when you prepare for your fit interviews.

  • Strategy& interview prep tips

Roland Berger: Tips And Case Interview Examples

I like the examples of case studies presented on the Roland Berger website .

Because the two examples of case studies are very detailed and illustrate the kind of solutions your interviewers expect during case discussions.

  • Roland Berger interview prep tips
  • A first Roland Berger case interview example: part 1 and part 2
  • A second Roland Berger case interview example: part 1 and part 2

Alix Partners: Interview Prep Tips

Like Strategy&, Alix Partners doesn’t provide case study examples on its website.

However, they give an overview of what they are looking for: they want entrepreneurial, self-starter, and analytical candidates, which are skills that all consulting firms highly appreciate .

  • Alix Partners interview prep tips

OC&C: Interview Prep Tips

Here are two case study examples from OC&C:

  • Imported spirit
  • Leisure clubs

253 Case Studies From Business School Case Books

Most of these 253 case study examples are based on case interviews used by consulting firms in real job interviews .

As a result, you can have a good idea of the case study questions you can have when interviewing at these firms .

The Full List Of 253 Free Case Study Examples

  • Chicago business school
  • Australian Graduate School of Management
  • Columbia business school
  • Harvard business school
  • Wharton business school (2009)
  • Wharton busines school (2017)
  • Darden business school

Do you want to practice a specific type of case study? Now you can…

I have sorted this list of 253 case studies by type:  profitability, market expansion, industry analysis, pricing, investment or acquisition,  and guesstimates (also known as market sizing questions).

Full list of case study examples sorted by type

Bonus #1: Know The Types Of Cases You Are Likely To have During Your Interviews

  • Profitability cases (29% of cases from that list)
  • Investment cases (19% of cases from that list)
  • Market sizing questions (15% of cases from that list)

As a result, assuming you’ll have 6 interviews (and therefore 6 case interviews) during the recruitment process:

  • “Profitability cases are 29%”  means that chances to have 2 profitability case studies during your recruitment process are very high
  • “Investment cases are 19%”  means that chances to have 1 investment case study during your recruitment process are very high.
  • “ Guesstimates are 15%”  means that chances of having  1 market sizing question during your recruitment process are high.

Bonus #2: The 10 Cases I Recommend You Doing Now

Over 250 examples of case interviews are a great list, and you may not know where to start.

So, I’ve compiled a list of my 10 favorite case studies.

The 5 case studies I recommend doing if you are a BEGINNER

1. stern case book: drinks gone flat (starting at page 24).

This is a good introduction to a common type of case (declining sales here). I liked the solution presented for this case, particularly how it started by isolating declining sales (what range of products? Volumes or prices, or both?).

2. Stern case book: Sport bar (starting at page 46)

This is an investment case (should you invest in a new bar). Even if the solution presented in this case book is not MECE , it covers the most common quantitative questions you might have in such a case. I recommend doing this case.

3. Stern case book: MJ Wineries (starting at page 85)

This is a profitability case. I liked the solution presented in this case because it illustrates how specific good candidates should be. The case concerns wine, so a good candidate should mention the quality of lands and grapes as important factors.

4. AGSM case book: Piano tuners (starting at page 57)

This is a typical market sizing question. How to answer this type of question is a must-know before going to your interviews.

5. Darden case book: National Logistics (starting at page 49)

Again, this is a very common case (how to reduce costs). I liked the broad range of questions asked in this case, covering key skills assessed by consulting firms during case interviews: brainstorming skills (or creativity), quantitative skills, and business sense.

The 5 case studies I recommend if you are more ADVANCED in your preparation

1. stern: the pricing games (starting at page 55).

This case study asks you to help your client assess different business models. I liked this case because the range of issues to tackle is quite broad.

2. Wharton 2017: Engineer attrition at SLS Oil & Gas Services (starting at page 55)

I liked this case study because the case prompt is uncommon: your client has been facing a very high attrition rate among its population of Engineers. As a result, it’s very unlikely that your solution fits a well-known framework, and you’ll have to demonstrate your problem-solving skills by developing a specific solution.

3. Wharton 2017: Pharma Company Goes International, Outsources Benefits, Integrates New Technology (starting at page 95)

This case is about a client considering outsourcing a part of their activity. Even though I don’t know if this type of case study is very common, I had many case studies like this when I passed my interviews a few years ago. And I always found them difficult!

4. Insead: Gas retail case (starting at page 73)

The question in the problem statement is very broad, making this case difficult. So, only good candidates can have a structured case discussion here.

5. Darden: Fire Proof (starting at page 84)

This is a market entry case. Try to solve it by developing a structure as MECE as possible.

CareerInConsulting.com's Free Resources

Access my exclusive free training to help you prepare for your case interviews .

Besides, you can learn my step-by-step guide to answering market sizing questions .

You’ll get my formula to solve all market sizing questions.

Moreover, if you are a beginner, you can read my article on how to solve business cases (+ a 4-week prep plan to get case interview ready).

Also, check these 11 must-know frameworks to ace your case interviews.

Finally, you can read the articles in the blog section of my website.

That’s quite a list.

To complete this list, check this free case interview course , where you’ll find case questions recently asked in actual interviews.

Now, I’d like to hear from you.

Which key insights were new to you?

Or maybe I have missed something.

Either way, let me know by leaving a comment below.

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You need 4 skills to be successful in all case interviews: Case Structuring, Case Leadership, Case Analytics, and Communication. Enroll in our 4 free courses and discover the proven systems +300 candidates used to learn these 4 skills and land offers in consulting.

Secrets to a successful case-study interview

January 9, 2023

Secrets to a successful case-study interview

Prepping for (and maybe fretting) the case-study interview?

While this kind of interview may appear intimidating, consider this: The interviewer really wants you to do well.

So, shake off the nerves, relax and have fun.

Tips for standing out in the case-study interview: 

  • Take your time; don't rush it.  Talk through the problem. If you can't make sense of it, take a moment and allow yourself some time to process what you've been missing. If you get stuck, get creative. Don't let yourself get bogged down; rely on your ingenuity. 
  • Ask questions.  You can always ask your interviewer to define an acronym or to repeat or confirm details. If the interviewer asks, “How do we achieve success?”, don’t be afraid to ask, “What does ‘success’ mean to you? Is it turning a profit? Raising the company’s profile?” When you work on a client project, you need to ask questions to figure out what the problems might be, and the same applies here. The interviewer is your biggest asset in the room. They have the information you need to “solve the case” successfully. Use them wisely!
  • Be flexible.  The focus of a case-study interview may vary. So, be prepared to participate in whatever discussion the interviewer has in mind. They may spend the first half of the interview asking about your previous experience, or they may dive right into the case study at the start. The bottom line: Be flexible, and be ready to discuss the work you do and how you do it.
  • Use visual aids.  Don’t be afraid to use pen and paper, sketch out your thoughts, and talk through the problem at hand if it helps you get your ideas across. What matters most is demonstrating that you can solve problems.
  • Focus on impact.  Inventory the information you have, and then dive in where you can have the most impact. Don’t forget to discuss your thought process and explain your assumptions.
  • Tell a story.  Your experience has helped you progress in your career and education; use that experience. For example, in a business case study, you could bring your experience as a traveler to a case about a hypothetical airline. Your individuality is important. Your unique insights will serve you well when you’re interviewing.
  • Pay attention to cues.  If the interviewer says something, it probably means something. Don’t dismiss seemingly extraneous details. For example, the interviewer might say, “The case is about a retailer who wants to increase the value of a company it purchased, and the owner loved the brand when growing up.” The purpose of that detail is to indicate that turning around and selling the asset is not an option for making it profitable, because the owner is attached to it.

Preparing for the job you want can take time, but it’s a worthwhile investment—especially when you receive an offer.

Your ideas, ingenuity and determination make a difference. 

Find your fit  with Accenture. 

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Anaam Zamorano

RECRUITING ASSOCIATE MANAGER, HOUSTON, TEXAS

Practice a case

Case interviews represent real client engagements giving you insight into our approach and the work we do. It also gives you an opportunity to demonstrate clear thinking, practical judgment, and a professional demeanor, while helping us assess your thought process, creativity, and comfort with ambiguity.

How to use this tool:.

You will be presented with an example of a real-life business situation, along with a series of questions.

Answer each question to the best of your ability, then check your work.

At any time, you can access the business situation in the upper right corner.

Please note: This is not an assessment and we do not track your responses or results. You can practice as often as you'd like.

Completion time: 15/20 min

Practice a case interview

Please note that cases may differ in format and level of detail depending on the duration of the interview, but remember in the actual interview, we will be looking at your ability to think through a problem versus any specific technical skill or subject matter knowledge.

Tell us a little about yourself.

I am an advanced degree student, i am an undergraduate  student, i am an undergraduate student, choose your intended area in order to access cases related to it, strategy  cases, finance strategy: federal health agency, leadauto: market expansion, talent management: federal civil cargo protection bureau,   previous, business technology solution cases, strategy cases, architecture strategy: federal finance agency, medx: the smart pill bottle, business technology solution cases , engagement strategy: federal agency v, recreation unlimited, strategic vision: federal benefits provider.

Case interview tips

Cases can help us assess a candidate across multiple dimensions, and your answers should project clear thinking, practical judgment, and a professional demeanor. Apply this five-step approach while working through the case interview:

For more guidance on what we look for:

Explore consulting careers for undergrad and graduate students.

interview case study examples finance

Don't just work somewhere.

Work everywhere—right here at deloitte. work with people from every industry, every discipline, and every corner of the world, follow life at deloitte.

interview case study examples finance

Investment Banking Case Study Examples – A Guide

If you are preparing for an investment banking interview, you’ll probably need to conquer a case study interview. because case studies are a very crucial component in the investment banking hiring process. particularly if you have never completed a case study before, that will be very challenging for you to get into the investment banking field. this article has covered everything you need to know about investment banking and potential investment banking case studies. there are also tips and practice investment banking case study questions with examples of how to resolve them..

Investment Banking Case Study Examples (1)

What is Investment Banking?

Investment banks are financial firms that perform a variety of tasks, including underwriting, assisting companies with the issuance of stock and debt securities through initial public offerings or fixed-priced offerings enabling mergers and acquisitions on both the buy side and sell side of the deal, corporate restructuring and many other tasks. 

To efficiently complete these significant deals, a firm turns into an investment banker when it requires finance services. With some of the best benefits in the businesses, it is an extremely competitive industry.

How Does Investment Banking Work?

Investment banking offers services and serves as the middleman between businesses and investors and focuses mostly on shares and stock exchanges. 

Investment banking services help big businesses and organizations in developing a successful investment strategy that includes accurate financial instrument valuation.

When a company conducts an IPO or initial public offering, an investment bank purchases the majority of the shares immediately on the firm’s behalf.

The investment bank, which is now serving as a stand-in for the company then sells these shares on the market. The investment bank improves the company’s revenue in this way while also making sure that all governing rules are observed.

The investment bank makes money by marking up the initial price of shares when selling them to investors, helping the organization in making the most profit possible from this activity.

If a circumstance in the market emerges where the stock becomes overpriced, the investment bank also runs the risk of losing money by selling the stock at a lower price. 

An organization should assess its requirements and carefully consider all of its possibilities before seeking guidance from an investor banker. Before the company visits an investment bank, there are a few crucial considerations including the amount of capital being raised and the level of market competition. When the business has clarity in these areas, it can enlist the assistance of investment bankers to find new businesses to invest in.

