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Book review

  • Published: 08 December 2023

Emerging technologies in oral and maxillofacial surgery

  • Mojtaba Mehrabanian 1  

British Dental Journal volume  235 ,  page 856 ( 2023 ) Cite this article

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Editors: Arash Khojasteh, Ashraf F. Ayoub and Nasser Nadjmi; 2023; Springer Singapore; £109.99 (hardcover); pp. 375; ISBN: 978-981-19-8601-7

figure 1

The first edition of Emerging technologies in oral and maxillofacial surgery provides a detailed guide for surgeons and professionals in related fields. It covers the integration of advanced technologies such as 3D printing, virtual reality, augmented reality, artificial intelligence, and machine learning in oral and maxillofacial surgery practices. The book is expertly crafted, with organised chapters and high-quality flowcharts and figures throughout.

Divided into 18 chapters, this book provides a comprehensive journey from theoretical foundations to the practical application of advanced technologies in dentistry. In the initial chapter, the transformative impact of advanced technologies, including CAD/CAM, robotic surgeries, and regenerative dentistry applications, is discussed. The following chapter delves into the use of CBCT and MRI for computer-assisted maxillofacial treatments, offering clarity on surgical sites.

Moving forward, the third chapter focuses on the application of CBCT and MRI data in CAD/CAM, machine learning, and artificial intelligence. The next chapter classifies cutting-edge additive manufacturing techniques into extrusion- and fusion-based technologies. The fifth chapter explores rapid prototyping models that aid surgical planning, providing valuable pre-surgery simulations.

The sixth chapter discusses bone contouring in the reconstruction of facial defects using computer-designed patient-specific implants. In Chapter 7, the focus is on patient-specific implants produced by CAD/CAM for functional mandibular bone replacement. The next chapter explores the use of tissue engineering and 3D printing for bone regeneration.

Chapters 9-11 delve into in situ bone regeneration, recent advances in orthognathic surgery, and facial cosmetic surgery, respectively. The twelfth chapter emphasises the importance of custom-made dental implants for optimal oral rehabilitation. Chapter 13 explores the advantages, such as precision enhancement, and limitations, such as cost and size, of robotic surgery.

Chapter 15, serving as a valuable resource for individuals keen on understanding the fundamental principles of AI, along with Chapter 16, collectively define and introduce applications of artificial intelligence and machine learning in maxillofacial surgery. The subsequent chapter explores the performances and potential of artificial intelligence in precision medicine, tissue engineering, 3D and 4D printing, and robotic surgery, particularly when integrated with oral and maxillofacial surgery.

In Chapter 17, the focus is on bioprinting in maxillofacial surgery, utilising bio-ink for tissue scaffolds and addressing conventional printing issues. The last chapter explores the application of bioreactors in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

Overall, this book is a valuable resource, providing a comprehensive overview and practical insights into the latest advancements in the field, making it essential for professionals adopting these technologies in surgical practice.

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A Literature Review of the Future of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Oral Pathology, and Oral Surgery in the Hands of Technology

Ishita singhal.

1 Oral Pathology and Microbiology and Forensic Odontology, Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary (SGT) University, Gurugram, IND

Geetpriya Kaur

2 Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Paradise Diagnostics, New Delhi, IND

3 Dentistry, Dierick Dental Care, Antwerp, BEL

Aparna Pathak

4 Oral Pathology, Paradise Diagnostics, New Delhi, IND

In the realm of dentistry, a myriad of technological advancements, including teledentistry, virtual reality (VR), artificial intelligence (AI), and three-dimensional printing, have been extensively embraced and rigorously evaluated, consistently demonstrating their remarkable effectiveness. These innovations have ushered in a transformative era in dentistry, impacting every facet of the field. They encompass activities ranging from the diagnosis and exploration of oral health conditions to the formulation of treatment plans, execution of surgical procedures, fabrication of prosthetics, and even assistance in patient distraction, prognosis, and disease prevention. Despite the significant strides already taken, the relentless pursuit of new horizons fueled by human curiosity remains unabated. The future landscape of dentistry holds the promise of sweeping changes, notably characterized by enhanced accessibility to dental care and reduced treatment durations. In this comprehensive review article, we delve into the pivotal roles played by AI, VR, augmented reality, mixed reality, and extended reality within the realm of dentistry, with a particular emphasis on their applications in oral medicine, oral radiology, oral surgery, and oral pathology. These technologies represent just a fraction of the technological arsenal currently harnessed in the field of dentistry. A thorough comprehension of their advantages and limitations is imperative for informed decision-making in their utilization.

Introduction and background

The world has witnessed remarkable evolution across numerous domains, with technology standing as a pivotal driver of this transformation. In the realm of healthcare, technology has ushered in a wave of innovations that encompass artificial intelligence (AI), virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), extended reality (XR), and robotic applications, all aimed at enhancing patient care. While concerns about technology encroaching on human roles in healthcare persist, there is a prevailing belief that these advancements can empower healthcare professionals to deliver superior patient care. This empowerment comes in the form of augmented decision-making capabilities, improved long-term patient tracking, expedited image analysis, and exceptional predictive capabilities. Notably, AI and machine learning (ML) are seen as complementary tools that enhance human expertise rather than replace it. As with any innovation, these technologies come with their own set of advantages and challenges. In this comprehensive review article, we delve into the multifaceted roles of AI, VR, AR, MR, and XR within the field of dentistry. Our focus will be on their applications in oral medicine, oral radiology, oral surgery, and oral pathology, providing insights into how these technologies are reshaping and optimizing dental practice for both professionals and patients.

AI encompasses the theory and development of computer systems capable of performing tasks typically associated with human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and language translation [ 1 ]. In the realm of healthcare, AI finds practical applications in advanced online search engines, recommendation systems, and creative tools [ 2 ]. One subset of AI, known as ML, focuses on the development of computer algorithms and models that enable systems to learn from and make predictions or decisions based on data, without being explicitly programmed to perform specific tasks. In essence, ML allows computers to recognize patterns, make sense of data, and improve their performance or behavior over time through experience [ 3 ]. In the context of dentistry, AI has been harnessed to automatically analyze dental X-rays, yielding crucial insights such as X-ray type, potential tooth impact, precise degree of bone loss through color overlays, cavity location, and more [ 4 ]. Deep learning (DL), a specialized branch of ML characterized by multi-layered computational networks, has emerged as a game-changer, particularly in medical and dental image processing [ 5 , 6 ]. The promise of ML and DL in dentistry extends to enhanced diagnostic accuracy and treatment planning. For instance, a noteworthy development at the University of California involved the creation of an AI algorithm with a remarkable 94% accuracy rate in detecting periodontitis. This algorithm exhibited diagnostic accuracies of 73% for distinguishing normal from diseased cases and 59% for classifying the severity levels of bone loss. Further optimization of the periodontal dataset holds the potential to transform this computer-aided detection system into an efficient tool for periodontal disease detection and staging [ 7 ]. In addition to periodontitis, DL algorithms have also proven adept at accurately identifying dental caries in X-rays. These technologies, characterized by their objectivity and reduced bias, hold the promise of revolutionizing dentistry by standardizing and improving the diagnostic process [ 6 ].

VR is a computer-generated simulation of a hypothetical, immersive, three-dimensional (3D) world or picture that may be interacted with using certain technologies [ 8 ]. VR has been utilized in medicine to great effect as a distraction tool during operations as well as an acclimatization technique to prepare for an experience or procedure, as stated in systematic reviews and randomized control experiments [ 9 ]. Although it has not yet gained widespread acceptance in dentistry, it may potentially play a part in exposure-based acclimation to dental events. In comparison to no intervention, three trials employing VR in a dental context found reduced pain and anxiety. The perioperative phase served as the setting for all three of these studies [ 9 ]. VR may be employed to eradicate dental phobia in pediatric and geriatric patients and further enhance patient education. Before performing procedures on actual patients, dentists, and dental students can practice and test them on mannequins using VR technology by utilizing 3D models of teeth or a human head. Additionally, VR may be used to teach new dentists and make sure seasoned dentists maintain their skill sets [ 10 ].

