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How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

Published on October 12, 2022 by Shona McCombes and Tegan George. Revised on November 21, 2023.

Structure of a research proposal

A research proposal describes what you will investigate, why it’s important, and how you will conduct your research.

The format of a research proposal varies between fields, but most proposals will contain at least these elements:


Literature review.

  • Research design

Reference list

While the sections may vary, the overall objective is always the same. A research proposal serves as a blueprint and guide for your research plan, helping you get organized and feel confident in the path forward you choose to take.

Table of contents

Research proposal purpose, research proposal examples, research design and methods, contribution to knowledge, research schedule, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about research proposals.

Academics often have to write research proposals to get funding for their projects. As a student, you might have to write a research proposal as part of a grad school application , or prior to starting your thesis or dissertation .

In addition to helping you figure out what your research can look like, a proposal can also serve to demonstrate why your project is worth pursuing to a funder, educational institution, or supervisor.

Research proposal aims
Show your reader why your project is interesting, original, and important.
Demonstrate your comfort and familiarity with your field.
Show that you understand the current state of research on your topic.
Make a case for your .
Demonstrate that you have carefully thought about the data, tools, and procedures necessary to conduct your research.
Confirm that your project is feasible within the timeline of your program or funding deadline.

Research proposal length

The length of a research proposal can vary quite a bit. A bachelor’s or master’s thesis proposal can be just a few pages, while proposals for PhD dissertations or research funding are usually much longer and more detailed. Your supervisor can help you determine the best length for your work.

One trick to get started is to think of your proposal’s structure as a shorter version of your thesis or dissertation , only without the results , conclusion and discussion sections.

Download our research proposal template

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Writing a research proposal can be quite challenging, but a good starting point could be to look at some examples. We’ve included a few for you below.

  • Example research proposal #1: “A Conceptual Framework for Scheduling Constraint Management”
  • Example research proposal #2: “Medical Students as Mediators of Change in Tobacco Use”

Like your dissertation or thesis, the proposal will usually have a title page that includes:

  • The proposed title of your project
  • Your supervisor’s name
  • Your institution and department

The first part of your proposal is the initial pitch for your project. Make sure it succinctly explains what you want to do and why.

Your introduction should:

  • Introduce your topic
  • Give necessary background and context
  • Outline your  problem statement  and research questions

To guide your introduction , include information about:

  • Who could have an interest in the topic (e.g., scientists, policymakers)
  • How much is already known about the topic
  • What is missing from this current knowledge
  • What new insights your research will contribute
  • Why you believe this research is worth doing

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As you get started, it’s important to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the most important research on your topic. A strong literature review  shows your reader that your project has a solid foundation in existing knowledge or theory. It also shows that you’re not simply repeating what other people have already done or said, but rather using existing research as a jumping-off point for your own.

In this section, share exactly how your project will contribute to ongoing conversations in the field by:

  • Comparing and contrasting the main theories, methods, and debates
  • Examining the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
  • Explaining how will you build on, challenge, or synthesize prior scholarship

Following the literature review, restate your main  objectives . This brings the focus back to your own project. Next, your research design or methodology section will describe your overall approach, and the practical steps you will take to answer your research questions.

Building a research proposal methodology
? or  ? , , or research design?
, )? ?
, , , )?

To finish your proposal on a strong note, explore the potential implications of your research for your field. Emphasize again what you aim to contribute and why it matters.

For example, your results might have implications for:

  • Improving best practices
  • Informing policymaking decisions
  • Strengthening a theory or model
  • Challenging popular or scientific beliefs
  • Creating a basis for future research

Last but not least, your research proposal must include correct citations for every source you have used, compiled in a reference list . To create citations quickly and easily, you can use our free APA citation generator .

Some institutions or funders require a detailed timeline of the project, asking you to forecast what you will do at each stage and how long it may take. While not always required, be sure to check the requirements of your project.

Here’s an example schedule to help you get started. You can also download a template at the button below.

Download our research schedule template

Example research schedule
Research phase Objectives Deadline
1. Background research and literature review 20th January
2. Research design planning and data analysis methods 13th February
3. Data collection and preparation with selected participants and code interviews 24th March
4. Data analysis of interview transcripts 22nd April
5. Writing 17th June
6. Revision final work 28th July

If you are applying for research funding, chances are you will have to include a detailed budget. This shows your estimates of how much each part of your project will cost.