  • Financial Modeling vs Investment Banking
  • Guide To Investment Banking
  • Financial Services vs Investment Banking
  • Investment Banking Business Models
  • Career Opportunities In Investment Banking
  • Investment Banking Industry
  • Investment Banking Courses in Delhi
  • Investment Banking Courses in Chennai
  • Investment Courses After 12th

Benefits of Investment Banking

Investment banking assists big businesses in a variety of ways to make crucial financial decisions and make sure they maximize revenues. That’s the reason, Investment banks are a prevalent financial institution among these businesses and even governments.

Here Are Some of the Advantages of Investment Banking:

  • Investment banks effectively manage their client and provide them with the information they require regarding the advantage and disadvantages of investing their money in other businesses or organizations.
  • These banks serve as a bridge between the company and the investor, ensuring a rise in financial capital by helping in major financial transactions like mergers and acquisitions.
  • It conducts an in-depth analysis of the deal and project that will be undertaken by its customer to ensure that the client’s money is invested safely and helps to reduce the risks involved with the mentioned deal or project.

What is Investment Banking Case Study?

You must have solved case studies during your investment banking training. 

Analyzing a business condition is done in case studies during investment banking interviews.

You would be provided with all the necessary data and have adequate time to examine broad case studies. There you would be asked for your opinion on business-related issues.

Your Task Includes,

  • Make the necessary deduction.
  • Investigate the matter, which is typically a client’s business.
  • Give suggestions for resolving the current issue along with an explanation.

Investment banking case studies are frequently used to evaluate a job candidate’s potential performance in real circumstances, where your interviewers would give you a problem and ask for a detailed recommendation.

By presenting them with a hypothetical scenario similar to those experiences while working in the field, your job is simply to analyze the scenario and give them justified reasons. 

Case studies are typically presented at the end of the application process, most frequently at the final interview or during the assessment center.

The majority of questions in investment banking case studies revolve around acquisition, capital raising, or business growth.

  • Financial Modeling Course
  • Digital Marketing Course
  • Technical Writing Course
  • Content Writing Course
  • Business Accounting And Taxation Course
  • CAT Coaching
  • Investment Banking Course
  • Data Analytics Course

What Are the Types of Case Studies?

Take home investment banking case study.

  • You will probably receive the case in advance so you have more time to work on it before the assessment day.
  • In the case of take-home case studies, you are given a few days to work on them, complete your analysis, and showcase your recommendation to the bankers over a 30-45 minutes presentation.
  • It involves a much deeper analysis including merger/LBO modeling, company procedures, and valuation.

On the Spot or Blind Investment Banking Case Study

  • On the day of your assessment center, the case can be presented to you blindly with little time for preparation.
  • These are given to you on the day of your interview and within an hour or two you are supposed to present it on the spot. 
  • The time split for this process would usually be 45-60 minutes of preparation, 10 minutes of presentation followed by a round of question and answer.
  • It would not involve such deep study.
  • Some case studies on investment banking may occasionally be given as a group task, where the employer will use this as an opportunity to examine the candidate’s analytical skills and teamwork qualities.

Why You Should Prepare for Investment Banking Case Study?

The theory behind these case studies is that because the qualification for various professions varies, bankers don’t trust the conventional method of interviewing applicants.

Case studies are preferred by banking recruiters as a better way to evaluate applicants because they show how you should perform in the workplace. 

You don’t need to worry about whether your response is right or wrong in this situation because the interviewer is more interested in how the candidate thinks and how well they can use logic and analysis to come up with an innovative answer to the challenge at that time.

Investment banking case study writers aim to inspire applicants to come up with their ideas and apply critical thinking.

Candidates for these positions must have a variety of skills, but problem-solving ability is one of the most important. 

Recruiters are interested in learning how you would approach difficult circumstances and use your intelligence, education, and professional experience to handle them successfully.

Additionally, candidates get an amazing chance to practice their other abilities including presentation, communication, and interpersonal skills.

These factors make case studies significantly more important than the other methods of evaluating applicants in the investment banking hiring process.

How to Prepare for Case Studies Before Assessment Day?

  • Read as much deal news as you can while preparing and going through the daily market and business news in popular publications.
  • Discover the many valuation methods, how they are calculated, and how they are evaluated then try out your calculations after watching YouTube videos or reading information on valuation methods.
  • You must prepare a structure using PowerPoint and Excel consistently, especially for modeling and valuation-based case studies.
  • Also, improve your familiarity with software like Microsoft Excel so that you can use spreadsheets effectively.
  • You should practice the kinds of questions you might get during your presentation. 
  • Real case study interview questions used by banks might not be available to you.
  • But, knowing that you need to practice, consider contacting a colleague or friend, or mentor you know who has gone through case study rounds for the types of questions they were asked.

How to Solve It and Perform Well During Assessment Day?

  • To solve the case study, take an organized strategy.
  • Before making a conclusion or deciding how to solve the problem, carefully analyze the case and the questions.
  • Professionally prepare Excel and PowerPoint while modeling case studies.
  • Every assentation you make should be supported by solid logical arguments, and the first few points should address that case’s most important issues.
  • Even if is not necessary, it would be advantageous to have a specialized understanding of the industry being studied.
  • Do not beat around the bush as you have limited time and hence be precise as you speak.

Investment Banking Case Study Examples and Answers

The decision-making case and the financial modeling case are two main types of case studies used in investment banking assessments.

Modeling – Investment Banking Case Study

Modeling case studies are typically take-home tasks that require you to perform straightforward valuation and financial modeling.

So rather than being a case study, it is more of a modeling exam.

The investment banker gives an overview of creating models as well as developing a variety of methods for an in-depth and useful understanding of the subject.

The modeling case study will either use a simpler merger or leveraged buyout model or a free cash flow to the business valuation. 

To assess whether the firms are overvalued or undervalued, you would be asked to examine their valuation multiples.

In most cases, you will be given a few days to finish your analysis. Then on the day of the interview, you must spend 30-45 minutes presenting your case to the bankers. 

Because you will have more time to work on it, the analysis will be considerably more in-depth than in a client case or decision-making case study.

Evaluating Strategic Alternative: Case Study 1 

To maximize shareholder value, a magazine publisher is deciding whether to sell, grow organically or make tiny “tuck-in” acquisitions. It is looking for an investment bank to assist it with its alternatives and has asked for a presentation from your company.

Given Materials: 

They would provide you with a firm summary with financial statements and five-year forecasts, a ten-page market analysis with main competitors, minor acquisition candidates, and recent transactions.

  • First, go through everything to get a sense of the industry, where it’s going, and how much this firm is worth in comparison.
  • Complete a quick assessment using publicly available rivals and prior transactions and a DCF.
  • Evaluate the figures provided by the value, the company’s potential for organic growth, and the availability of suitable targets for acquisition.

Decide what to do, in most cases it is advisable to say “Sell” unless the industry is expanding rapidly (Above 10% annually) the company is completely undervalued, or these are acquisition candidates that will increase revenue or profit by at least 20-30%.

After you have come to a decision, you must prepare your presentation and decide what to tell the bankers.

If you are analyzing scenarios like this during a 30-minute presentation, choose 10 slides with 3-4 important themes each and attempt to spend 3-4 minutes on each slide.

If you choose to write “Sell the company”, consider the following steps in preparing a presentation:

  • List the three main reasons for recommending selling
  • Overview of the industry- Is it expanding? Falling off? Or Being Inactive?
  • Position of the company in the industry? Leader or Second level position? Or is it strong or weak?
  • What would organic growth look like in five to ten years? How much larger or more valuable would the company be?
  • Prospective tuck-in acquisition candidates
  • Why organic growth and acquisition are not the answers.
  • Why selling now will generate the most shareholder value
  • Show prior transactions and public comparable valuations
  • Display the DCF output and the sensitivity chart valuation
  • Summary- State again that the best course of action is to sell your company right away and that neither organic development nor the acquisition of smaller firms would increase your company’s valuation in five to ten years.

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Decision Making- Investment Banking Case Study

Case studies that include decision-making are more common than case studies that involve modeling.

In this kind of case study, the applicant is required to decide for their client and offer advice.

The client case study can center on locating financial sources or determining whether or not a proposed merger should go forward.

At the interview, you should be prepared for these questions. Because you will have a set amount of time in which to examine and present the case. You will be given a total of 45-60 minutes to prepare and beforehand 10 minutes presentation with a Q&A round.

interview case study examples finance

Case Study 1

A customer owns her company fully and wants to release some liquidity while keeping a stake in it (Worth £400 million) what suggestions would you provide the client to get the best possible price?

Given Materials:

A corporate overview and details about the company’s performance over the last three years are provided.

Examine all financial information thoroughly and forecast the company’s organic development.

Consider the breakdown of the present valuation if you are provided with the relevant facts.

Think about the client’s industry and the expected trends for that market.

  • How does the valuation stack up against others in the field?
  • Is the current valuation backed up by reliable industry forecasts?
  • Given the slow development of the industry, would it be wise to give up more equity?
  • Is it expected that this industry will keep growing?

Consider present customer portfolios, projects, etc., while deciding whether any actions could be performed to boost the company’s value.

Think about suggestions for the client’s negotiation strategy:

  • How much equity should they be prepared to give up?
  • What number should the client choose as their actual reserve price, in your opinion?

Case Study 2

A publicly traded firm contacts you in the hope to raise money. Analysts’ expectations were met by recent profits and the latest financial report, but the company’s market values are lowest throughout the year. The management of the company has developed a project that it hopes would significantly boost EBIDTA and is looking to raise funding for it. What should the business do to raise the required capital?

Given material:

A summary of the business and its financial statements will be provided to you to prepare for this question.

You must think about whether the organization should raise debt or stock.

Think about the market capitalization, share count, and share price:

  • How would the company be affected in this environment if it issued fresh shares?
  • In terms of dilution of ownership, would equity financing be an appropriate option?
  • How would the effect currently differ from what it would be if the share price were back to normal?

Then examine the provided financial statements:

  • Would increasing debt be a better course of action if they are actually under management’s predictions?
  • How much they could possibly raise?
  • What potential problems could a debt increase bring about?
  • How could the cost of interest be reduced?

Prepare your presentation by organizing your ideas clearly and go through your questions and thought process to get at your recommendation.

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Potential Acquisition: Case Study 3 

A software company is considering a large acquisition. It has chosen the company it wishes to acquire and has contacted a number of investment banks to obtain their thoughts on the transaction and how much they should pay. Based on these presentation, it will choose an advisor and decide what to do.

Two page summaries of the buyers and seller, each containing financial data as well as statistics and multiples for similar organization.

With a recommendation on whether to move forward with the acquisition and if so, how much to pay for the target, create five minute presentation.

For the very first, you should consider this two question to solve this,

  • Should they purchase that target business?
  • What price should they want for the target business?

For an example,

Let’s assume that the comparable companies are trading at EBITDA multiples that range from 4 to 8 times, with the median at 6 times and the 75th percentile at 7 times, respectively. You choose the 25th to 75th percentile range of 5x-7x and apply it to the target company’s $10 million EBITDA since the target company’s profit margins and revenue growth are comparable.

Therefore, the purchase price should range between $50 million and $70 million.

If you have access to a computer, you can also design a DSF, but if you are short of time, keep it straightforward and use multiples.

To answer the question “Should they buy?” take note of the following:

  • Will the buyer be able to purchase the seller with enough cash, debt, or stock issuances?
  • Will the vendor increase the buyer’s revenue and profit?
  • Will the buyer benefit from new consumers, new goods, new markets, or other kinds of benefits as a result of the seller’s acquisition?