AR is a technique that superimposes digital data over the physical environment. Incorporating computer-generated sensory input like audio, video, graphics, or GPS data improves the user's impression of reality [ 11 ]. By immediately displaying healthcare data on the patient and merging the physical and digital worlds, AR primarily seeks to improve clinical practice. By adopting interactive approaches, AR and VR technology can help dentists explain various dental operations to their patients, establish a diagnosis, create a treatment plan, and clearly illustrate predicted results by using 3D models of their patient's teeth, gums, and oral cavities [ 12 ].

VR and AR are both combined in MR. It makes it feasible to embed features in a real setting by enabling digital things to interact with the physical world. MR equipment can be utilized in dentistry for surgical planning and training. It could offer a fresh idea for people getting dental treatment when it comes to giving consent. The Microsoft HoloLens is an MR device that can display information and potentially create a virtual environment utilizing a real-time, 3D platform employing several sensors and holographic processing. The HoloLens technology may be utilized as an essential tool for dentistry education and surgery planning, given how quickly technology is developing and how popular virtual learning is becoming [ 13 , 14 ].

XR is an umbrella term that encompasses all types of technologies that enhance our senses, including VR, AR, and MR [ 15 ]. Additionally, these technologies have been applied in several industries, including entertainment, education, and health care. It is a notion that covers both tangible and fictitious hybrid worlds, as well as human-machine interactions produced through wearables and computer technologies. Implantology and orthognathic procedures are the two dental uses of XR that occur most frequently. The development of reality gadgets makes it possible for users to mix and include both medical data and graphical information. Dental implant virtual planning, which transposes 3D virtual planning into the surgical field, has increased the precision of dental implants being inserted using either static guiding or dynamic navigation. Dental static-guided devices may not offer as many benefits in dental implantology as computer-assisted surgery with dynamic navigation. These kinds of technologies overlay computed cone-beam tomography (CBCT) depth, angle, and drill position on the pictures, assisting dentists in performing minimally invasive procedures and avoiding damage to important structures. Because computer-aided navigation increases treatment precision while lowering operational hazards, the adoption of such technology is also beneficial in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Users may occasionally wear a head-mounted display or a glove that stimulates their visual, auditory, and tactile senses, as well as their sense of touch, to create an immersive virtual experience.

Currently, mock-ups, video analysis, and 3D face conceptions have all been employed to help with the technique of reconstructing smiles during dental rehabilitation. The development of new technology improves this program and cuts down on the amount of time and chance of mistakes involved in knowledge exchange between patients, physicians, and laboratories. Increased realism grin programs locate the smile in the photograph and replace it with a different smile for the greatest fit [ 15 ].

Technology has indeed revolutionized the field of dentistry, making it more comfortable, efficient, and effective for patients. Other technical developments that have influenced modern dentistry include laser dentistry, CAD/CAM, 3D printing, and regenerative dentistry. In addition to these developments in dentistry, these technologies are also having a big impact on how dental care is provided.

In the current decade, we are gradually entering the realm of the fourth dimension, where experiences previously unattainable in the physical world become accessible. The history of AI can be traced back to 1956, while the origins of VR reach back to 1960 [ 16 ]. Notably, in 1962, Morton Heiling pioneered the Sensorama technology, a multisensory stimulator that incorporated color and stereo-prerecorded films, augmented by binaural scents, sound, wind, and vibration backgrounds. However, Sensorama's interactivity was limited [ 17 ]. In 1965, Ivan Sutherland demonstrated "The Ultimate Display" technology, based on the concept of constructing an artificial world that integrated interactive graphics, force feedback, olfactory, gustatory, and auditory elements [ 18 ]. Furthermore, in 1968, Sutherland introduced the first head-mounted display (HMD) system with a three-dimensional head-tracking method, aptly named "The Sword of Damocles" [ 19 ]. The year 1971 marked the development of GROPE, the first prototype of a force-feedback system at the University of North Carolina (UNC). GROPE combined haptic display and visual models [ 16 ]. In 1975, Myron Krueger established an artificial reality laboratory known as the Videoplace, creating a "conceptual environment that did not exist." This system displayed user silhouettes captured by cameras on a large screen, enabling user interaction [ 20 ]. In 1982, Thomas Furness pioneered the Visually Coupled Airborne System Simulator (VCASS), an advanced flight simulator demonstrated at the US Air Force’s Armstrong Medical Research Laboratories. Fighter pilots utilized an HMD that integrated the outside view with graphics displaying precise flight path information [ 16 ]. In 1984, NASA Ames developed the Virtual Visual Environment Display (VIVED), featuring a stereoscopic monochrome HMD [ 21 ]. The VPL company made significant strides in commercial VR technology, introducing the iconic Data Glove technology in 1985 and the marketable Eyephone HMD in 1988 [ 16 ]. In 1989, Fake Space Labs introduced the BOOM technology, a compact device composed of two CRT monitors viewable through eye holes [ 16 ]. The latter part of the 1980s witnessed the creation of numerous VR devices, including optical trackers, HMDs, and the Pixel-Plane graphics engine at UNC. The architectural walkthrough was a notable application of these technologies. In 1992, the CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment emerged, amalgamating VR and scientific visualization systems. Users wore LCD shutter glasses, and stereoscopic images were projected onto the room's walls, offering high-resolution images and a wider field of view compared to HMDs [ 21 ]. In 1994, Milgram and Kishino introduced the concept of the VR continuum, encompassing five systems: AI, AR, VR, MR, and XR (Figure ​ (Figure1) 1 ) [ 16 ]. AR technology, within this continuum, enhances rather than replaces the real world. AR employs see-through HMDs to overlay virtual three-dimensional objects onto the real environment. AR holds substantial potential for enhancing human perception and facilitating complex tasks, making it a focal point of various research endeavors [ 22 ].

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Image Credits: Geetpriya Kaur

Oral medicine

Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Oral Medicine

Conventionally, oral cavity examinations and clinical diagnostic investigations of oral lesions were either explained orally or with visual presentations. The oral medicine residents are expected to take a proper clinical history of the patient with a thorough oral cavity examination. A case history can be described as a planned professional conversation that enables the patient to communicate his or her symptoms and past personal, dental, and medical histories [ 23 ]. A 3D-augmented clinical history format can be created to record the chief complaint, medical and dental histories, as well as previous investigations. Hence, utilizing this platform will greatly help in making a provisional diagnosis of the patient and explaining the patient with the help of images.

The most common types of oral lesions encountered by an oral medicine resident are red and white lesions, vesiculobullous lesions, and ulcerative lesions. The conventional chairside diagnostic techniques include vital staining, exfoliative cytology, and optical imaging. A demonstration of these methods can be explained through a 3D-augmented platform. Haptic-based VR training stimulators can be used by oral medicine residents for the practice of these traditional techniques. Additionally, VR can also assist the dentist in ruling out false-positive and false-negative results of several vital staining procedures, including toluidine blue, methylene blue, and Lugol’s iodine.

Some oral lesions are treated with medication, while other oral lesions are recommended for biopsy. An oral premalignant condition such as oral submucous fibrosis is generally treated with hyaluronidase injections. The placement of injections and dosage can be demonstrated with the help of VR training stimulators. In the case of white lesions, the application of medications or oral intake of medicines can be explained with stimulators [ 23 ].

Incisional and punch biopsy techniques are generally preferred to evaluate potentially malignant oral disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Excisional biopsy procedures are performed in cases of exophytic growth, pyogenic granuloma, and mucocele. The AR stimulators can be used for explaining and practicing biopsy procedures to oral medicine residents. Moreover, the tactile feedback mechanisms can be deeply studied to enhance biopsy procedures (Figure ​ (Figure2 2 ).