Make sure to check what type of costs the funding body will agree to cover. For each item, include:

  • Cost : exactly how much money do you need?
  • Justification : why is this cost necessary to complete the research?
  • Source : how did you calculate the amount?

To determine your budget, think about:

  • Travel costs : do you need to go somewhere to collect your data? How will you get there, and how much time will you need? What will you do there (e.g., interviews, archival research)?
  • Materials : do you need access to any tools or technologies?
  • Help : do you need to hire any research assistants for the project? What will they do, and how much will you pay them?

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.


  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility


  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

Once you’ve decided on your research objectives , you need to explain them in your paper, at the end of your problem statement .

Keep your research objectives clear and concise, and use appropriate verbs to accurately convey the work that you will carry out for each one.

I will compare …

A research aim is a broad statement indicating the general purpose of your research project. It should appear in your introduction at the end of your problem statement , before your research objectives.

Research objectives are more specific than your research aim. They indicate the specific ways you’ll address the overarching aim.

A PhD, which is short for philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy in Latin), is the highest university degree that can be obtained. In a PhD, students spend 3–5 years writing a dissertation , which aims to make a significant, original contribution to current knowledge.

A PhD is intended to prepare students for a career as a researcher, whether that be in academia, the public sector, or the private sector.

A master’s is a 1- or 2-year graduate degree that can prepare you for a variety of careers.

All master’s involve graduate-level coursework. Some are research-intensive and intend to prepare students for further study in a PhD; these usually require their students to write a master’s thesis . Others focus on professional training for a specific career.

Critical thinking refers to the ability to evaluate information and to be aware of biases or assumptions, including your own.

Like information literacy , it involves evaluating arguments, identifying and solving problems in an objective and systematic way, and clearly communicating your ideas.

The best way to remember the difference between a research plan and a research proposal is that they have fundamentally different audiences. A research plan helps you, the researcher, organize your thoughts. On the other hand, a dissertation proposal or research proposal aims to convince others (e.g., a supervisor, a funding body, or a dissertation committee) that your research topic is relevant and worthy of being conducted.

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Preparation of the Investigator for a Proposal

The research proposal, insights into the reviewer's perspective, conclusions, writing successful research proposals for medical science  .

(Schwinn) Professor of Anesthesiology and Surgery; Associate Professor of Pharmacology/Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center; Senior Fellow, Duke Pepper Aging Center.

(DeLong) Associate Professor, Division of Biometry and Medical Informatics, Duke University Medical Center.

(Shafer) Staff Anesthesiologist, Palo Alto VA Health Care System; Associate Professor of Anesthesia, Stanford University.

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Debra A. Schwinn , Elizabeth R. DeLong , Steven L. Shafer; Writing Successful Research Proposals for Medical Science   . Anesthesiology 1998; 88:1660–1666 doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-199806000-00031

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HIGH-QUALITY research proposals are required to obtain funds for the basic and clinical sciences. In this era of diminishing revenues, the ability to compete successfully for peer-reviewed research money is essential to create and maintain scientific programs. Ideally, the essentials of “grantsmanship” are learned through observation and participation in grant preparation, but the training environment experienced by most physicians typically focuses on clinical skills. Most physicians are never exposed to a research environment and therefore do not learn how to write grants. The result is that many clinical studies, even when designed by skilled clinicians and those that address important clinical questions, often do not compete successfully with proposals written by basic scientists. This creates a perception that clinical studies are not favorably viewed by research review committees. The opposite is probably closer to the truth; research review committees are very keen to fund excellent clinical research. Although greater numbers of researchers with Ph.D. degrees have applied for National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants compared with researchers with M.D. degrees over the last 10 yr, funding rates (percent applications funded) have remained approximately the same for these investigators ( Figure 1 ; 1995 success rates: all degrees, 6,759 [26.8%]; M.D. - Ph.D., 370 [23.1%]; M.D., 1,518 [28.1%]; Ph.D., 4,746 [26.8%]; other degree, 125 [23.1%]).[section]

Figure 1. Overall success rates for NIH funding of scientific applications, 1986 - 1995. No difference in funding rate is observed between applicants holding M.D. versus Ph.D. degrees. As the success rate for first-time applications was 11.3% in 1993, it is apparent that resubmission of a revised application significantly increases the overall chance of having research proposal ultimately funded.[section]