After concluding these, you can complete your presentation.

Investment Banking Case Study: FAQs

Q. what is an investment banking case study in short terms.

By presenting candidates with a hypothetical scenario that is comparable to those they might face on the job, investment banking case studies are frequently used to evaluate how the candidate would function in real circumstances.

Q. Which skills are tested in investment banking case study interviews?

Candidates’ analytical and financial skills as well as problem-solving, presentation skills, critical thinking, and interpersonal skills are tested during investment banking interviews.

Q. Is there any way to practice investment banking case studies?

There are various tools, financial modeling online courses, and investment banking textbooks accessible to practice investment banking case studies. Additionally, there are certain career services offered at universities and institutions that provide investment banking programs with case studies.

Investment Banking Case Study: Conclusion

The opportunities to demonstrate your abilities and expertise to investment bankers are provided by investment banking case studies, which are a crucial component of an interview process. 

We have covered some of the investment banking case study examples that will help you in preparation for an investment banking interview.

No doubt it is a very competitive yet tough field to break into but we hope, through this article you achieve the success ladder in the investment banking industry.

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Author: Swati Varli

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How to prepare for the case study in a private equity interview

How to prepare for the case study in a private equity interview

If you're  interviewing for a job in a private equity firm , then you will almost certainly come across a case study. Be warned: recruiters say this is the hardest part of the private equity interview process and how you handle it will decide whether you land the job.

“The case study is the most decisive part of the interview process because it’s the closest you get to doing the job,"  says Gail McManus of Private Equity Recruitment. It's purpose is to make you answer one question: 'Would you invest in this company?'

In most cases, you'll be given a  'Confidential Information Memorandum'  (CIM) relating to a company the private equity fund could invest in. You'll be expected to a) value the company, and b) put together an investment proposal - or not. Often, you'll be allowed to take the CIM away to prepare your proposal at home.

 “The case study is still the most decisive element of the recruitment process because it’s the closest you get to actually doing the job.  Candidates can win or lose based on how they perform on case study. People who are OK in the interview can land the job by showing the quality of their thinking, ” says McManus. “You need to show that you can think, and think like an investor.”

"The end decision [on whether to invest] is not important," says one private equity professional who's been through the process. "The important thing is to show your thinking/logic behind answer."

Preparing for a PE case study has distinctive challenges for consultants and bankers. If you're a consultant, you need to, "make a big effort to mix your strategic toolkit with financial analysis. You need to prove that you can go from a strategic conclusion to a finance conclusion," says one PE professional. Make sure you're totally familiar with the way an  LBO model  works.

If you're a banker, you need to, "make a big effort to develop your strategic thinking," says the same PE associate. The fund you're interviewing with will want to see that you can think like an investor, not just a financier. "Reaching financial conclusions is not enough. You need to argue why certain industry is good, and why you have a competitive advantage or not. Things can look good on paper, but things can change from a day to another. As a PE investor, hence as a case solver, you need to highlight and discuss risks, and whether you are ready or not to underwrite them."

Kadeem Houson, partner at KEA consultants, which specialises in hiring junior to mid-level PE professionals, says: “If you’re a banker you’re expected to have great technical skills so you need to demonstrate you can think commercially about the numbers you plugged in.    Conversely, a consultant who is good at blue sky thinking might be pressed more on their understanding of the model. Neither is better or worse – just be conscious of your blank spots.”

A good business versus a good investment

For McManus, one of the most important things to consider when looking at the case study is to understand the difference between a good business and a good investment. The difference between a good business and a good investment is the price. So you might have a great business but if you have to pay hugely for it it might not be a great business. Conversely you can have a so-so business but if you get it a good price it might make a great investment. “

McManus says as well as understanding the difference between a good business and a good investment, it’s important to focus on where the added value lies.  This has become a critical element for private equity firms to consider  as competition for assets has become even more fierce, given the amount of dry powder that funds now have at their disposal through a wide array of funds.   “Because of the competition for transactions generally you have to overpay to win a deal. So in the case study it’s really important you think about where the value creation opportunity lies in this business and what the exit would be,” says McManus.

She advises candidates to be brave and state a specific price, provided you can demonstrate how you’ve arrived at your answer.

Another private equity professional says you shouldn't go out on a limb, though, and you should appear cautious: "Keep all assumptions conservative at all times so as not to raise difficult questions. Always highlight risks, downsides as well as upsides."

Research the fund – find the angle

One private equity professional says that understanding why an investment might suit a particular firm could prove to be a plus. Prior to the case study, check whether the fund favours a particular industry sector, so that when it comes to the case study, you can add that to the investment thesis. “This enables you to showcase you have read up on the firm’s strategy/unique characteristics Something that would make it more likely for the fund you’re interviewing with winning the deal in what’s a very competitive market, said the PE source, who said this knowledge made him stand out.

However, the  primary purpose of the case study  is to test  the quality of your  thinking - it is not to  test you on your knowledge of the fund. “Knowing about the fund will tick an extra box, but the case study is about focusing on the three most critical things that will drive the investment decision,” says McManus. 

You need to think through these questions and issues:

We spoke to another private equity professional who's helpfully prepared a checklist of points to think about when you're faced with the case study. "It's a cheat sheet for some of my friends," he says.

When you're faced with a case study, he says you need to think in terms of: the industry, the company, the revenues, the costs, the competition, growth prospects, due dliligence, and the transaction itself.

The questions from his checklist are below. There's some overlap, but they're about as thorough as you can get.

When you're considering the  industry, you need to think about:

- What the company does. What are its key products and markets? What's the main source of demand for its products?

- What are the key drivers in that industry?

- Who are the market participants? How intense is the competition?

- Is the industry cyclical? Where are we in the cycle?

- Which outside factors might influence the industry (eg. government, climate, terrorism)?

When you're considering the company, you need to think about:  

- Its position in the industry

- Its growth profile

- Its operational leverage (cost structure)

- Its margins (are they sustainable/improvable)?

- Its fixed costs from capex and R&D

- Its working capital requirements

- Its management

- The minimum amount of cash needed to run the business

When you're considering the revenues, you need to think about:

- What's driving them

- Where the growth is coming from

- How diverse the revenues are

- How stable the revenues are (are they cyclical?)

- How much of the revenues are coming from associates and joint ventures

- What's the working capital requirement? - How long before revenues are booked and received?

When you're considering the costs, you need to think about:

- The diversity of suppliers

- The operational gearing (What's the fixed cost vs. the variable cost?)

- The exposure to commodity prices

- The capex/R&D requirements

- The pension funding

- The labour force (is it unionized?)

- The ability of the company to pass on price increases to customers

- The selling, general and administrative expenses (SG&A). - Can they be reduced?

When you're considering the competition, you need to think about:

- Industry concentration

- Buyer power

- Supplier power

- Brand power

- Economies of scale/network economies/minimum efficient scale

- Substitutes

- Input access

When you're considering the growth prospects, you need to think about:

- Scalability

- Change of asset usage (Leasehold vs. freehold, could manufacturing take place in China?)

- Disposals

- How to achieve efficiencies

- Limitations of current management

When you're considering the due diligence, you need to think about: 

- Change of control clauses

- Environmental and legal liabilities

- The power of pension schemes and unions

- The effectiveness of IT and operations systems

When you're considering the transaction, you need to think about:

- Your LBO model

- The basis for your valuation (have you used a Sum of The Parts (SOTP) valuation or another method - why?)

- The company's ability to raise debt

- The exit opportunities from the investment

- The synergies with other companies in the PE fund's portfolio

- The best timing for the transaction

BUT: keep things simple.

While this checklist is important as an input and a way to approach the task, w hen it comes to presenting the information, quality beats quantity.  McManus says: “The main reason why people aren’t successful in case studies is that they say too much.  What you’ve got to focus on is what’s critical, what makes a difference. It’s not about quantity, it’s about quality of thinking. If you do 30 strengths and weaknesses it might only be three that matter. It’s not the analysis that matters, but what’s important from that analysis. What’s critical to the investment thesis. Most firms tend to use the same case study so they can start to see what a good answer looks like.”

Houson agrees that picking out the most important elements in the case study are more important than spending too much time on an elaborate model.   “You don’t necessarily need to demonstrate such technical prowess when it comes to building the model. But you need to be comfortable about being challenged around the business case. Frankly it’s better to go for a simple answer which sparks a really interesting conversation rather than something that is purely judged from a technical standpoint.  The model is meant to inform the discussion, not be the discussion itself.”

Softer factors such as interpersonal skills are also important because if the case study is the closest thing you’ll get to doing the job, then it’s also a measure of how you might behave in a live situation.  McManus says: “This is what it will be like having a conversation at 11am  with your boss having been given the information memorandum the day before.  Not only are the interviewers looking at how you approach the case study, but they’re also looking at whether they want to have this conversation with you every Tuesday morning at 11am.”

The exercise usually takes around four hours if you include the modelling aspect, so there is time pressure. “Top tips are to practice how to think in a way that is simple, but fit for purpose. Think about how to work quickly. The ability to work under pressure is still important,” says Houson.

But some firms will allow you do complete the CIM over the weekend. In that case on one private equity professional says you should get someone who already works in PE to check it over for you. He also advises getting friends who've been through case study interviews before to put you through some mock questions on your presentation.

But McManus says this can lead to spending too much time and favours the shorter method. “It’s fairer and you can illustrate the quality of your thinking over a short space of time.”

The case study is conducted online, and because of Covid, so too are many of the follow-up discussions, so it’s worth thinking about how to present yourself on zoom or Teams. “Although a lot of these case studies over the last couple of years have been done remotely, in many ways that’s even more reason to try to bring out a bit of engagement and personality with the people you’re talking to." 

“ There’s never a right or wrong answer. Rather it’s showing your thinking and they like to have that discussion with you. It’s the nearest you get to doing the job. And that cuts both ways – if you don’t like the case study, you won't like doing the job. “

Contact:  [email protected]  in the first instance. Whatsapp/Signal/Telegram also available (Telegram: @SarahButcher)

Bear with us if you leave a comment at the bottom of this article: all our comments are moderated by human beings. Sometimes these humans might be asleep, or away from their desks, so it may take a while for your comment to appear. Eventually it will – unless it’s offensive or libelous (in which case it won’t.

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Financial Analyst Interview Experience for a Financial Services Firm

Financial analyst interview experience for analyst financial services firm.

The process of preparing for a financial analyst interview at a financial services firm is the combination of the technical and the behavioral aspects of the job. Here’s an outline of what you might expect and how to prepare:

The following is the description of the activities and the way of preparing for them.

Interview Stages

1. initial screening:.

  • Phone Interview: Usually, the HR or the recruiter, who is in charge of the process, is the one who checks: your history, your interest in the job, and your basic aptitude.
  • Online Assessment: Some companies may be forced to have a Test to verify the reasonableness and logical thinking of a potential employee with numerical or logical skills.

2. Technical Interview:

  • Financial Knowledge: You will have to talk about the financial statements, valuation techniques (DCF, multiples), and financial ratios to be prepared beforehand.
  • Market Knowledge : The market trends, economic indicators, and industry-specific info are the factors that make a business successful.
  • Excel Skills : The tips can be Excel-based and by combining the creativity with the number-crunching features of Excel, such as VLOOKUP, pivot tables, and financial modeling the result will be an explanation.

3. Case Study/Presentation:

  • Case Study: You might be asked to create a business case study and a presentation of the results. Thus, you will be able to evaluate your analytical, problem-solving, and presentation skills
  • Financial Modeling: Concentrating on the methods of developing a financial model from the input data and then formulating your recommendations based on the model’s analysis.