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Image Credits: Geetpriya Kaur and Ishita Singhal

Artificial Intelligence in Oral Medicine

AI is nowadays a popular diagnostic modality that is being used for precise image analysis by making use of various body systems. The various AI techniques that are currently being utilized are artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic algorithms. In the recent decade, ANNs have been used to elucidate the findings of various investigative modalities like USG, dental radiographs, CBCT, computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Moreover, by using ANNs, we can manage precise generalization of settings by optimizing the goodness of fit between the input data (text or image fed into the algorithm) and output data (working classification). Additionally, ML algorithms can also provide accurate clinical findings by analyzing hospital medical records that have been hand-labeled [ 24 ].

Additionally, AI can be used as an adjunct for diagnosing oral lesions as well as planning efficacious treatment based on clinical findings. For example, AI algorithms can help in the classification of various suspicious lesions that might be undergoing malignant changes. Thus, in future research, AI can also be judiciously used for screening larger populations for genetic predisposition to oral cancer. Moreover, AI can also provide supportive diagnostic acumen along with other chief diagnostic techniques like CT, MRI, and CBCT to determine certain deviations from the normal anatomical arrangement that might have been missed by the human eye [ 24 ].

Oral radiology

Oral radiology is a specialized field of dentistry that employs various imaging methods to diagnose and treat oral diseases. Its primary role is to identify pathologies such as cysts, tumors, and infections in the oral cavity. In oral radiology, a range of imaging techniques are utilized, including radiographs, CBCT, CT scans, MRI, positron emission tomography (PET) scans, and ultrasound (USG). Radiographs are commonly employed for the detection of dental caries, periodontal disease, cysts, benign and malignant tumors, and other dental abnormalities. CT scans are particularly useful in assessing bone loss, fractures, and tumors, while MRI is effective in detecting soft tissue abnormalities such as cysts and tumors. Ultrasound is primarily utilized to evaluate salivary gland irregularities. This branch of dentistry plays a critical role in effectively diagnosing and treating oral ailments [ 25 ].

Artificial Intelligence in Oral Radiology

In the field of oral and maxillofacial radiology, AI applications hold considerable promise. CNNs, which can perform image categorization, detection, segmentation, registration, creation, and refinement, have been primarily employed in recent research on AI in oral and maxillofacial radiology. In this area, AI algorithms have been created for image analysis, forensic dentistry, radiographic diagnostics, and picture quality enhancement. Dental radiology is steadily integrating AI, with a focus on diagnostic records in CBCT and digital 3D images. To develop AI for quick diagnosis and improved treatment planning, a lot of data may be gathered and calculated. To get good results, a ton of data is required, and oral radiologists must be involved in this labor-intensive process of creating accurate and consistent data sets. There are several issues that need to be resolved before AI is extensively used in current clinical practice, including the need to build up enormous amounts of finely labeled open data sets, comprehend AI's judgment standards, and identify potential AI-based threats to DICOM. AI will advance further in the future and is anticipated to play a significant role in the creation of automatic diagnosis systems, the establishment of treatment plans, and the manufacture of treatment instruments if answers to these issues are offered with the growth of AI. As specialists who are well-versed in the properties of radiographic pictures, oral radiologists will be especially crucial in the development of AI applications in this area (Figure ​ (Figure3) 3 ) [ 25 ].

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Image Credits: Dirk Neefs, DD-Care, Belgium

Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Oral Radiology

The use of virtual and augmented reality technology is a cutting-edge method of communication that has the potential to enhance radiology education, improve communication with coworkers, refer physicians and patients, and support interventional radiology operations. Currently, AR and VR technologies only allow the user to view content; they do not allow them to interact with the environment or receive tactile input from it. New technologies enable interaction and manipulation of the environment by people. Anatomical holograms may be "tagged" to manipulable actual items using low-cost, commercially accessible equipment like the MERGE Cube (Merge VR, San Antonio, Texas). Although VR and AR have a lot of potential for radiography, they currently have certain drawbacks, such as ergonomic issues from extended usage, relatively high adoption and use costs, and a lack of content. For instance, it has been noted that continuous usage of HMDs might result in neck discomfort, nausea, and disorientation from prolonged delay (Figure ​ (Figure4) 4 ) [ 26 ].

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Oral surgery

Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, and Mixed Reality in Oral Surgery

An oral and maxillofacial surgeon should have precise knowledge of anatomical structures and their normal physiological movements [ 27 ]. For better surgical results, AR-VR technology can provide visual access and detailed knowledge of important anatomical structures, muscles, and joint movements of the oral cavity to oral surgery residents. Based on clinical and radiological investigations, VR devices can be used to plan customized patient treatment. The Holomedicine® Association is a global network of individual experts from medicine, science, technology, and policy. They work to build new methods for delivering mixed reality technologies in medicine and surgery, ensuring they have maximum clinical impact.

Oral surgeons can be taught the administration of dental anesthesia with the help of the AR-VR platform. The main reasons for anesthesia failures are anatomical, pathological, physiological, or inappropriate techniques [ 28 ]. Additionally, anatomical and inappropriate insertion techniques can be further improved by imparting a deep knowledge of intraoral and extraoral anatomies [ 27 ]. This technology, if integrated with a feedback mechanism, can be greatly beneficial in handling larger groups of patients in a short period. A study determined the dentist feedback of haptic-based VR anesthesia injection training stimulators on two different virtual models. Although the results were satisfactory, the enhancement of tactile feedback was the main concern [ 28 ]. Another study compared inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) teaching methods in an AR stimulator-based experimental group and a conventional technique-based control group. However, the researchers did not discuss the limitations of the feedback system [ 29 ].

In the recent decade, AR techniques have been used to assist in several oral and maxillofacial surgeries, such as orthognathic surgery, osteotomies, prosthetic surgeries, cancer surgery, temporomandibular joint analysis, excisional biopsy procedures, and dental implants [ 30 ]. An image-guided surgery system was developed using AR technology. A computer-assisted system consisted of a gadget that could monitor the instrument, whose position and direction were depicted in virtual space using a picture registration process [ 31 ]. Computer design methods were used to connect the instrument to the surgical field. Generally, oral surgeons use a pointer to connect preoperative patient images and the surgical treatment plan. Moreover, AR-based technology was developed to project pictures directly onto the surgical site. This technique uses mononuclear projection in the working microscope and head-up displays. The projections were further built on the semi-clear screens and placed between the working screen and the oral surgeon, or they were constructed on the binocular optics of a following surgical microscope [ 32 ].

In the latest study, oral surgeons used HMD to understand the superimposition of bone segments or soft tissues. This technique helped to accomplish a smoother surgical performance [ 33 ]. In another study, Oculus Rift and Leap Motion equipment were used by residents to interact with the equipment and understand its operations [ 34 ]. The Leap Motion system integrates a multi-sensory learning experience by using a particular application and zooming in on some treatment techniques within possible oral surgical procedures. This VR technology incorporated a 360-degree operating room, spherical videos, and computer-generated three-dimensional operating room models [ 27 ]. Still, further studies are required to understand the haptic force feedback and its association with the three-dimensional instrument models.

Some researchers utilized the VR platform to perform virtually simulated orthognathic surgeries and later carried out these surgical interventions on patients. The major benefit of this technology was that oral surgeons could predict patients’ aesthetic and surgical progress [ 35 ]. The AR framework was used for tracing points, lines, and planes that could be moved from the stereolithographic skull model on the facial skeleton during osteotomy and splint procedures [ 31 ]. The VR devices were also used to study the placement of dental implants. Proper surgical navigation can be used by dental surgeons to place the implants at specific locations with sufficient bone thickness, thereby preventing implant failure [ 18 ]. Thus, VR technology has been judiciously incorporated to provide proper treatment planning and determine a precise location [ 36 ].