Figure 1. Overall success rates for NIH funding of scientific applications, 1986 - 1995. No difference in funding rate is observed between applicants holding M.D. versus Ph.D. degrees. As the success rate for first-time applications was 11.3% in 1993, it is apparent that resubmission of a revised application significantly increases the overall chance of having research proposal ultimately funded.[section]

Capable medical researchers ultimately write research proposals for funding by the NIH. Standards of excellence for NIH grants are high (only the top [almost equal to] 20% of grants are funded). Research questions posed must be hypothesis driven; the investigator must be qualified to perform the study; and preliminary evidence should be presented demonstrating that the research is feasible and will answer the questions posed. The goal of this article is to review important elements of successful research proposals, with emphasis on funding sources available to the anesthesiology community. Two important anesthesia-specific organizations exist to support anesthesia research - The Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research (FAER, an organization under the auspices of the American Society of Anesthesiologists) and the International Anesthesiology Research Society (IARS).

Successful applications for research support from FAER and IARS have many of the characteristics of grants funded by the NIH and other peer-reviewed funding sources. These characteristics include (1) a highly qualified investigator(s);(2) for junior investigators, a mentor with a successful track record in scientific investigation, peer-reviewed funding, and mentorship of fellows and faculty;(3) a supportive academic environment; and (4) a scientifically sound proposal. Each of these characteristics is discussed in the subsequent sections.

Training of the Investigator

One of the most important components of a successful research proposal is a well-trained investigator. Training in clinical anesthesia is not training in research methodology or scientific thinking; it does not prepare an individual for a career in investigation. Although obvious for basic science research, clinical research also requires commitment of a minimum of 1 yr of dedicated training with a good mentor, and more typically 2 - 3 yr in the field of the proposed research. The applicant also needs to demonstrate commitment to a career in investigation. Several years of scientific training is the first demonstration of such commitment. Research proposals must document institutional support for nonclinical time, and the investigator must provide evidence that this time has been used wisely and will continue to be dedicated to the proposed research.

The research proposal must document a track record of productivity by the investigator. This expectation increases as the training and career of the investigator progresses. Fellowship awards do not have an expectation of prior research training, so publications from prior research are not expected. At the fellowship level, outstanding letters of recommendation, undergraduate and medical school performance, and related accomplishments are most important. Because previous training is not required of the fellowship applicant, prior success of the mentor (publications and track record with previous trainees) weighs heavily in the fellowship review. For junior faculty, peer-reviewed publications are expected from the fellowship period. Young Investigator Annoucements (from FAER) and several new IARS awards require several years as a successful junior faculty member, so expectations of demonstrated research success are further increased. The investigator must demonstrate (1) rigorous training, (2) commitment to research, (3) an appropriate career path, and (4) a track record of productive work. None of these are trivial issues, and none can be easily accomplished without making a commitment to research early in the academic career.

The quality of the mentor is another important aspect of awards granted to fellows and junior faculty. Identification of a mentor is explicitly required for FAER and certain junior level NIH grant applications. First and foremost, the mentor must be a successful investigator. Criteria for this include a track record of publication in the area of the proposed research, continued peer-reviewed funding, and a history of successfully training young investigators. Although mentorship is not considered heavily in more senior grant applications, input from a more experienced investigator often remains beneficial throughout one's career (as we can personally attest to). In addition to the mentor, high-quality coinvestigators, collaborators, and consultants also play important roles in strengthening a research proposal.


Good research is best accomplished in a supportive, cooperative environment. Because of the changing climate of clinical medicine, researchers (both clinical and basic science) face increasing pressure to minimize research time. It is not possible to become a successful investigator in one's spare time. Documentation of adequate nonclinical time for research (not for committee meetings or other unrelated tasks) is essential. Receiving funding at a junior level often enables the department to match funds or to guarantee nonclinical time to the budding investigator. In general, the more non-clinical time available to an investigator, the more competitive the application.

Other important elements of the environment include people, space, and institutional resources. People include mentors, consultants who can help with specific methodologies, statistical support, helpful colleagues, experienced technicians, a clinical research team, and a dedicated chairperson. There must be adequate space for performing the proposed studies, office space for research personnel, and storage space for equipment and supplies. Institutional resources include related departmental and interdepartmental seminar series, a critical mass of investigators in a related area, instrument development and repair shops, and necessary laboratory space and common facilities.

Criteria for a sound research proposal are the same whether the proposal is submitted to NIH, FAER, IARS, or other funding sources. In crafting a proposal, it is essential to consider the perspective of the reviewer; therefore, items of interest to the reviewer are listed after general definition of the grant proposal.