4. Behavioral Interview:

  • STAR Method: The initial responses to the questions will be the STAR method which will be explained as the Situation, Task, Action, Result. The subjects which are very common and the most prevalent for students in school are teamwork, leadership, conflict resolution and time management.
  • Fit Questions: Cultural fit and motivation evaluations, for instance, the reason why you want to work at the firm and your career goals is the, what you want to achieve in your career.

5. Final Interview:

  • Panel Interview: A meeting with the leaders and the team members who will be more than the usual but on the technical and behavioral aspects.
  • Offer Discussion: The whole negotiation has become the best example and hence, the details of the offer such as the role expectations will be discussed.

Sample Questions

Technical questions:.

  • Explain how you would do the analysis of a company.
  • The connection between the income statement, the balance sheet, and the cash flow statement is the link that shows how the company makes money, the assets and liabilities of the company, and the money that the company has.
  • What are the ways to find out if a company is financially stable or not?
  • The student can write a brief financial news story and show how it was the key element in the market fluctuations.
  • The DCF analysis is a method that includes the calculation of a project’s net present value by means of the discounted future cash flow and the initial investment.

Behavioral Questions:

  • Provide an instance of a day when you had a huge amount of data to deal with. How did you make sure the results were correct and then to communicate them?
  • Build for me a case where you had to finish a task in a very short time.
  • How can the problems of doing many things at the same time be solved?
  • Therefore, you will now be able to see how I handled the difficult team project and the way I treated it.
  • What are you going to do when you enroll in our company?

Preparation Tips

1. research the firm:.

  • Take a picture of the company, its product, the market, the latest news, and the company culture. You should be able to show your understanding of the issue by getting your answers from what was previously mentioned.

2. Brush Up on Technical Skills:

  • Independence at that time can also be viewed as the ability to make a fatal decision by emotions while still being in a protected relationship with another person. Brush Up on Technical Skills: The teacher can tell the students to work on their technical skills, which will mean they have to go over the instructions and think about the steps when using new technology.
  • Evaluate the fundamental financial concepts, hone the financial modelling skills and get to know the Excel functions that are used to achieve this goal.

3. Practice Behavioral Questions:

  • Begin with the STAR method to give a well-structured answer. Recall those times when you were able to do what you did and you showed how good you were and that was why you were able to do it.

4. Mock Interviews:

  • Plan the interviews with your friends or mentors in which you act as a real candidate and teach them how to present their ideas well and confidently.

5. Stay Updated:

  • At all times, do not ever forget to be in the know with the most current financial news and trends. You should know how to demonstrate that they are the main factors that affect the industry and the company.

During the Interview

  • Clarity and Conciseness: Be as brief and straightforward as possible when you are expressing your point of view. Do not use the jargon unless you are sure that the interviewer knows what it means.
  • Confidence and Positivity: Maintain a positive attitude, be active and show your happiness in the job and be confident about what you can do.
  • Ask Questions : Come up with authentic, detailed questions on the company’s way, the team structure, or the prospects of the firm to give more job opportunities. This is an evidence that you are really committed to it.

Post-Interview

  • Follow-Up: The last letter which is the thank-you email is the third and the most important one and is sometimes called the final goodbye letter. You have to send it a day or two after the interview to emphasize again your interest in the position and, in a few words, mention the main topic that was discussed during the interview.,

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In-house lawyers: case studies

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Roula Khalaf, Editor of the FT, selects her favourite stories in this weekly newsletter.

The case studies below, featuring the most innovative legal teams in the Asia-Pacific region highlight examples of their work in the following areas:

Operational transformation

New product and services

Sustainability and impact

Commercial and strategic advice, digital solutions, using generative artificial intelligence, people and skills.

All the case studies were researched, compiled and ranked by RSGI. “Winner” indicates that the organisation won an FT Innovative Lawyers Asia-Pacific award for 2024

Read the other FT Innovative Lawyers Asia-Pacific ‘Best practice case studies’, which showcase the standout innovations made for and by people working in the legal sector:

Practice of law Business of law

Winner: Telstra Originality: 9; Leadership: 8; Impact: 8; Total: 25 The legal team at the Australian telecoms company has built on previous improvements to the way it prioritises work from the rest of the business. It created a tool that measures capacity and provides the team with a system for discussing its scope to take on work — deciding how to prioritise tasks within the team, or justifying putting them out to external counsel. The resulting transparency on capacity and costs has enhanced relationships with the rest of the business.

HSBC O: 8; L: 8; I: 8; Total: 24 In 2023, the bank’s regional legal team built and deployed several tools, including a digital portal to receive legal requests from the business, a centralised system for approving marketing campaigns, and a chatbot to handle responses to routine queries. They are, so far, used by the digital legal team, the litigation department, and one of the banking teams.

Highly commended

Boston Consulting Group O: 8; L: 8; I: 7; Total: 23 As part of BCG’s strategy to increase artificial intelligence and digital consulting fees significantly by 2026, its legal department in the region is collaborating with counterparts across the firm in initiatives such as overhauling risk and contractual frameworks. Internally, it is adopting workload management software and trialling generative AI automation tools.

IAG O: 7; L: 8; I: 8; Total: 23 In 2023, the Australian insurance company’s legal team improved its operations by automating the generation of complex contracts and by extending its programme for managing external spending to its teams in New Zealand. The team also introduced a dashboard that displays quarterly and monthly reports on legal expenditures and how external law firms perform.

Zongteng Group O: 7; L: 8; I: 8; Total: 23 Lawyers at the Chinese logistics business built a database that collects details of global legislation, legal commentaries and cases, and names of recommended external counsel in countries where the business operates. The resource helps the small legal team, mainly based in China, to provide global legal advice.

WiseTech Global O: 6; L: 8; I: 7; Total: 21 To gain support from the business for several operational changes, lawyers recorded precisely how they spent their time — an unusual practice for in-house teams. The scrutiny helped identify where alterations, such as introducing a contract management system, would help improve efficiency. The improvements have saved the team hundreds of hours in answering routine queries.

BHP O: 6; L: 7; I: 7; Total: 20 In preparation for making use of generative AI, the mining group’s legal team has upgraded its systems to store documents in one place and to collect structured data. The team estimates that the move has already cut lawyers’ time spent on administrative tasks by a quarter.

Toll Group O: 6; L: 7; I: 7; Total: 20 The legal team at the global logistics business introduced an automation tool to speed up contract approval. Some 3,000 requests have been yielding valuable insights, such as how often negotiators deviate from standard contract terms.

Dentsu O: 6; L: 7; I: 6; Total: 19 The Japanese-led global advertising group’s Asia-Pacific legal team worked with the chief technology officer and other departments to improve and extend oversight of new products’ commercial viability and any potential data privacy questions, as well as other legal risks.

Equinix O: 6; L: 7; I: 6; Total: 19 The regional section of the data centre operator’s global legal team has centralised and streamlined several processes to enhance its contract management systems.

New products and services

Joint winners: Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing and HSBC Both legal teams: Originality: 8; Leadership: 8; Impact: 9; Total: 25 Launched in May 2023, the stock exchange operator’s Swap Connect programme allows offshore investors access to China’s $5tn interest rate swaps market, and is similar to existing programmes in Hong Kong that allow offshore investors to trade mainland bonds and stocks.

At Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing (HKEX), the legal team helped structure the link-up, backed by the Shanghai Clearing House and the China Foreign Exchange Trade System, and worked to secure regulatory approval in the territory and mainland. At HSBC, lawyers drafted the contracts used by both the onshore and offshore investors.

DBS Bank O: 7; L: 9; I: 7; Total: 23 In 2023, the Singaporean bank set up a group to improve its handling of customer safety, led by a senior member of the legal team. It created an enhanced anti-malware tool for DBS to prevent users of its banking app logging in remotely if it detects signs of fraudulent activity. The bank says this change has stopped S$14mn ($10.3mn) being taken fraudulently from accounts. Another product enables digital deposits but only in-person withdrawals.

CIMB O: 6; L: 7; I: 8; Total: 21 Lawyers at the Malaysian banking group advised it on the rollout of online business loans and personal loans to domestic customers in the country.

Westpac O: 6; L; 7; I; 8; Total: 21 Lawyers at the Australian bank supported the product team in redesigning its mobile banking app, advising on new features, consumer rights and data protection.

Winner: Asian Development Bank Originality: 8; Leadership: 9; Impact: 8; Total: 25 The bank is working with UN agencies to send aid to people in Afghanistan without money passing through the Taliban. Usually, ADB works directly with governments to provide funding but, because the Taliban is not generally recognised as a government by the international community, aid had to be delivered through other channels.

The legal team successfully argued to stakeholders that, because Afghanistan does not exercise jurisdiction over UN agencies, those organisations are appropriate entities through which to deliver aid.

The lawyers negotiated with the UN agencies to ensure the arrangement met ADB’s strict transparency requirements, such as it being able to inspect any suppliers the UN contracted with as part of the collaboration.

DBS Bank O: 7; L: 8; I: 8; Total: 23 Since 2020, the legal and compliance team at the Singapore bank has run “hackathons”, alongside other organisations, to try to address wider social problems. The 2023 edition focused on mental resilience. Some 27 ideas were generated, two of which are being explored for further development.

MTR Corporation O: 6; L: 8; I: 7; Total: 21 The Hong Kong railway operator’s legal team helped it to execute its environmental, social and governance strategy. This included developing a new corporate structure and working to secure a patent for a product that uses cameras and AI to prevent damage to escalators from discarded objects.

Standard Chartered Bank O: 7; L: 7; I: 6; Total: 20 Sustainability experts in the Apac region’s legal team developed a process whereby the bank can assess and mitigate competition and antitrust risk when working on sustainable projects with counterparts in the banking industry.

Klook O: 7; L: 6; I: 7; Total: 20 After the travel company came under criticism over animal welfare standards at wildlife attractions, it took action to improve them. The legal team piloted a programme, working with accreditation business Asian Captive Elephant Standards, to help five elephant visitor attractions that sold tickets through Klook to meet the new standards. Some venues listed on Klook may still offer close-quarter wildlife experiences, but these are not promoted or sold through the Klook site itself.

Winner: SoftBank Originality: 8; Leadership: 9; Impact: 9; Total: 26 The legal team advised the Japanese investment group on last September’s initial public offering of its UK chip designer Arm in the US. To expedite the deal, lawyers also helped SoftBank acquire an additional 25 per cent of Arm from its Saudi-backed investment partner Vision Fund, the $100bn vehicle that is managed by SoftBank itself.

The lawyers negotiated with investors and dealt with scrutiny over this related-party transaction. The legal team also dealt with the US Securities and Exchange Commission in preparation for Arm’s IPO, which saw the Japanese company raise nearly $5bn while retaining 90 per cent of the business — making it the largest US listing in almost two years.

Asian Development Bank O: 7; L: 8; I: 8; Total: 23 The legal team at the Manila-based institution advised on the arrangement, structuring and syndication of a $692mn financing package signed last March to fund the construction of Monsoon Wind Power Project — the largest wind power plant in south-east Asia. Electricity generated from the plant under construction, the first wind farm in Laos, will be sold to neighbouring Vietnam. Features such as a $50mn concessional financing package, in case of delays, provide additional reassurance for commercial lenders.

Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing (HKEX) O: 6; L: 9; I: 8; Total: 23 Lawyers at the stock exchange operator advised on narrowing the period between pricing and the start of share trading in an IPO from five days to two, via its new settlement platform Fast Interface for New Issuance, which was launched last year. The team worked with different stakeholders to digitise the previously paper-based system.

Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation O: 7; L: 7; I: 7; Total: 21 The public research body’s lawyers worked with Australian legal design firm Inkling to improve the project agreements it uses when collaborating with a range of industry and academic partners. New contracts that clearly set out expectations and undertakings of projects are designed to improve the relationships between the organisation, including ANSTO scientists, and external researchers when working together on collaborations.

HSBC O: 7; L: 7; I: 7; Total: 21 Lawyers designed the documentation for HSBC’s role as sole settlement bank for a scheme to link Hong Kong’s Faster Payment System with PromptPay in Thailand. Nine banks and payment providers have so far signed up to use the scheme.

Recruit O: 7; L: 7; I: 7; Total: 21 Legal and data teams at Japan’s biggest recruitment agency, which has been expanding AI services for job searches and matching, have developed a new governance and review process to ensure compliance with AI and anti-discrimination laws globally.

Winner: Tencent Originality: 8; Leadership: 8; Impact: 9; Total: 25 The legal team at the Chinese technology company has set up a platform to simplify and speed up the review process when artificial intelligence features are added to Tencent apps. Product developers answer a series of questions about how they plan to use AI in an app and where the data will come from, which allows the legal team to say within a day if it should go ahead.

UBS O: 8; L: 9; I: 7; Total: 24 A tool devised by the Swiss bank’s lawyers in collaboration with the IT team assists in approval for data-transfer requests. It saves an estimated 1,000 hours of lawyer time annually and allows for faster approval of outsourcing projects at the bank.

Flex O: 7; L: 8; I: 7; Total: 22 To comply with the US-based manufacturing company’s data-security requirements, the China legal team bought a licence outright for a contract lifecycle management platform in order to be able to customise it. The tool works on English- and Chinese-language documents and has cut the review time required for procurement contracts from days to hours.

Fazz O: 7; L: 7; I: 7; Total: 21 The legal team at the Singaporean fintech is collaborating with police and government agencies in the city state to help prevent cyber crime. The lawyers have created a tool that streamlines responses to requests for information from the police.

AS Watson O: 6; L: 7; I: 7; Total: 20 The group legal team at the Hong Kong-based global health and beauty retailer has customised a legal operations management platform to act as a contract management system. The new system automates document drafting, streamlines the approvals process and cuts contract review times by up to 50 per cent.

Klook O: 6; L: 7; I: 7; Total: 20 The legal team at the Hong Kong-based travel company adopted a contract management system, for both sales and procurement, to handle a year-on-year doubling in contracts without adding more lawyers.

Winner: DBS Bank Originality: 9; Leadership: 8; Impact: 8; Total: 25 As a proof-of-concept exercise, the legal team used an application to retrieve news articles about customers that it wished to scrutinise over potential illicit or illegal activities. It then used generative artificial intelligence to summarise the items to highlight relevant coverage. The full version of this tool went live earlier this year and the team is piloting several other uses for generative AI in detecting money laundering and fraud.

Telstra O: 9; L: 8; I: 7; Total: 24 The legal team at the Australian telecoms business is testing a generative AI tool’s accuracy for translating laws, such as those regarding billing, into obligation statements for the business. The AI assesses Telstra’s processes for ensuring compliance and suggests measures to improve them.

Westpac O: 8; L: 8; I: 8; Total: 24 In collaboration with law firms, technology companies and other professional services businesses, the legal team at the Australian bank tested several generative AI tools in different scenarios. The team says it is already seeing productivity gains. One of the most promising tools links the bank’s underlying regulations and policies to its supplier contracts, which allows users to better understand the reasoning behind certain contract clauses.

Lazada O: 7; L: 8; I: 8; Total: 23 The legal team at the south-east Asian ecommerce business used generative AI to accelerate its contract review process and to identify common risks across different agreements. The team estimates that contract review is already 20 per cent to 30 per cent faster on its standard work.

GLP O: 7; L: 7; I: 7; Total: 21 The legal team at the Singapore-based international logistics company worked with colleagues, including the chief financial officer and the IT team, to store financial and legal documents centrally. This will give the business’s generative AI tool better access to data.

LG Chem O: 7; L: 8; I: 6; Total: 21 The legal team at the South Korean chemical company is using generative AI tools on Chinese and Korean-language documents, to help review the contents of contracts and redraft clauses more easily. It is currently used for simple contracts, such as non-disclosure agreements.

McKinsey & Company O: 7; L: 7; I: 7; Total: 21 Asia-Pacific lawyers at the consulting business are using its internal generative AI tool, Lilli, to help craft responses to external counsel, to critique their own legal arguments, and to assist in translation as the business uses more than 10 languages in the region.

Winner: Boston Consulting Group Originality: 8; Leadership: 9; Impact: 9; Total: 26 The US-based consultancy is aiming to double the proportion of fees it gets from AI and digital consulting to 40 per cent of its global revenues by 2026 (last year, revenues were $12.3bn). To help with this, BCG’s legal team in the region has hired a range of experts in technology, intellectual property, the metaverse, and AI ethics. To keep abreast of the latest developments in the field, the team has designated individuals to gather and update information across their practice areas to feed into different parts of the business.

Nanyang Technological University O: 7; L: 8; I: 9; Total: 24 At the start of 2024, the Singaporean university’s 22-person legal team established a “360” structure that expects all its lawyers to have a working knowledge of all areas that the institution may need advice on. There are still specialists, but most queries can now be answered by anyone in the department.

DBS Bank O: 8; L: 9; I: 6; Total: 23 The legal and compliance team at Singapore’s biggest bank has developed a strategy for coping with the anticipated disruption of generative AI in its business. It plans to move those doing work that becomes obsolete into new areas, while other jobs will be redesigned to create pooled resources that can better serve multiple business teams, assisted by AI tools. As many as 80 per cent of the legal team now use generative AI tools regularly.

HSBC O: 7; L: 8; I: 8; Total: 23 The bank’s legal team in the region centralised its training programmes on a single platform that allows lawyers to track their progress, view past materials, and create a customised development plan. Topics range from sustainability to digital and personal banking.

FedEx O: 7; L: 8; I: 7; Total: 22 Ten lawyers at the package delivery business used their training in more flexible working to introduce new practices to the rest of the region’s legal team.

Another 20 team members joined a workshop to help develop a chatbot that can assist in answering routine legal queries and accessing template documents.

Telstra O: 6; L: 8; I: 8; Total: 22 The legal team at the Australian telecoms business launched a training scheme for new graduate recruits and paralegals, where successful applicants rotate through several areas of Telstra’s in-house department and can spend six months to a year on secondment at an external law firm.

Uber O: 7; L: 8; I: 7; Total: 22 Members of the ride-hailing app’s regional legal team are now obliged to work as taxi drivers or food delivery riders one day per quarter, and share feedback with operations and product teams on how the business can be improved.

Airbnb O: 7; L: 7; I: 7; Total: 21 The holiday rental website set up a training scheme to prepare lawyers with skills required for senior roles. It comprises a dozen training sessions on key areas of legal expertise. Sessions include role-playing a presentation to a board of directors.

Macquarie O: 7; L: 7; I: 7; Total: 21 Lawyers at the Australia-based financial services group created an intranet for the business. It provides regularly updated resources about various areas of legal advice and identifies the best person to contact for each topic.

MSD (Merck) O: 7; L: 8; I: 6; Total: 21 The multinational pharmaceutical company’s legal team in China has launched a diversity and inclusion programme for five law firms it works with. The programme pairs in-house counsel and private practice lawyers at different seniority levels to discuss ideas and challenges in the field.

Jera O: 6; L: 7; I: 7; Total: 20 The legal team at the Japanese power company has adopted a new system for the intake and allocation of work. It uses the resulting data to identify skills gaps and shape training and hiring.

McCain Foods O: 6; L: 8; I: 6; Total: 19 The Asia-Pacific legal team at the global frozen foods company rebranded internally, with the aim of making its communications, such as legal notifications, more immediately noticeable to the rest of the business.

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International Edition

Artificial intelligence in strategy

Can machines automate strategy development? The short answer is no. However, there are numerous aspects of strategists’ work where AI and advanced analytics tools can already bring enormous value. Yuval Atsmon is a senior partner who leads the new McKinsey Center for Strategy Innovation, which studies ways new technologies can augment the timeless principles of strategy. In this episode of the Inside the Strategy Room podcast, he explains how artificial intelligence is already transforming strategy and what’s on the horizon. This is an edited transcript of the discussion. For more conversations on the strategy issues that matter, follow the series on your preferred podcast platform .

Joanna Pachner: What does artificial intelligence mean in the context of strategy?

Yuval Atsmon: When people talk about artificial intelligence, they include everything to do with analytics, automation, and data analysis. Marvin Minsky, the pioneer of artificial intelligence research in the 1960s, talked about AI as a “suitcase word”—a term into which you can stuff whatever you want—and that still seems to be the case. We are comfortable with that because we think companies should use all the capabilities of more traditional analysis while increasing automation in strategy that can free up management or analyst time and, gradually, introducing tools that can augment human thinking.

Joanna Pachner: AI has been embraced by many business functions, but strategy seems to be largely immune to its charms. Why do you think that is?

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Yuval Atsmon: You’re right about the limited adoption. Only 7 percent of respondents to our survey about the use of AI say they use it in strategy or even financial planning, whereas in areas like marketing, supply chain, and service operations, it’s 25 or 30 percent. One reason adoption is lagging is that strategy is one of the most integrative conceptual practices. When executives think about strategy automation, many are looking too far ahead—at AI capabilities that would decide, in place of the business leader, what the right strategy is. They are missing opportunities to use AI in the building blocks of strategy that could significantly improve outcomes.

I like to use the analogy to virtual assistants. Many of us use Alexa or Siri but very few people use these tools to do more than dictate a text message or shut off the lights. We don’t feel comfortable with the technology’s ability to understand the context in more sophisticated applications. AI in strategy is similar: it’s hard for AI to know everything an executive knows, but it can help executives with certain tasks.

When executives think about strategy automation, many are looking too far ahead—at AI deciding the right strategy. They are missing opportunities to use AI in the building blocks of strategy.

Joanna Pachner: What kind of tasks can AI help strategists execute today?

Yuval Atsmon: We talk about six stages of AI development. The earliest is simple analytics, which we refer to as descriptive intelligence. Companies use dashboards for competitive analysis or to study performance in different parts of the business that are automatically updated. Some have interactive capabilities for refinement and testing.

The second level is diagnostic intelligence, which is the ability to look backward at the business and understand root causes and drivers of performance. The level after that is predictive intelligence: being able to anticipate certain scenarios or options and the value of things in the future based on momentum from the past as well as signals picked in the market. Both diagnostics and prediction are areas that AI can greatly improve today. The tools can augment executives’ analysis and become areas where you develop capabilities. For example, on diagnostic intelligence, you can organize your portfolio into segments to understand granularly where performance is coming from and do it in a much more continuous way than analysts could. You can try 20 different ways in an hour versus deploying one hundred analysts to tackle the problem.

Predictive AI is both more difficult and more risky. Executives shouldn’t fully rely on predictive AI, but it provides another systematic viewpoint in the room. Because strategic decisions have significant consequences, a key consideration is to use AI transparently in the sense of understanding why it is making a certain prediction and what extrapolations it is making from which information. You can then assess if you trust the prediction or not. You can even use AI to track the evolution of the assumptions for that prediction.