Siepel et al. examined the application of a low-cost stereoscopic display system and six degrees of freedom in implant placement and compared it with the three degrees of freedom in the virtual world. During the follow-up research, the treatment planning was enhanced so that the dentist was provided with six degrees of freedom using CT images at the voxel level in real time [ 37 ]. The latest studies demonstrated VR systems that integrated CT images of the jawbone along with haptic force feedback technology to train beginners by simulating the sounds and vibrations of bone drilling and contra-angled handpieces [ 38 , 39 ]. In oncology cases, the oral and maxillofacial consultant can use VR technology to physically draw the tumor borders with the help of programming apparatuses onto the processed tomographic informational index (Figure ​ (Figure5) 5 ) [ 40 ].

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Image Credits: Yujia Gao (NUHS, Singapore) provided their original images for publication. 

Artificial Intelligence in Oral Surgery

In many recent studies, machine learning algorithms have been utilized for faster and more reproducible interpretation of several bone and skin landmarks that are necessary for a complete 3D analysis of facial structures. Thus, this technique has more potential than other computational techniques [ 41 ].

For managing orofacial deformities, the choice of surgery is important, along with the expertise of the orthodontist and the surgeon. Hence, training algorithms on cephalometric values as well as interpreted images can help in providing treatment support tools that can easily predict the requirement for surgical interventions during orthodontic treatment. Moreover, these AI-based tools can lend a helping hand to the assisting practitioner to either verify or revise his treatment plans accordingly to minimize orthodontic camouflage with adverse aesthetic and functional results [ 41 ].

The extraction of impacted third molars is a routine procedure performed by oral surgeons and general dentists. The use of AI-based tools can help optimize the various stages of diagnosis and treatment planning. Moreover, taking the support of a predictive AI-based model based on the eruption potential of the third molars by means of mechanized calculations of their angulation on panoramic radiographs can judiciously help in making crucial decisions pertaining to tooth extraction, which might turn out to be debatable in a few cases [ 40 , 41 ].

Oral pathology

Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality, and Augmented Reality in Oral Pathology

An oral pathologist evaluates the relevant stained tissue slides under a microscope and provides the patient with a histopathology report. The final diagnosis of oral lesions greatly depends on accurate clinical and radiological patient details. Furthermore, oral surgeons can further provide the required treatment to patients based on their histopathology reports.

In recent decades, light microscopy has been replaced by digital scanning techniques. However, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining is still used as the standard method. It is predicted that an oral pathologist will soon be able to directly examine the oral tissues without any tissue processing steps. Thus, 3D AR or MR technology could be precisely applied in this research area for better patient outcomes. In the future, the oral tissues could be directly viewed in the patient’s mouth by utilizing in vivo microscopy to ultimately connect relevant cellular features to matching radiological images [ 42 ].

To date, microscopic morphology is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis [ 43 ]. Worldwide, researchers are working on AI-based image analysis for the diagnosis of several oral lesions. Hence, this technology can assist an oral pathologist in making fast decisions regarding patient's histopathology reports and further investigative examinations. AI was introduced in the oral pathology domain to overcome the variability of morphologic diagnosis and to provide consistent and reliable diagnostic reports [ 44 ].

Recent research has demonstrated the role of ML in identifying, classifying, diagnosing, and differentiating different oral lesions [ 45 ]. A recent study employed CNN for the detection of keratin pearls. The researchers suggested a two-stage method for computing oral histology images. The first stage involved a 12-layered deep CNN for the segmentation of constituent layers. The keratin pearls were diagnosed in the second stage with the help of texture-based feature-trained random forests. The keratin pearls were diagnosed with 96.88% accuracy [ 46 ]. Farahani et al. examined the utilization of the Oculus Rift device for the evaluation of digital pathology slides. In their study, all three reviewers established that digital pathology slides were viewed on a VR platform with the Oculus Rift DK2 [ 47 ].

Datasets used in AI and oral cancer research are clinical photographic images, patient’s geographic data and habit history, H&E-stained histopathological images, immunostained images, saliva metabolite data, and gene expression data [ 48 ]. The limitation of the AI approach is its two-dimensional format. However, the main advantage of the AI approach in image diagnosis is that it overcomes the inconsistency of inter- and intra-observer variability [ 49 ].

The oral pathologist can be taught laboratory techniques such as tissue processing, H&E staining, and special staining techniques with the VR training stimulators. Additionally, the common diagnostic techniques at the microscopic level, such as immunohistochemistry (IHC), fine needle aspiration cytology, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), can also be duly explained with VR stimulators. The mixed reality systems can also be incorporated into dental schools to explain detailed and labeled histopathological features as well as images of various oral diseases. Moreover, the AR technology can also be used for teaching cytology slides of oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer cases to undergraduate and postgraduate students (Figure ​ (Figure6 6 ).

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Image Credits: Ishita Singhal and Geetpriya Kaur

Advantages and drawbacks of AI, VR, AR, and MR in oral diagnostics

In the context of a growing global population and the resulting surge in healthcare demands, digital technologies have emerged as indispensable resources for managing the impending influx of patients. Notably, VR and AR platforms offer several advantages across various diagnostic fields. Their applications carry significant potential, particularly in the education of undergraduate and postgraduate students, through the implementation of interactive learning methodologies with clear, objective evaluation criteria. Furthermore, the integration of AI and automation can assume a critical role in safeguarding our healthcare workforce, especially in light of the sacrifices made by many during the COVID-19 crisis.

VR, in particular, holds promise in delivering training to healthcare professionals, covering a spectrum of procedures, from laparoscopic surgery to the evaluation of medical databases. It also plays a pivotal role in formulating treatment strategies and facilitating the rehabilitation of patients dealing with conditions such as autism, cancer, and psychiatric disorders. Moreover, these technologies facilitate advanced learning opportunities for remote students who may lack the means to travel to different cities for specialized studies. They enable the creation of interactive and engaging clinical modules, particularly beneficial in the context of ruling out differential diagnoses in complex medical cases.

However, it is essential to acknowledge that these novel technologies do come with certain limitations when applied in clinical settings. Independent research teams focusing on VR and AR may face challenges when relying on customized augmented systems in intricate experimental models, limiting their widespread applicability. While these technologies can find utility in simpler experimental models, their comprehensive integration into complex scenarios remains a subject of ongoing exploration.

Furthermore, it is worth noting that the current body of research predominantly emphasizes technical skills, particularly in the realm of dentistry, where virtual oral surgery stimulators offer some degree of skill development. Nevertheless, a critical gap exists when it comes to addressing non-technical skills, such as cognitive development, teamwork, interpersonal communication, and emergency management, which are equally vital in clinical practice. To fully harness the potential of VR and AR in health care and dentistry, there is a pressing need for additional research efforts to validate their efficacy and enhance the overall quality of treatment and healthcare delivery through augmented techniques.


Technological advancements in AI, VR, AR, MR, and XR have revolutionized dentistry, ushering in an era of precision, enhanced patient care, and improved education. These innovations are not here to replace human jobs but rather serve as vital tools in delivering more efficient and cost-effective patient care. These technologies have already transformed various aspects of oral health care, from diagnostics and treatment planning to surgeries and patient experiences, with the potential to eliminate traditional tools like drills and injections. In oral medicine, VR and AR enable 3D-augmented clinical histories, aid in provisional diagnoses, and enhance treatment plan explanations, while haptic-based VR training enhances diagnostic skills. AI, particularly through convolutional neural networks, has improved image interpretation and diagnostic accuracy in oral radiology, leading to precise treatment planning. Oral surgery benefits from AR, VR, and MR in resident training, surgical procedures, and patient education, allowing for greater precision in surgery planning and ensuring patients comprehend expected outcomes. In oral pathology, AI-based image analysis provides consistent diagnostic reports, while VR and AR stimulators assist in teaching laboratory techniques and explaining histopathological features. However, these technologies have limitations, including the need for further validation and addressing ergonomic challenges and high costs. In conclusion, the integration of AI, VR, AR, MR, and XR into dentistry represents a transformative moment, empowering healthcare professionals to deliver superior care and cost savings. Ongoing research should focus on harnessing these tools in oral medicine, radiology, surgery, and pathology to fully unlock their potential in oral health care, promising a brighter, technologically enhanced future for dentistry.