Review committees receive dozens of grants. NIH study sections may review as many as 150 proposals during one session. Typically, only two or three reviewers are assigned to read each grant in detail, but everyone is expected to read each abstract. Hence, the abstract is often one of the most important parts of the research proposal. The abstract should address the significance of the question and the overall topic, state the hypothesis, and point out key preliminary data. Additionally, the abstract should provide a synopsis of methodologies planned. In the end, the reviewer must be convinced that the applicant is uniquely (or ideally) suited to undertake this important study by the end of this concise paragraph.

Body of the Grant

Specific Aims. The specific aims section is critically important in a scientific proposal. It is here that the investigator crystallizes the overall goal of the research and states specific hypotheses.

Beginning with the specific aims, the proposal must be well written and logically organized. A poorly organized grant application is difficult to review, even if the science is otherwise excellent. Typically, the specific aims begin with a short introduction (one paragraph), followed by a formally stated hypothesis. The hypothesis must be answerable by the research methods proposed. Generally, two or three specific aims are outlined with subheadings where appropriate. Organization of the specific aims is often temporal, starting with a proposed mechanism or the first set of studies in a clinical project. In general, the specific aims section should be no longer than one page.

Background and Significance. The background section provides an opportunity to bring reviewers up to date on current research in the area of the proposal. This section should summarize succinctly studies from the literature and related work published by the investigator. The most crucial aspect of the background is to build a case for significance of the proposed research regarding the ultimate clinical application or mechanistic understanding. Ideally, the background section should demonstrate that the current proposal is a logical extension of previous studies in the field and will provide new information and novel insights. In general, the background section should be about one fourth of the length of the grant proposal.

Preliminary Data. Preliminary data provide the opportunity for the investigator to demonstrate his or her ability to perform the proposed research. The goal in presenting preliminary data is to convince the reviewer that the investigator is capable of performing the proposed studies and that the mechanisms proposed are plausible. Good preliminary data support novel (or even unlikely) hypotheses. Each experimental method proposed should be accompanied by preliminary data demonstrating facility and expertise with related preparations. For example, if the investigator proposes using a specific electrophysiologic technique to study an ion channel, evidence demonstrating that this technique has been used by the investigator with other ion channels and a Figure showingresults from pilot experiments on the channel of interest would suffice. In clinical studies, demonstration of a working investigative team and the ability to enroll a given number of patients per week is helpful. Figures or tables help to convey the message in a succinct manner. They also conserve space in the proposal and create a more impressive effect. Although it is best if the applicant has generated his or her own preliminary data, for training awards, preliminary data from the mentor's laboratory is entirely appropriate. An effective way to organize preliminary data is to present it in the same order as the specific aims (e.g., C.1 preliminary data corresponds to A.1 specific aims, C.2 preliminary data corresponds to A.2 specific aims, etc.). Presentation of preliminary data usually takes about one fourth to one third of the length of the grant application.

Methods. The methods are the guts of the research proposal. Unfortunately, many investigators run out of steam by the time they reach the methods, leaving reviewers unconvinced by the proposed methodology. Ideally, the model being investigated should be broken down into simple, logical components, each accompanied by a description of specific experiments/interventions to be performed. The investigator should assume that at least one reviewer is an expert in each method presented. Therefore, enough detail should be provided to convince an expert that the experiment or technique is being performed properly. Methods presented as a list of recipes, requiring the reviewer to guess which method applies to each study, are recipes for disaster. Individual experimental techniques should be state of the art. In addition, approaching a problem from several angles is often helpful. “Lingo” of the field should be avoided; it is very annoying to reviewers to have to look up unexplained abbreviations or to have models alluded to rather than described. For training grants, methods should involve techniques currently being performed in the laboratory of the mentor. An effective way to organize the methods section is to follow the same order as the preliminary data and specific aims sections (e.g., D.1 methods corresponds to C.1 preliminary data and A.1 specific aims, etc.).

The methods sections should include a description of the design, conduct, and analysis of each study being proposed. Common errors in design include lack of specification of primary outcome, lack of randomization or blinding in clinical trials, inadequate justification of sample size, failure to adjust the total study number for expected dropouts/failed experiments or patient refusal, and use of single drug doses or concentrations rather than development of dose - response or concentration - response relations. Common errors in conducting research include lack of confirmation of drug concentrations, inadequate reproducibility of final results, lack of standardization of procedures, inadequate follow-up, incomplete data recording, and overall lack of organization.