Those are the levels available today. The next three levels will take time to develop. There are some early examples of AI advising actions for executives’ consideration that would be value-creating based on the analysis. From there, you go to delegating certain decision authority to AI, with constraints and supervision. Eventually, there is the point where fully autonomous AI analyzes and decides with no human interaction.

Because strategic decisions have significant consequences, you need to understand why AI is making a certain prediction and what extrapolations it’s making from which information.

Joanna Pachner: What kind of businesses or industries could gain the greatest benefits from embracing AI at its current level of sophistication?

Yuval Atsmon: Every business probably has some opportunity to use AI more than it does today. The first thing to look at is the availability of data. Do you have performance data that can be organized in a systematic way? Companies that have deep data on their portfolios down to business line, SKU, inventory, and raw ingredients have the biggest opportunities to use machines to gain granular insights that humans could not.

Companies whose strategies rely on a few big decisions with limited data would get less from AI. Likewise, those facing a lot of volatility and vulnerability to external events would benefit less than companies with controlled and systematic portfolios, although they could deploy AI to better predict those external events and identify what they can and cannot control.

Third, the velocity of decisions matters. Most companies develop strategies every three to five years, which then become annual budgets. If you think about strategy in that way, the role of AI is relatively limited other than potentially accelerating analyses that are inputs into the strategy. However, some companies regularly revisit big decisions they made based on assumptions about the world that may have since changed, affecting the projected ROI of initiatives. Such shifts would affect how you deploy talent and executive time, how you spend money and focus sales efforts, and AI can be valuable in guiding that. The value of AI is even bigger when you can make decisions close to the time of deploying resources, because AI can signal that your previous assumptions have changed from when you made your plan.

Joanna Pachner: Can you provide any examples of companies employing AI to address specific strategic challenges?

Yuval Atsmon: Some of the most innovative users of AI, not coincidentally, are AI- and digital-native companies. Some of these companies have seen massive benefits from AI and have increased its usage in other areas of the business. One mobility player adjusts its financial planning based on pricing patterns it observes in the market. Its business has relatively high flexibility to demand but less so to supply, so the company uses AI to continuously signal back when pricing dynamics are trending in a way that would affect profitability or where demand is rising. This allows the company to quickly react to create more capacity because its profitability is highly sensitive to keeping demand and supply in equilibrium.

Joanna Pachner: Given how quickly things change today, doesn’t AI seem to be more a tactical than a strategic tool, providing time-sensitive input on isolated elements of strategy?

Yuval Atsmon: It’s interesting that you make the distinction between strategic and tactical. Of course, every decision can be broken down into smaller ones, and where AI can be affordably used in strategy today is for building blocks of the strategy. It might feel tactical, but it can make a massive difference. One of the world’s leading investment firms, for example, has started to use AI to scan for certain patterns rather than scanning individual companies directly. AI looks for consumer mobile usage that suggests a company’s technology is catching on quickly, giving the firm an opportunity to invest in that company before others do. That created a significant strategic edge for them, even though the tool itself may be relatively tactical.

Joanna Pachner: McKinsey has written a lot about cognitive biases  and social dynamics that can skew decision making. Can AI help with these challenges?

Yuval Atsmon: When we talk to executives about using AI in strategy development, the first reaction we get is, “Those are really big decisions; what if AI gets them wrong?” The first answer is that humans also get them wrong—a lot. [Amos] Tversky, [Daniel] Kahneman, and others have proven that some of those errors are systemic, observable, and predictable. The first thing AI can do is spot situations likely to give rise to biases. For example, imagine that AI is listening in on a strategy session where the CEO proposes something and everyone says “Aye” without debate and discussion. AI could inform the room, “We might have a sunflower bias here,” which could trigger more conversation and remind the CEO that it’s in their own interest to encourage some devil’s advocacy.

We also often see confirmation bias, where people focus their analysis on proving the wisdom of what they already want to do, as opposed to looking for a fact-based reality. Just having AI perform a default analysis that doesn’t aim to satisfy the boss is useful, and the team can then try to understand why that is different than the management hypothesis, triggering a much richer debate.

In terms of social dynamics, agency problems can create conflicts of interest. Every business unit [BU] leader thinks that their BU should get the most resources and will deliver the most value, or at least they feel they should advocate for their business. AI provides a neutral way based on systematic data to manage those debates. It’s also useful for executives with decision authority, since we all know that short-term pressures and the need to make the quarterly and annual numbers lead people to make different decisions on the 31st of December than they do on January 1st or October 1st. Like the story of Ulysses and the sirens, you can use AI to remind you that you wanted something different three months earlier. The CEO still decides; AI can just provide that extra nudge.

Joanna Pachner: It’s like you have Spock next to you, who is dispassionate and purely analytical.

Yuval Atsmon: That is not a bad analogy—for Star Trek fans anyway.

Joanna Pachner: Do you have a favorite application of AI in strategy?

Yuval Atsmon: I have worked a lot on resource allocation, and one of the challenges, which we call the hockey stick phenomenon, is that executives are always overly optimistic about what will happen. They know that resource allocation will inevitably be defined by what you believe about the future, not necessarily by past performance. AI can provide an objective prediction of performance starting from a default momentum case: based on everything that happened in the past and some indicators about the future, what is the forecast of performance if we do nothing? This is before we say, “But I will hire these people and develop this new product and improve my marketing”— things that every executive thinks will help them overdeliver relative to the past. The neutral momentum case, which AI can calculate in a cold, Spock-like manner, can change the dynamics of the resource allocation discussion. It’s a form of predictive intelligence accessible today and while it’s not meant to be definitive, it provides a basis for better decisions.

Joanna Pachner: Do you see access to technology talent as one of the obstacles to the adoption of AI in strategy, especially at large companies?

Yuval Atsmon: I would make a distinction. If you mean machine-learning and data science talent or software engineers who build the digital tools, they are definitely not easy to get. However, companies can increasingly use platforms that provide access to AI tools and require less from individual companies. Also, this domain of strategy is exciting—it’s cutting-edge, so it’s probably easier to get technology talent for that than it might be for manufacturing work.

The bigger challenge, ironically, is finding strategists or people with business expertise to contribute to the effort. You will not solve strategy problems with AI without the involvement of people who understand the customer experience and what you are trying to achieve. Those who know best, like senior executives, don’t have time to be product managers for the AI team. An even bigger constraint is that, in some cases, you are asking people to get involved in an initiative that may make their jobs less important. There could be plenty of opportunities for incorpo­rating AI into existing jobs, but it’s something companies need to reflect on. The best approach may be to create a digital factory where a different team tests and builds AI applications, with oversight from senior stakeholders.

The big challenge is finding strategists to contribute to the AI effort. You are asking people to get involved in an initiative that may make their jobs less important.

Joanna Pachner: Do you think this worry about job security and the potential that AI will automate strategy is realistic?

Yuval Atsmon: The question of whether AI will replace human judgment and put humanity out of its job is a big one that I would leave for other experts.

The pertinent question is shorter-term automation. Because of its complexity, strategy would be one of the later domains to be affected by automation, but we are seeing it in many other domains. However, the trend for more than two hundred years has been that automation creates new jobs, although ones requiring different skills. That doesn’t take away the fear some people have of a machine exposing their mistakes or doing their job better than they do it.

Joanna Pachner: We recently published an article about strategic courage in an age of volatility  that talked about three types of edge business leaders need to develop. One of them is an edge in insights. Do you think AI has a role to play in furnishing a proprietary insight edge?

Yuval Atsmon: One of the challenges most strategists face is the overwhelming complexity of the world we operate in—the number of unknowns, the information overload. At one level, it may seem that AI will provide another layer of complexity. In reality, it can be a sharp knife that cuts through some of the clutter. The question to ask is, Can AI simplify my life by giving me sharper, more timely insights more easily?

Joanna Pachner: You have been working in strategy for a long time. What sparked your interest in exploring this intersection of strategy and new technology?

Yuval Atsmon: I have always been intrigued by things at the boundaries of what seems possible. Science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke’s second law is that to discover the limits of the possible, you have to venture a little past them into the impossible, and I find that particularly alluring in this arena.

AI in strategy is in very nascent stages but could be very consequential for companies and for the profession. For a top executive, strategic decisions are the biggest way to influence the business, other than maybe building the top team, and it is amazing how little technology is leveraged in that process today. It’s conceivable that competitive advantage will increasingly rest in having executives who know how to apply AI well. In some domains, like investment, that is already happening, and the difference in returns can be staggering. I find helping companies be part of that evolution very exciting.

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Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) was legalized in Canada in 2016. Canada’s legislation is the first to permit Nurse Practitioners (NP) to serve as independent MAiD assessors and providers. Registered Nurses’ (RN) also have important roles in MAiD that include MAiD care coordination; client and family teaching and support, MAiD procedural quality; healthcare provider and public education; and bereavement care for family. Nurses have a right under the law to conscientious objection to participating in MAiD. Therefore, it is essential to prepare nurses in their entry-level education for the practice implications and moral complexities inherent in this practice. Knowing what nursing students think about MAiD is a critical first step. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a survey to measure nursing students’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, influences, and willingness to be involved in MAiD in the Canadian context.

The design was a mixed-method, modified e-Delphi method that entailed item generation from the literature, item refinement through a 2 round survey of an expert faculty panel, and item validation through a cognitive focus group interview with nursing students. The settings were a University located in an urban area and a College located in a rural area in Western Canada.

During phase 1, a 56-item survey was developed from existing literature that included demographic items and items designed to measure experience with death and dying (including MAiD), education and preparation, attitudes and beliefs, influences on those beliefs, and anticipated future involvement. During phase 2, an expert faculty panel reviewed, modified, and prioritized the items yielding 51 items. During phase 3, a sample of nursing students further evaluated and modified the language in the survey to aid readability and comprehension. The final survey consists of 45 items including 4 case studies.

Systematic evaluation of knowledge-to-date coupled with stakeholder perspectives supports robust survey design. This study yielded a survey to assess nursing students’ attitudes toward MAiD in a Canadian context.

The survey is appropriate for use in education and research to measure knowledge and attitudes about MAiD among nurse trainees and can be a helpful step in preparing nursing students for entry-level practice.

Peer Review reports

Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) is permitted under an amendment to Canada’s Criminal Code which was passed in 2016 [ 1 ]. MAiD is defined in the legislation as both self-administered and clinician-administered medication for the purpose of causing death. In the 2016 Bill C-14 legislation one of the eligibility criteria was that an applicant for MAiD must have a reasonably foreseeable natural death although this term was not defined. It was left to the clinical judgement of MAiD assessors and providers to determine the time frame that constitutes reasonably foreseeable [ 2 ]. However, in 2021 under Bill C-7, the eligibility criteria for MAiD were changed to allow individuals with irreversible medical conditions, declining health, and suffering, but whose natural death was not reasonably foreseeable, to receive MAiD [ 3 ]. This population of MAiD applicants are referred to as Track 2 MAiD (those whose natural death is foreseeable are referred to as Track 1). Track 2 applicants are subject to additional safeguards under the 2021 C-7 legislation.