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

oral surgery new research topics

Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery

  • The official publication of the Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons of India, focusing on contemporary clinical and basic science issues in the field.
  • Provides comprehensive coverage on new techniques and recent developments in oral and maxillofacial surgery.
  • Publishes a variety of content, including original articles, review articles, editorials, and case reports.
  • Amit Dhawan

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  • Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons of India  (opens in a new tab)

oral surgery new research topics

Latest issue

Volume 23, Issue 2

Latest articles

Cryocarboxy surgery: a new armamentarium in the treatment of infantile hemangiomas of the lips.

  • Nader Gomaa Elmelegy
  • Mohamed Saad Sadaka

oral surgery new research topics

Juvenile Tuberculous Osteomyelitis of the Mandible: A Rarity

  • P. N. Ramaraj
  • Uday Kiran Uppada
  • Niveda Jith

oral surgery new research topics

Quantitative Evaluation of Zygomatic Buttress, Ramal, and Symphysis Onlay Grafts in Ridge Augmentation Prior to Implant Placement

  • John Vanlalrinawma Fanai
  • Jigar Dhuvad
  • Hitarthi Jogani

oral surgery new research topics

Recurrent Ameloblastoma Presenting as a Solid Mass in Temporal Fossa: A Unique Case Report with Diverse Histological Patterns

  • Tanvy S. Sansgiri
  • Harish Saluja
  • Rahul Patil

oral surgery new research topics

Techniques of Endoscope-Assisted Parotidectomy: A Narrative Review

  • Vaibhav Aggarwal

oral surgery new research topics

Journal updates

Special issue: current concepts in reconstruction and rehabilitation of maxillofacial defects." proposed dates of publication - march 2023.

Theme:  Current concepts in Reconstruction and rehabilitation of Maxillofacial defects.

The Guest editor :  Prof Dr Dr hc Julio Acero MD, DMD, PhD, FEBOMFS FDSRCS FIBCSOMS

Proposed dates of publication - March 2023.

Submission deadline - 15th October 2022

Special Issue: Dentofacial Deformities

Guest Editor: Dr Deepak Krishnan, chief of Oral Maxillofacial surgery at University of Cincinnati, Director American board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (ABOMS)

Proposed dates of Publication: 30th December 2023 Manuscript Submission deadline: 15th August 2023 

Special Issue_2024: Oral Oncology - Current Concepts

The special edition shall provide a state of the art approach to review the theme of Oral oncology- Current Concepts. The issue shall comprise articles reviewing about current global understanding of strategies for prevention of oral cancer, current diagnostic and therapeutic protocols, Adjuvant therapies and advances in oral oncology.

The proposed issue intends to publish articles in the form of clinical papers, randomised control trials, original studies, comparative studies, invited reviews, case series, articles with short videos of surgical techniques and technical notes. 

The journal will strictly follow the usual process of peer review for the special edition as well. 

Benefits: Targeted promotion, Interest oriented reading, wider readership, relevancy in the field.

The Guest editor : 

Dr Moni Abraham Kuriakose MD, FRCS

Professor and Vice Chairman, Roswell Park, Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York.

CEO, Karkinos Healthcare, Kerala Operations

Proposed date of publication: July- August Issue 2024

Submission deadline - 1st March 2024

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April is National Facial Protection Month

April 18, 2024

ROSEMONT, Ill. – Five national healthcare organizations are teaming up in April to promote the use of protective gear – such as mouth guards and helmets – to prevent dental and facial injuries resulting from sports and recreational activities. Founded by the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) and with the support and… Read more »

April 13, 2023

ROSEMONT, Ill. – Every April, healthcare organizations unite to raise awareness of National Facial Protection Month – the campaign that encourages the use of safety equipment to prevent sports-related injuries to the head and face. Founded by the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) and with the support and collaboration of the Academy… Read more »

Oral and maxillofacial surgeons: Provider of choice for wisdom teeth removal, dental implants

December 12, 2022

ROSEMONT, Ill. – Oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs) continue to be the provider of choice for wisdom teeth removal and dental implants, according to national consumer surveys conducted since 2017. Across three different consumer segments – including mothers of teens, young adults and baby boomers – OMSs were identified as the preferred professional for these… Read more »

JOMS study: Penicillin allergy testing encouraged to reduce infection risk in oral surgery patients

January 5, 2022

ROSEMONT, Ill. – Unsubstantiated, patient-reported penicillin allergies are a risk factor for surgical site infections (SSIs) after oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS), according to a new study. The study published in the January issue of the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery – the official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) –… Read more »

Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery announces new editor

December 17, 2021

The Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (JOMS) – the official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) – has named Thomas B. Dodson, DMD, MPH, FACS, as its new Editor-in-Chief, effective Jan. 1. Dodson – Professor and Chair of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University of Washington School… Read more »

JOMS Simply Put: Mandibular Fractures

December 1, 2021

When a bone breaks or cracks, the injury is called a fracture (FIGURE 1, FIGURE 2). Lower jaw (mandibular) fractures are the third most common type of facial fractures, after fractures of the nose and cheekbone. Mandibular fractures can be caused by many different types of injuries to the lower face. These include: An accidental… Read more »

Association hosts anesthesia simulation program for first time at its new education center

November 29, 2021

ROSEMONT, Ill. – The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) held sessions of its National Simulation Program to enhance anesthesia safety for the first time at its new OMS Institute for Education and Innovation in Rosemont, Ill. Thirty oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs) practiced critical techniques for administering and monitoring office-based anesthesia in… Read more »

JOMS Simply Put: Trigeminal Neuralgia

November 1, 2021

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a long-lasting facial pain disorder that affects the trigeminal nerve, the main nerve responsible for sensation in your face. If you have TN, even mild stimulation of your face may cause severe and excruciating pain. Patients may initially experience short and mild attacks. But this pain disorder can progress and cause… Read more »

Simply Put: Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMD)

October 1, 2021

The temporomandibular joints (TMJ) connect your lower jaw to your skull along each side of your head. When they work well, they enable you to talk and chew. The TMJ combines a hinge action with sliding motions. The parts of the bones that interact in the joint are covered with cartilage and are separated by… Read more »

Oral and maxillofacial surgeons honored for accomplishments in research, education, other areas

September 30, 2021

ROSEMONT, Ill. – The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) honored more than 30 award recipients for their accomplishments in education, research, advocacy and humanitarianism at the association’s 2021 Annual Meeting, Scientific Sessions and Exhibition in Nashville, Tenn.  The awards presentation was held during the Opening Ceremony of the 103rd AAOMS Annual Meeting… Read more »

Changing Lives

8-year-old’s jaw reconstructed after hit by stray bullet.

May 16, 2023

WEST PALM BEACH — The call from the police officer gave Synthia Williams the shock of her lifetime. Her 8-year-old daughter had been shot in the face. Lilah Williams-Sjosten and her sister were celebrating their friend’s birthday with a weekend trip to SeaWorld on March 10. Before driving to Orlando, their friend’s mother parked her… Read more »

Oral Surgeon and Staff Use CPR and an AED to Save Accountant’s Life

April 4, 2023

In the normal course of his workday, Dr. Joseph Howard improves people’s lives, but he doesn’t typically have to employ life-saving measures. That changed on Feb. 2. An oral surgeon and owner of Central Connecticut Oral Maxillofacial & Implant Surgery, Howard and several members of his team leaped to the rescue when a member of… Read more »

Police officer returns to work after reconstructed jaw and face, extensive dental work

February 16, 2022

Riverhead Police Officer Rob Sproston is back — strong, vigorous and just about the happiest guy around. He knows he’s a living, breathing, walking, talking miracle. The Calverton resident came close — like, a couple of centimeters close — to losing his life last March 31 in a line-of-duty crash as he was responding to… Read more »

OMS helps woman with dwarfism condition

October 24, 2021

EL PASO, Texas – Dr. Vernon Burke has been presented a National Humanitarianism Award by The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) for the care he has provided to children and others from El Paso and Ciudad Juarez with facial deformities. Burke works at High Desert Oral and Facial Surgery in El Paso… Read more »

OMS helps patient with severe dog bite on the nose

April 23, 2021

Anyone who has ever known the unconditional love of a pet knows every pet has its own personality and set of emotions. For example, dog owners can see happiness in their pets’ eyes – and tails! Some dogs give off clues that say, “Leave me alone right now,” while others may convey, “I’m sleepy, don’t… Read more »

OMS provides free procedure for cancer patient

March 31, 2021

WATERTOWN, N.Y. (WWNY) – When one Dexter woman was in desperate need of a surgery, she kept getting turned away by doctors. But one local oral surgeon not only took her in, he decided to do the procedure for free. It’s finally the day Dorothy Gagnon has been waiting for. She has head and neck… Read more »

AAOMS fellow works on world’s first face and hands transplant

February 3, 2021

It’s been more than two years since Joe Dimeo could smile. In July 2018, Dimeo, 20 at the time, fell asleep at the wheel of his car on Route 22 in New Jersey. He lost control, and the car hit the curb, flipping over before bursting into flames. A passerby pulled him out of the… Read more »

COVID-19 patient treated for macroglossia

November 18, 2020

HOUSTON — This story is something you have to see to believe. A man in Florida was critically ill with COVID-19. When he regained consciousness, his tongue was so swollen he couldn’t close his mouth. Editor’s note: We need to warn you – some people may find the images in this story disturbing. Anthony Jones… Read more »

OMS removes large facial tumor

November 6, 2020

HOUSTON, Texas — A man is thrilled to have found a surgeon in Houston to remove a large tumor from his jaw. It was a painful and emotionally difficult experience, until he met the right doctor. Chris Stovah’s wife first spotted his swollen jaw when they were living in their home country of Nigeria about five years… Read more »

OMS performs surgery on NFL ref

September 14, 2020

KNOXVILLE, Tenn — Terry Brown has lived a fast-paced life with football at the very core. A Tennessee Vol in the 1980s, he spent time in the NFL as a player and is entering year No. 15 as an official. He still roams the field, just in black and white stripes with a yellow flag… Read more »

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  • News Releases

New Report Makes Economic Case for Increased Oral Health Investment

  • A growing oral health crisis is impacting billions of people, straining health systems and economies worldwide.
  • Dental care has historically been overlooked as a critical health issue, with vulnerable populations particularly affected.
  • Health insurance policy changes and expanded coverage for oral healthcare will be crucial to tackle the crisis and improve health equity globally.
  • Read the full report here .

Geneva, Switzerland, 23 May 2024 – Investing in oral health pays dual dividends in the form of improved overall health outcomes and economic growth, according to a new World Economic Forum report released today ahead of the World Health Assembly 2024.

The Economic Rationale for a Global Commitment to Invest in Oral Health – published in collaboration with the American Dental Association, Colgate-Palmolive Company and Henry Schein, Inc. – shows how a lack of investment in oral health globally has created a significant health crisis and placed an economic burden on many governments, businesses and individuals.

Almost half of the world’s population is impacted by oral diseases, with the number of cases growing faster than the population worldwide. Those who suffer from oral diseases are at higher risk of other severe illnesses such as diabetes, stroke, heart and respiratory diseases and cancer.

“The evidence is overwhelmingly clear: an investment in oral health is an investment towards a productive workforce and a healthy society overall,” said Shyam Bishen, Head, World Economic Forum Centre for Health and Healthcare. “Immediate action is needed from all sectors to address the growing burden of oral diseases.”

Oral diseases affect some 3.5 billion people annually and contribute to a global economic burden of $710 billion in treatment costs and productivity losses. Vulnerable populations globally are disproportionately paying the substantial economic penalty associated with unmet oral health needs.

The report calls for concerted public-private collaboration to accelerate investment in oral health, stressing that it would also boost overall health outcomes. In particular, better oral health has been associated with improved outcomes for people suffering from heart disease, respiratory disease, diabetes, dementia, arthritis, and for pregnant women, among others. Improving oral health equity globally would also help advance the health-related Sustainable Development Goals.

Presenting the economic rationale for a global commitment to invest in oral health, the report explores the role of various sectors in improving oral health. It outlines key measures each sector can take to improve oral health. These include the need for governments to integrate oral health within public health insurance programmes and benefits packages as part of universal health coverage policies; businesses to expand coverage for oral healthcare services in employer-provided health insurance programmes; multilateral organizations to include oral health in policy dialogues for strengthening health systems; and civil society organizations to invest in oral health activities as part of philanthropic support for in-country, health-systems strengthening.

Recognizing the complex challenges, the World Economic Forum launched the Oral Health Affinity Group (OHAG) in 2023 under its Global Health Equity Network, a group of more than 50 companies committed to advancing health equity to create stronger and more productive societies. OHAG, whose members and collaborators are leaders from sectors and industries, is working to highlight the impact of poor oral health on health outcomes and the global economy and recommends actions that governments and private sector companies can take to advance global oral health. Following the report findings, OHAG will work with partners to accelerate public-private partnerships and investment to improve oral health globally.

Notes to editors Read the Forum Agenda also in Spanish | Mandarin | Japanese Learn about the Forum’s impact Check out the Forum’s Strategic Intelligence Platform and Transformation Maps Follow the Forum on social media: @wef | Instagram | LinkedIn | Facebook | TikTok | Weibo | Threads | WhatsApp | WeChat Watch Forum videos at | YouTube Get Forum podcasts at | YouTube Subscribe to Forum news releases

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal

  • Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal
  • Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal

Research output

  • 653 Citations
  • 144 Article
  • 21 Review article
  • 3 Comment/debate
  • 2 Conference contribution

Research output per year

  • 1 - 50 out of 194 results
  • Publication Year, Title (ascending)

Search results

A framework to enhance the experience of cbct data in real-time using immersive virtual reality: impacting dental pre-surgical planning.

Research output : Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review

  • computerized tomography 100%
  • surgery 100%
  • planning 100%
  • virtual reality 100%

Epidemiology of maxillofacial injuries during monsoon and non-monsoon season in India: a data-based retrospective study from a tertiary care dental teaching hospital

  • teaching 100%
  • hospitals 100%
  • injuries 100%

Mandibular Reconstruction Modalities Using Virtual Surgical Planning and 3D Printing Technology: A Tertiary Care Centre Experience

  • 3d printing 100%
  • Tertiary Care 100%
  • Surgical Planning 100%

Morphological Analysis of Soft Palate Using MRI in Healthy Individual

  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging 100%
  • Palatopharyngeal Incompetence 100%
  • length 100%
  • nmr imaging 100%
  • Morphology 100%

Nasopalatine Duct Cyst Associated with Non-Vital Teeth: Report of a Rare Case

  • Tooth Pulp Disease 100%
  • Infection 33%

Nintedanib-induced osteomyelitis of the jaw against the background of COVID-19 infection

  • Osteomyelitis 100%
  • Nintedanib 100%
  • Infection 100%
  • Coronavirinae 100%
  • Disease 100%

Oral health in cancer palliative care: cross-sectional study

  • Malignant Neoplasm 100%
  • Cross Sectional Study 100%
  • Symptomatic Treatment 100%
  • cancer 100%
  • patients 57%

Pedicled Osseous Reconstruction of Orbital Floor Defects Post-Total Maxillectomy

  • defects 100%
  • floors 100%
  • Maxilla Resection 100%
  • surgery 50%
  • Free Tissue Graft 50%

Profile of Patients with Maxillofacial Space Infections and Associated Risk Factors

  • patients 100%
  • hospitals 75%

Progressive loss of upper limb function as a presenting feature of glenohumoral metastasis from a primary tongue malignancy

Research output : Contribution to journal › Comment/debate › peer-review

  • Cancer 100%
  • Tongue 100%
  • Metastatic Carcinoma 100%
  • Upper Limb 100%
  • Distant Metastasis 100%

The interplay of EMT and stemness driving malignant transformation of Oral Submucous Fibrosis

  • Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition 100%
  • Malignant Transformation 100%
  • Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition 100%
  • Squamous Cell 100%
  • Mouth Disease 100%

Variations of the submental artery: A series of cases

  • variations 100%
  • arteries 100%
  • Artery 100%
  • Surgeon 50%
  • Neck Dissection 50%

Anatomical approach to submental intubation through a paramedian transcrevicular approach

Research output : Contribution to journal › Letter › peer-review

  • Intubation 100%
  • management 50%
  • comparative evaluations 50%
  • fractures 50%

An unsolved dilemma in the reliability of virtual planning in mandibular reconstruction surgery: Short communication

Assessment of quality of life in patients with surgically treated maxillofacial fractures.