Three additional proposed changes to the legislation have been extensively studied by Canadian Expert Panels (Council of Canadian Academics [CCA]) [ 4 , 5 , 6 ] First, under the legislation that defines Track 2, individuals with mental disease as their sole underlying medical condition may apply for MAiD, but implementation of this practice is embargoed until March 2027 [ 4 ]. Second, there is consideration of allowing MAiD to be implemented through advanced consent. This would make it possible for persons living with dementia to receive MAID after they have lost the capacity to consent to the procedure [ 5 ]. Third, there is consideration of extending MAiD to mature minors. A mature minor is defined as “a person under the age of majority…and who has the capacity to understand and appreciate the nature and consequences of a decision” ([ 6 ] p. 5). In summary, since the legalization of MAiD in 2016 the eligibility criteria and safeguards have evolved significantly with consequent implications for nurses and nursing care. Further, the number of Canadians who access MAiD shows steady increases since 2016 [ 7 ] and it is expected that these increases will continue in the foreseeable future.

Nurses have been integral to MAiD care in the Canadian context. While other countries such as Belgium and the Netherlands also permit euthanasia, Canada is the first country to allow Nurse Practitioners (Registered Nurses with additional preparation typically achieved at the graduate level) to act independently as assessors and providers of MAiD [ 1 ]. Although the role of Registered Nurses (RNs) in MAiD is not defined in federal legislation, it has been addressed at the provincial/territorial-level with variability in scope of practice by region [ 8 , 9 ]. For example, there are differences with respect to the obligation of the nurse to provide information to patients about MAiD, and to the degree that nurses are expected to ensure that patient eligibility criteria and safeguards are met prior to their participation [ 10 ]. Studies conducted in the Canadian context indicate that RNs perform essential roles in MAiD care coordination; client and family teaching and support; MAiD procedural quality; healthcare provider and public education; and bereavement care for family [ 9 , 11 ]. Nurse practitioners and RNs are integral to a robust MAiD care system in Canada and hence need to be well-prepared for their role [ 12 ].

Previous studies have found that end of life care, and MAiD specifically, raise complex moral and ethical issues for nurses [ 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ]. The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of nurses are important across practice settings because nurses have consistent, ongoing, and direct contact with patients who experience chronic or life-limiting health conditions. Canadian studies exploring nurses’ moral and ethical decision-making in relation to MAiD reveal that although some nurses are clear in their support for, or opposition to, MAiD, others are unclear on what they believe to be good and right [ 14 ]. Empirical findings suggest that nurses go through a period of moral sense-making that is often informed by their family, peers, and initial experiences with MAID [ 17 , 18 ]. Canadian legislation and policy specifies that nurses are not required to participate in MAiD and may recuse themselves as conscientious objectors with appropriate steps to ensure ongoing and safe care of patients [ 1 , 19 ]. However, with so many nurses having to reflect on and make sense of their moral position, it is essential that they are given adequate time and preparation to make an informed and thoughtful decision before they participate in a MAID death [ 20 , 21 ].

It is well established that nursing students receive inconsistent exposure to end of life care issues [ 22 ] and little or no training related to MAiD [ 23 ]. Without such education and reflection time in pre-entry nursing preparation, nurses are at significant risk for moral harm. An important first step in providing this preparation is to be able to assess the knowledge, values, and beliefs of nursing students regarding MAID and end of life care. As demand for MAiD increases along with the complexities of MAiD, it is critical to understand the knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of engagement with MAiD among nursing students as a baseline upon which to build curriculum and as a means to track these variables over time.

Aim, design, and setting

The aim of this study was to develop a survey to measure nursing students’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, influences, and willingness to be involved in MAiD in the Canadian context. We sought to explore both their willingness to be involved in the registered nursing role and in the nurse practitioner role should they chose to prepare themselves to that level of education. The design was a mixed-method, modified e-Delphi method that entailed item generation, item refinement through an expert faculty panel [ 24 , 25 , 26 ], and initial item validation through a cognitive focus group interview with nursing students [ 27 ]. The settings were a University located in an urban area and a College located in a rural area in Western Canada.

Participants

A panel of 10 faculty from the two nursing education programs were recruited for Phase 2 of the e-Delphi. To be included, faculty were required to have a minimum of three years of experience in nurse education, be employed as nursing faculty, and self-identify as having experience with MAiD. A convenience sample of 5 fourth-year nursing students were recruited to participate in Phase 3. Students had to be in good standing in the nursing program and be willing to share their experiences of the survey in an online group interview format.

The modified e-Delphi was conducted in 3 phases: Phase 1 entailed item generation through literature and existing survey review. Phase 2 entailed item refinement through a faculty expert panel review with focus on content validity, prioritization, and revision of item wording [ 25 ]. Phase 3 entailed an assessment of face validity through focus group-based cognitive interview with nursing students.

Phase I. Item generation through literature review

The goal of phase 1 was to develop a bank of survey items that would represent the variables of interest and which could be provided to expert faculty in Phase 2. Initial survey items were generated through a literature review of similar surveys designed to assess knowledge and attitudes toward MAiD/euthanasia in healthcare providers; Canadian empirical studies on nurses’ roles and/or experiences with MAiD; and legislative and expert panel documents that outlined proposed changes to the legislative eligibility criteria and safeguards. The literature review was conducted in three online databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Medline. Key words for the search included nurses , nursing students , medical students , NPs, MAiD , euthanasia , assisted death , and end-of-life care . Only articles written in English were reviewed. The legalization and legislation of MAiD is new in many countries; therefore, studies that were greater than twenty years old were excluded, no further exclusion criteria set for country.

Items from surveys designed to measure similar variables in other health care providers and geographic contexts were placed in a table and similar items were collated and revised into a single item. Then key variables were identified from the empirical literature on nurses and MAiD in Canada and checked against the items derived from the surveys to ensure that each of the key variables were represented. For example, conscientious objection has figured prominently in the Canadian literature, but there were few items that assessed knowledge of conscientious objection in other surveys and so items were added [ 15 , 21 , 28 , 29 ]. Finally, four case studies were added to the survey to address the anticipated changes to the Canadian legislation. The case studies were based upon the inclusion of mature minors, advanced consent, and mental disorder as the sole underlying medical condition. The intention was to assess nurses’ beliefs and comfort with these potential legislative changes.

Phase 2. Item refinement through expert panel review

The goal of phase 2 was to refine and prioritize the proposed survey items identified in phase 1 using a modified e-Delphi approach to achieve consensus among an expert panel [ 26 ]. Items from phase 1 were presented to an expert faculty panel using a Qualtrics (Provo, UT) online survey. Panel members were asked to review each item to determine if it should be: included, excluded or adapted for the survey. When adapted was selected faculty experts were asked to provide rationale and suggestions for adaptation through the use of an open text box. Items that reached a level of 75% consensus for either inclusion or adaptation were retained [ 25 , 26 ]. New items were categorized and added, and a revised survey was presented to the panel of experts in round 2. Panel members were again asked to review items, including new items, to determine if it should be: included, excluded, or adapted for the survey. Round 2 of the modified e-Delphi approach also included an item prioritization activity, where participants were then asked to rate the importance of each item, based on a 5-point Likert scale (low to high importance), which De Vaus [ 30 ] states is helpful for increasing the reliability of responses. Items that reached a 75% consensus on inclusion were then considered in relation to the importance it was given by the expert panel. Quantitative data were managed using SPSS (IBM Corp).

Phase 3. Face validity through cognitive interviews with nursing students

The goal of phase 3 was to obtain initial face validity of the proposed survey using a sample of nursing student informants. More specifically, student participants were asked to discuss how items were interpreted, to identify confusing wording or other problematic construction of items, and to provide feedback about the survey as a whole including readability and organization [ 31 , 32 , 33 ]. The focus group was held online and audio recorded. A semi-structured interview guide was developed for this study that focused on clarity, meaning, order and wording of questions; emotions evoked by the questions; and overall survey cohesion and length was used to obtain data (see Supplementary Material 2  for the interview guide). A prompt to “think aloud” was used to limit interviewer-imposed bias and encourage participants to describe their thoughts and response to a given item as they reviewed survey items [ 27 ]. Where needed, verbal probes such as “could you expand on that” were used to encourage participants to expand on their responses [ 27 ]. Student participants’ feedback was collated verbatim and presented to the research team where potential survey modifications were negotiated and finalized among team members. Conventional content analysis [ 34 ] of focus group data was conducted to identify key themes that emerged through discussion with students. Themes were derived from the data by grouping common responses and then using those common responses to modify survey items.

Ten nursing faculty participated in the expert panel. Eight of the 10 faculty self-identified as female. No faculty panel members reported conscientious objector status and ninety percent reported general agreement with MAiD with one respondent who indicated their view as “unsure.” Six of the 10 faculty experts had 16 years of experience or more working as a nurse educator.

Five nursing students participated in the cognitive interview focus group. The duration of the focus group was 2.5 h. All participants identified that they were born in Canada, self-identified as female (one preferred not to say) and reported having received some instruction about MAiD as part of their nursing curriculum. See Tables  1 and 2 for the demographic descriptors of the study sample. Study results will be reported in accordance with the study phases. See Fig.  1 for an overview of the results from each phase.

figure 1

Fig. 1  Overview of survey development findings

Phase 1: survey item generation

Review of the literature identified that no existing survey was available for use with nursing students in the Canadian context. However, an analysis of themes across qualitative and quantitative studies of physicians, medical students, nurses, and nursing students provided sufficient data to develop a preliminary set of items suitable for adaptation to a population of nursing students.

Four major themes and factors that influence knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about MAiD were evident from the literature: (i) endogenous or individual factors such as age, gender, personally held values, religion, religiosity, and/or spirituality [ 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 ], (ii) experience with death and dying in personal and/or professional life [ 35 , 40 , 41 , 43 , 44 , 45 ], (iii) training including curricular instruction about clinical role, scope of practice, or the law [ 23 , 36 , 39 ], and (iv) exogenous or social factors such as the influence of key leaders, colleagues, friends and/or family, professional and licensure organizations, support within professional settings, and/or engagement in MAiD in an interdisciplinary team context [ 9 , 35 , 46 ].

Studies of nursing students also suggest overlap across these categories. For example, value for patient autonomy [ 23 ] and the moral complexity of decision-making [ 37 ] are important factors that contribute to attitudes about MAiD and may stem from a blend of personally held values coupled with curricular content, professional training and norms, and clinical exposure. For example, students report that participation in end of life care allows for personal growth, shifts in perception, and opportunities to build therapeutic relationships with their clients [ 44 , 47 , 48 ].

Preliminary items generated from the literature resulted in 56 questions from 11 published sources (See Table  3 ). These items were constructed across four main categories: (i) socio-demographic questions; (ii) end of life care questions; (iii) knowledge about MAiD; or (iv) comfort and willingness to participate in MAiD. Knowledge questions were refined to reflect current MAiD legislation, policies, and regulatory frameworks. Falconer [ 39 ] and Freeman [ 45 ] studies were foundational sources for item selection. Additionally, four case studies were written to reflect the most recent anticipated changes to MAiD legislation and all used the same open-ended core questions to address respondents’ perspectives about the patient’s right to make the decision, comfort in assisting a physician or NP to administer MAiD in that scenario, and hypothesized comfort about serving as a primary provider if qualified as an NP in future. Response options for the survey were also constructed during this stage and included: open text, categorical, yes/no , and Likert scales.

Phase 2: faculty expert panel review

Of the 56 items presented to the faculty panel, 54 questions reached 75% consensus. However, based upon the qualitative responses 9 items were removed largely because they were felt to be repetitive. Items that generated the most controversy were related to measuring religion and spirituality in the Canadian context, defining end of life care when there is no agreed upon time frames (e.g., last days, months, or years), and predicting willingness to be involved in a future events – thus predicting their future selves. Phase 2, round 1 resulted in an initial set of 47 items which were then presented back to the faculty panel in round 2.