  • assessments 100%
  • quality of life 100%
  • fractures 100%
  • Quality of Life 100%

Difficulty of Arch Reduction with Gillies Temporal Approach in a Coronoid Hyperplasia Case

  • Hyperplasia 100%
  • reduction 100%
  • Lower Jaw 25%

Efficacy of Buccal Infiltration with or without Palatal Injection for Posterior Maxillary Teeth Extraction – A Split-Mouth Randomized Trial

  • extraction 100%
  • injection 100%

Efficacy of Preemptive Dexamethasone versus Methylprednisolone in the Management of Postoperative Discomfort and Pain after Mandibular Third Molar Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Research output : Contribution to journal › Review article › peer-review

  • Meta-Analysis 100%
  • Systematic Review 100%
  • Mandibular Third Molar 100%
  • Dexamethasone 100%
  • Methylprednisolone 100%

HOX cluster-embedded lncRNAs and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer: Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities

  • Long Untranslated RNA 100%
  • Homeobox 100%

Immersive Viewing of Dento-facial Medical Data in Virtual Reality

Research output : Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Conference contribution

  • motion 100%
  • Virtual Reality 100%

Interactive Volume Rendering Module using Two-Dimensional Transfer Function on Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Data

  • volume 100%
  • transfer functions 100%
  • Volume Rendering 100%

Necrotic oral lesions: a narrative review

  • management 100%
  • reviews 100%
  • Mouth Lesion 100%
  • Symptom 50%

Non-familial paediatric oral myofibroma - A masquerade. Case report with a brief literature review

  • tissues 100%
  • tumors 100%
  • tumor cells 100%
  • origin 100%

Occurrence of Second Oral Potentially Malignant Disorder following Excision of Primary Lesion: A Prospective Study of Cases from a Tertiary Care Centre

  • Recurrent Disease 100%
  • Prospective Study 100%

Oral Metronomic Chemotherapy in Advanced and Metastatic Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Need of the Hour

  • chemotherapy 100%
  • carcinomas 100%
  • metastases 100%
  • Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma 100%
  • Oral Cancer 100%

Outcomes of Non-surgical Management of Zygomaticomaxillary Complex Fractures

  • Surgery 100%
  • Paresthesia 50%

Paediatric condylar trauma – primary management considerations – A review

  • pediatrics 100%
  • trauma 100%
  • Pediatrics 100%

Piezo-Assisted Transmaxillary Approach for Microscope-Enabled Debulking of Infratemporal Schwannoma

  • microscopes 100%
  • Debulking 100%
  • Neurinoma 100%

Reconstruction of Maxillary Defects Using Virtual Surgical Planning and Additive Manufacturing Technology: A Tertiary Care Centre Experience

  • additives 100%
  • manufacturing 100%

Re-Examination of the Maxillary Vestibular Approach with Emphasis on Facial Mimetic Muscle Preservation

  • preservation 100%
  • muscles 100%
  • Facial Muscle 100%
  • Anatomy 50%
  • Incision 50%

Role of CBCT in Prediction of Oro-antral Communication Post Third Molar Extraction: A Retrospective Study

  • Third Molar 100%
  • Retrospective Study 100%
  • Tooth Extraction 100%
  • Cone Beam Computed Tomography 100%

Synchronous Aberration of the Jugular and Carotid—a Case Report

  • Clinician 100%
  • Diagnosis 100%
  • Awareness 100%
  • Internal Jugular Vein 100%

Use of the Smith’s Spreader as a Self-Retaining Retractor in the Direct Approach to Clival Tumours – A Technical Note

  • Maxilla 100%
  • stabilization 50%

“Giant cell fibroma of buccal mucosa ‑an unusual lesion of unusual size”: A case report

  • mucosa 100%
  • giant cells 100%
  • Buccal Mucosa 100%
  • Desmoplastic Fibroma 100%

A Convolutional Neural Network Based Deep Learning Algorithm for Identification of Oral Precancerous and Cancerous Lesion and Differentiation from Normal Mucosa: A Retrospective Study

  • learning 100%
  • algorithms 100%
  • neural networks 100%

Anatomic Variation of Submental Artery: A Case of Submental Artery Coursing Through a Developmental Defect of Mylohyoid Muscle

Bilateral temporomandibular joint reconstructions with stock alloplastic prostheses on a distracted mandible–a case report.

  • Arthroplasty 100%
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea 100%
  • Temporomandibular Joint 100%
  • Prosthesis 100%
  • prostheses 100%

Biological implications of the immune factors in the tumour microenvironment of oral cancer

  • Tumor Microenvironment 100%
  • Antibodies 100%

Current Concepts for Reconstruction of Oral Tissues Following Ablative Surgery: A Comprehensive Approach

  • Surgeon 100%
  • Ablation Therapy 100%

Ewinga' s sarcoma of the mandibular condyle in a young adult: A rare case report

  • adults 100%
  • sarcomas 100%
  • Sarcoma 100%
  • Lower Jaw 40%

Malignant Transformation of Longstanding Dentigerous Cyst in the Antrum: A Case Report

  • Dentigerous Cyst 100%
  • Omeprazole 100%
  • transformations 100%


  • Sleep Disordered Breathing 100%

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: knowledge and perceptions of medical professionals on the usage of bone modifying agents and dental referrals

  • Jaw Osteonecrosis 100%
  • Drug Therapy 100%
  • Patient Referral 100%

Morphological Study of the Transverse Ligament of Knee Joint in Embalmed Cadavers

  • Cadaver 100%
  • Knee Joint 100%
  • Transverse Ligament 100%
  • bone joints 100%

Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis: a diagnostic indicator of immunosuppression

  • humans 100%
  • viruses 100%
  • indicators 100%
  • immunosuppression 100%

Neurosensory Assessment of Infraorbital Nerve Injury Following Unilateral Zygomaticomaxillary Complex Fracture – A Prospective Study

  • nerves 100%
  • Nerve Injury 100%


  • universities 100%
  • Oral Surgery 100%
  • Dihydrotachysterol 100%
  • Awareness 75%


Resurgence of mucormycosis in india: a dentist's perspective, retrieval of fractured implant abutment screws: a narrative review.

  • implants 100%
  • screws 100%
  • Implant 100%

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Dr. Eric Chien-Wei Liao Receives Award from the American Association of Plastic Surgeons

Published on May 29, 2024

Division of Plastic, Reconstructive and Oral Surgery

Dr. Eric Chien-Wei Liao Receives Award from the American Association of Plastic Surgeons

“I am thrilled to see Dr. Liao receive this well-deserved award,” said Jesse Taylor, MD , chief of the Division of Plastic, Reconstructive and Oral Surgery at CHOP. “There is no bigger honor than this in plastic surgery science and it is a true testament to his work spanning advances in fetal care, human genetics and developmental biology to initiate first-in-child trials and treatments, among other areas of plastic surgery.”

As a surgeon, Dr. Liao cares for patients born with orofacial clefts and complex craniofacial conditions. Dr. Liao also leads the Department of Surgery as the Vice Chair of Academic Affairs, where he is dedicated to nurturing trainees and faculty toward impactful academic careers.

“I am thrilled to shine this recognition on the work we are pioneering at CHOP and on our craniofacial team,” said Dr. Liao. “CHOP is where the world comes, not just for answers but for cures.”

Read more about Dr. Liao and his work here .

Contact: Kaila Revello, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 267-426-6054 or [email protected]

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Why Choose CHOP for Plastic, Reconstructive and Oral Surgery

Learn about what makes CHOP’s Division of Plastic, Reconstructive and Oral Surgery unique, and why our experience makes us the best choice for your child’s care.

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Find information about what to expect during your child's visit to CHOP's Division of Plastic, Reconstructive and Oral Surgery.


Hitting the target with non-invasive deep brain stimulation: Potential therapy for addiction, depression, and OCD

Neurological disorders, such as addiction, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), affect millions of people worldwide and are often characterized by complex pathologies involving multiple brain regions and circuits. These conditions are notoriously difficult to treat due to the intricate and poorly understood nature of brain functions and the challenge of delivering therapies to deep brain structures without invasive procedures.

In the rapidly evolving field of neuroscience, non-invasive brain stimulation is a new hope for understanding and treating a myriad of neurological and psychiatric conditions without surgical intervention or implants. Researchers, led by Friedhelm Hummel, who holds the Defitchech Chair of Clinical Neuroengineering at EPFL's School of Life Sciences, and postdoc Pierre Vassiliadis, are pioneering a new approach in the field, opening frontiers in treating conditions like addiction and depression.

Their research, leveraging transcranial Temporal Interference Electric Stimulation (tTIS), specifically targets deep brain regions that are the control centers of several important cognitive functions and involved in different neurological and psychiatric pathologies. The research, published in Nature Human Behaviour , highlights the interdisciplinary approach that integrates medicine, neuroscience, computation, and engineering to improve our understanding of the brain and develop potentially life-changing therapies.

"Invasive deep brain stimulation (DBS) has already successfully been applied to the deeply seated neural control centers in order to curb addiction and treat Parkinson, OCD or depression," says Hummel. "The key difference with our approach is that it is non-invasive, meaning that we use low-level electrical stimulation on the scalp to target these regions."

Vassiliadis, lead author of the paper, a medical doctor with a joint PhD, describes tTIS as using two pairs of electrodes attached to the scalp to apply weak electrical fields inside the brain. "Up until now, we couldn't specifically target these regions with non-invasive techniques, as the low-level electrical fields would stimulate all the regions between the skull and the deeper zones -- rendering any treatments ineffective. This approach allows us to selectively stimulate deep brain regions that are important in neuropsychiatric disorders," he explains.

The innovative technique is based on the concept of temporal interference, initially explored in rodent models, and now successfully translated to human applications by the EPFL team. In this experiment, one pair of electrodes is set to a frequency of 2,000 Hz, while another is set to 2,080 Hz. Thanks to detailed computational models of the brain structure, the electrodes are specifically positioned on the scalp to ensure that their signals intersect in the target region.

It is at this juncture that the magic of interference occurs: the slight frequency disparity of 80 Hz between the two currents becomes the effective stimulation frequency within the target zone. The brilliance of this method lies in its selectivity; the high base frequencies (e.g., 2,000 Hz) do not stimulate neural activity directly, leaving the intervening brain tissue unaffected and focusing the effect solely on the targeted region.

The focus of this latest research is the human striatum, a key player in reward and reinforcement mechanisms. "We're examining how reinforcement learning, essentially how we learn through rewards, can be influenced by targeting specific brain frequencies," says Vassiliadis. By applying stimulation of the striatum at 80 Hz, the team found they could disrupt its normal functioning, directly affecting the learning process.

The therapeutic potential of their work is immense, particularly for conditions like addiction, apathy and depression, where reward mechanisms play a crucial role. "In addiction, for example, people tend to over-approach rewards. Our method could help reduce this pathological overemphasis," Vassiliadis, who is also a researcher at UCLouvain's Institute of Neuroscience, points out.

Furthermore, the team is exploring how different stimulation patterns can not only disrupt but also potentially enhance brain functions. "This first step was to prove the hypothesis of 80 Hz affecting the striatum, and we did it by disrupting it's functioning. Our research also shows promise in improving motor behavior and increasing striatum activity, particularly in older adults with reduced learning abilities," Vassiliadis adds.

Hummel, a trained neurologist, sees this technology as the beginning of a new chapter in brain stimulation, offering personalized treatment with less invasive methods. "We're looking at a non-invasive approach that allows us to experiment and personalize treatment for deep brain stimulation in the early stages," he says. Another key advantage of tTIS is its minimal side effects. Most participants in their studies reported only mild sensations on the skin, making it a highly tolerable and patient-friendly approach.

Hummel and Vassiliadis are optimistic about the impact of their research. They envision a future where non-invasive neuromodulation therapies could be readily available in hospitals, offering a cost-effective and expansive treatment scope.

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  • Brain Tumor
  • Mental Health Research
  • Psychology Research
  • Brain-Computer Interfaces
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  • Deep brain stimulation
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Story Source:

Materials provided by Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne . Original written by Michael David Mitchell. The original text of this story is licensed under Creative Commons CC BY-SA 4.0 . Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference :

  • Pierre Vassiliadis, Elena Beanato, Traian Popa, Fabienne Windel, Takuya Morishita, Esra Neufeld, Julie Duque, Gerard Derosiere, Maximilian J. Wessel, Friedhelm C. Hummel. Non-invasive stimulation of the human striatum disrupts reinforcement learning of motor skills . Nature Human Behaviour , 2024; DOI: 10.1038/s41562-024-01901-z

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May 31, 2024

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Research finds limits to access of emergency contraceptive pill in Australia

by Flinders University


The accessibility of first-line oral emergency contraceptives in Australian community pharmacies is problematic—with a national survey finding almost one-third reporting they do not stock the ulipristal acetate pill that has been recommended by medical authorities.

Only 70% of the 233 pharmacies surveyed stocked ulipristal acetate emergency contraceptive (EC) pills, compared to levonorgestrel, which was stocked at 98%. The survey also found that ulipristal acetate was much less likely to be stocked in community pharmacies in rural and remote areas and was even more expensive when it was.

"This is despite evidence that unintended pregnancies are more common among those living in rural and remote areas and highlights a clear equity issue that should be addressed," researchers say in an article due to be published in the journal Contraception .

"Despite guidelines recommending it as the first line oral emergency contraceptive, ulipristal acetate is less likely to be available in community pharmacies, and when it is available it is likely to be much more expensive," says corresponding author Flinders University Associate Professor Luke Grzeskowiak, who leads the Reproductive and Perinatal Pharmacoepidemiology Research Group at Flinders University and the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI).

"Several measures could be taken to improve women's ability to receive evidence-based treatments. With medication costs ranging from $26 to $80, this calls into question whether government subsidies should be available," says Associate Professor Grzeskowiak.

Emergency contraception has the potential to reduce the risk of unintended pregnancy following an episode of unprotected sexual intercourse . There are a number of factors that must be considered when selecting the most appropriate EC product for each consumer; such as time since unprotected sexual intercourse, use of other oral contraceptives and body mass index.

First author Tahlee Stevenson, a Research Associate from the University of Adelaide School of Public Health, says, "We need to better understand why pharmacies are choosing not to stock ulipristal acetate. Is this because of low consumer awareness and/or higher prices impacting demand, or is it related to a lack of awareness and understanding among pharmacy owners regarding evidence-based recommendations for emergency contraception?

"To truly work towards improving accessibility, we must address these factors and ensure that all consumers can source their preferred emergency contraceptive method in a timely and cost-effective manner. By only stocking levonorgestrel, pharmacies are inhibiting their capacity to follow clinical guidelines , and this may mean that some consumers aren't able to access the EC that is appropriate for their individual needs and circumstances," she says.

While there is legislation and guidelines covering the supply of emergency contraception, these don't extend to whether or not individual products are stocked, and pharmacies can choose not to stock any product at all. This results in a postcode lottery in terms of access.

Pharmacists must be aware of key differences in the available methods of EC to ensure that they are prepared to facilitate shared decision-making based on the individual needs of each woman.

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