Of the 47 initial questions presented to the panel in round 2, 45 reached a level of consensus of 75% or greater, and 34 of these questions reached a level of 100% consensus [ 27 ] of which all participants chose to include without any adaptations) For each question, level of importance was determined based on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant, 2 = somewhat unimportant, 3 = neutral, 4 = somewhat important, and 5 = very important). Figure  2 provides an overview of the level of importance assigned to each item.

figure 2

Ranking level of importance for survey items

After round 2, a careful analysis of participant comments and level of importance was completed by the research team. While the main method of survey item development came from participants’ response to the first round of Delphi consensus ratings, level of importance was used to assist in the decision of whether to keep or modify questions that created controversy, or that rated lower in the include/exclude/adapt portion of the Delphi. Survey items that rated low in level of importance included questions about future roles, sex and gender, and religion/spirituality. After deliberation by the research committee, these questions were retained in the survey based upon the importance of these variables in the scientific literature.

Of the 47 questions remaining from Phase 2, round 2, four were revised. In addition, the two questions that did not meet the 75% cut off level for consensus were reviewed by the research team. The first question reviewed was What is your comfort level with providing a MAiD death in the future if you were a qualified NP ? Based on a review of participant comments, it was decided to retain this question for the cognitive interviews with students in the final phase of testing. The second question asked about impacts on respondents’ views of MAiD and was changed from one item with 4 subcategories into 4 separate items, resulting in a final total of 51 items for phase 3. The revised survey was then brought forward to the cognitive interviews with student participants in Phase 3. (see Supplementary Material 1 for a complete description of item modification during round 2).

Phase 3. Outcomes of cognitive interview focus group

Of the 51 items reviewed by student participants, 29 were identified as clear with little or no discussion. Participant comments for the remaining 22 questions were noted and verified against the audio recording. Following content analysis of the comments, four key themes emerged through the student discussion: unclear or ambiguous wording; difficult to answer questions; need for additional response options; and emotional response evoked by questions. An example of unclear or ambiguous wording was a request for clarity in the use of the word “sufficient” in the context of assessing an item that read “My nursing education has provided sufficient content about the nursing role in MAiD.” “Sufficient” was viewed as subjective and “laden with…complexity that distracted me from the question.” The group recommended rewording the item to read “My nursing education has provided enough content for me to care for a patient considering or requesting MAiD.”

An example of having difficulty answering questions related to limited knowledge related to terms used in the legislation such as such as safeguards , mature minor , eligibility criteria , and conscientious objection. Students were unclear about what these words meant relative to the legislation and indicated that this lack of clarity would hamper appropriate responses to the survey. To ensure that respondents are able to answer relevant questions, student participants recommended that the final survey include explanation of key terms such as mature minor and conscientious objection and an overview of current legislation.

Response options were also a point of discussion. Participants noted a lack of distinction between response options of unsure and unable to say . Additionally, scaling of attitudes was noted as important since perspectives about MAiD are dynamic and not dichotomous “agree or disagree” responses. Although the faculty expert panel recommended the integration of the demographic variables of religious and/or spiritual remain as a single item, the student group stated a preference to have religion and spirituality appear as separate items. The student focus group also took issue with separate items for the variables of sex and gender, specifically that non-binary respondents might feel othered or “outed” particularly when asked to identify their sex. These variables had been created based upon best practices in health research but students did not feel they were appropriate in this context [ 49 ]. Finally, students agreed with the faculty expert panel in terms of the complexity of projecting their future involvement as a Nurse Practitioner. One participant stated: “I certainly had to like, whoa, whoa, whoa. Now let me finish this degree first, please.” Another stated, “I'm still imagining myself, my future career as an RN.”

Finally, student participants acknowledged the array of emotions that some of the items produced for them. For example, one student described positive feelings when interacting with the survey. “Brought me a little bit of feeling of joy. Like it reminded me that this is the last piece of independence that people grab on to.” Another participant, described the freedom that the idea of an advance request gave her. “The advance request gives the most comfort for me, just with early onset Alzheimer’s and knowing what it can do.” But other participants described less positive feelings. For example, the mature minor case study yielded a comment: “This whole scenario just made my heart hurt with the idea of a child requesting that.”

Based on the data gathered from the cognitive interview focus group of nursing students, revisions were made to 11 closed-ended questions (see Table  4 ) and 3 items were excluded. In the four case studies, the open-ended question related to a respondents’ hypothesized actions in a future role as NP were removed. The final survey consists of 45 items including 4 case studies (see Supplementary Material 3 ).

The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey that can be used to track the growth of knowledge about MAiD among nursing students over time, inform training programs about curricular needs, and evaluate attitudes and willingness to participate in MAiD at time-points during training or across nursing programs over time.

The faculty expert panel and student participants in the cognitive interview focus group identified a need to establish core knowledge of the terminology and legislative rules related to MAiD. For example, within the cognitive interview group of student participants, several acknowledged lack of clear understanding of specific terms such as “conscientious objector” and “safeguards.” Participants acknowledged discomfort with the uncertainty of not knowing and their inclination to look up these terms to assist with answering the questions. This survey can be administered to nursing or pre-nursing students at any phase of their training within a program or across training programs. However, in doing so it is important to acknowledge that their baseline knowledge of MAiD will vary. A response option of “not sure” is important and provides a means for respondents to convey uncertainty. If this survey is used to inform curricular needs, respondents should be given explicit instructions not to conduct online searches to inform their responses, but rather to provide an honest appraisal of their current knowledge and these instructions are included in the survey (see Supplementary Material 3 ).

Some provincial regulatory bodies have established core competencies for entry-level nurses that include MAiD. For example, the BC College of Nurses and Midwives (BCCNM) requires “knowledge about ethical, legal, and regulatory implications of medical assistance in dying (MAiD) when providing nursing care.” (10 p. 6) However, across Canada curricular content and coverage related to end of life care and MAiD is variable [ 23 ]. Given the dynamic nature of the legislation that includes portions of the law that are embargoed until 2024, it is important to ensure that respondents are guided by current and accurate information. As the law changes, nursing curricula, and public attitudes continue to evolve, inclusion of core knowledge and content is essential and relevant for investigators to be able to interpret the portions of the survey focused on attitudes and beliefs about MAiD. Content knowledge portions of the survey may need to be modified over time as legislation and training change and to meet the specific purposes of the investigator.

Given the sensitive nature of the topic, it is strongly recommended that surveys be conducted anonymously and that students be provided with an opportunity to discuss their responses to the survey. A majority of feedback from both the expert panel of faculty and from student participants related to the wording and inclusion of demographic variables, in particular religion, religiosity, gender identity, and sex assigned at birth. These and other demographic variables have the potential to be highly identifying in small samples. In any instance in which the survey could be expected to yield demographic group sizes less than 5, users should eliminate the demographic variables from the survey. For example, the profession of nursing is highly dominated by females with over 90% of nurses who identify as female [ 50 ]. Thus, a survey within a single class of students or even across classes in a single institution is likely to yield a small number of male respondents and/or respondents who report a difference between sex assigned at birth and gender identity. When variables that serve to identify respondents are included, respondents are less likely to complete or submit the survey, to obscure their responses so as not to be identifiable, or to be influenced by social desirability bias in their responses rather than to convey their attitudes accurately [ 51 ]. Further, small samples do not allow for conclusive analyses or interpretation of apparent group differences. Although these variables are often included in surveys, such demographics should be included only when anonymity can be sustained. In small and/or known samples, highly identifying variables should be omitted.

There are several limitations associated with the development of this survey. The expert panel was comprised of faculty who teach nursing students and are knowledgeable about MAiD and curricular content, however none identified as a conscientious objector to MAiD. Ideally, our expert panel would have included one or more conscientious objectors to MAiD to provide a broader perspective. Review by practitioners who participate in MAiD, those who are neutral or undecided, and practitioners who are conscientious objectors would ensure broad applicability of the survey. This study included one student cognitive interview focus group with 5 self-selected participants. All student participants had held discussions about end of life care with at least one patient, 4 of 5 participants had worked with a patient who requested MAiD, and one had been present for a MAiD death. It is not clear that these participants are representative of nursing students demographically or by experience with end of life care. It is possible that the students who elected to participate hold perspectives and reflections on patient care and MAiD that differ from students with little or no exposure to end of life care and/or MAiD. However, previous studies find that most nursing students have been involved with end of life care including meaningful discussions about patients’ preferences and care needs during their education [ 40 , 44 , 47 , 48 , 52 ]. Data collection with additional student focus groups with students early in their training and drawn from other training contexts would contribute to further validation of survey items.

Future studies should incorporate pilot testing with small sample of nursing students followed by a larger cross-program sample to allow evaluation of the psychometric properties of specific items and further refinement of the survey tool. Consistent with literature about the importance of leadership in the context of MAiD [ 12 , 53 , 54 ], a study of faculty knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes toward MAiD would provide context for understanding student perspectives within and across programs. Additional research is also needed to understand the timing and content coverage of MAiD across Canadian nurse training programs’ curricula.

The implementation of MAiD is complex and requires understanding of the perspectives of multiple stakeholders. Within the field of nursing this includes clinical providers, educators, and students who will deliver clinical care. A survey to assess nursing students’ attitudes toward and willingness to participate in MAiD in the Canadian context is timely, due to the legislation enacted in 2016 and subsequent modifications to the law in 2021 with portions of the law to be enacted in 2027. Further development of this survey could be undertaken to allow for use in settings with practicing nurses or to allow longitudinal follow up with students as they enter practice. As the Canadian landscape changes, ongoing assessment of the perspectives and needs of health professionals and students in the health professions is needed to inform policy makers, leaders in practice, curricular needs, and to monitor changes in attitudes and practice patterns over time.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due to small sample sizes, but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Abbreviations

British Columbia College of Nurses and Midwives

Medical assistance in dying

Nurse practitioner

Registered nurse

University of British Columbia Okanagan

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We would like to acknowledge the faculty and students who generously contributed their time to this work.

JS received a student traineeship through the Principal Research Chairs program at the University of British Columbia Okanagan.

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JS made substantial contributions to the conception of the work; data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation; and drafting and substantively revising the work. JS has approved the submitted version and agreed to be personally accountable for the author's own contributions and to ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved, are appropriately investigated, resolved, and the resolution documented in the literature. BP made substantial contributions to the conception of the work; data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation; and drafting and substantively revising the work. BP has approved the submitted version and agreed to be personally accountable for the author's own contributions and to ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved, are appropriately investigated, resolved, and the resolution documented in the literature. LO made substantial contributions to the conception of the work; data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation; and substantively revising the work. LO has approved the submitted version and agreed to be personally accountable for the author's own contributions and to ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved, are appropriately investigated, resolved, and the resolution documented in the literature. NDO made substantial contributions to the conception of the work; data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation; and substantively revising the work. NDO has approved the submitted version and agreed to be personally accountable for the author's own contributions and to ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved, are appropriately investigated, resolved, and the resolution documented in the literature. HS made substantial contributions to drafting and substantively revising the work. HS has approved the submitted version and agreed to be personally accountable for the author's own contributions and to ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved, are appropriately investigated, resolved, and the resolution documented in the literature.

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Schroeder, J., Pesut, B., Olsen, L. et al. Developing a survey to measure nursing students’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, influences, and willingness to be involved in Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD): a mixed method modified e-Delphi study. BMC Nurs 23 , 326 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-024-01984-z

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DOI : https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-024-01984-z

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