Inadequate or inappropriate statistical methods can be a major weakness of a grant proposal. Many investigators feel confident with all aspects of their methods except the statistical section. Because statistical issues underlie the design and analysis strategy for every study, the input of a biostatistician is essential in planning the research and writing the grant application. Statistical considerations include specification of the primary end points that drive power calculations. Common statistical errors in research proposals include lack of sample size/power calculations, treating continuous variables as dichotomous, repeated t tests when a more comprehensive modeling approach should be taken, application of statistical tests that assume normality without verifying assumptions, failure to consider covariate effects, and failure to distinguish between interindividual and intraindividual variability. The investigator should be familiar with the concept of statistical power and be prepared to estimate some of the quantities needed to formulate an alternative hypothesis appropriately. The statistical analysis should be clearly outlined with specific methodology directed toward the hypotheses of the study. A statistical reviewer is unlikely to be convinced by a statement that “appropriate statistical methodology will be used” or by a barrage of nonspecific statistical jargon. At least one full paragraph (and sometimes an entire page) of the research proposal should be devoted to statistical analysis. Often several smaller statistics sections are appropriately included after each method is presented.

Even the best methods have potential problems and weaknesses. It is critical that the methods section discuss potential problems that may be encountered during the study and state how the investigator proposes to deal with these problems creatively. Reviewers tend to be impressed when the investigator presents potential problems that never occurred to them, because it suggests that the investigator is an expert in this area of research. A time line and organizational plan (who will be responsible for what) should also be included in the methods section so the reviewers can determine whether the investigator is being realistic in his or her approach. The methods section is typically one third to one half of the length of the entire grant proposal.

Introduction to Revised Application. Because so few grant applications are funded on their first submission (11.5% in 1993), the new investigator should not be unduly alarmed if his or her application is not funded. When a grant application has been unsuccessful, an investigator should revise the application and reapply, even if the original score was “noncompetitive”(meaning the grant was in the lower 50% of applications). Often the reviewers suggest key changes that will improve the application significantly. When submitting a revised application, an introduction (placed before the specific aims section) is used to discuss how criticisms of the original grant have been addressed in the revised proposal. Because the reviewer's comments are intended to be helpful, it is important to address each concern carefully in the revised proposal (changed text should be highlighted in the revised application by italic, bold, or identifying lines in the margin), with changes outlined in the introduction section. Angry responses to reviewers do not facilitate funding of the revised application. Remember that reviewers usually have a copy of the prior review, and they expect corrections or, when appropriate, an explanation of why you have chosen not to incorporate some suggestions from a prior review. Time taken to revise an application is well spent; as Figure 1 demonstrates, investigators who persist in revising and resubmitting their applications have an increased chance ([almost equal to] 20% with no previous NIH support, [almost equal to] 35% if previously funded) of ultimately being funded.[section]

In writing a research grant, it is helpful to consider the reviewer's perspective. Key features considered by reviewers include significance, approach, and feasibility. It is wise for the investigator to reread his or her application before submission with these features in mind. The NIH recently has published two documents on-line that discuss review criteria; examination of these documents before submission of a research proposal may prove helpful. These include the Report of the Committee on Rating Grant Applications[double vertical bar] and Review Criteria for Rating Unsolicited Research Grants.#


First and foremost, is the investigator asking an important question? There are two general ways research studies can be significant. The first is to demonstrate clinical significance. The litmus test for clinical significance is whether the proposed research will improve patient care. The second is elucidation of fundamental mechanisms underlying disease or biologic processes. The ideal research question succeeds in being significant in both areas.

The reviewer assesses whether the research plan can support or refute the stated hypothesis. In addition, the reviewer assesses whether the methodologies used provide adequate or, better yet, elegant approaches to the problem. Recently, the NIH has mandated an increasing emphasis on innovation in research. [1] **

Review committees generally are composed of individuals with expertise in many scientific areas. Additionally, study sections often retain outside reviewers with expertise in the proposed research area. The investigator should assume that his or her methods will be critiqued by at least one expert. Therefore, the investigator should not propose a method that would strike the world's expert in the field as being simplistic, inappropriate, or nonsensical, because the world's expert just might be one of the reviewers. Conversely, some reviewers do not have expertise in the proposed area of research. To ensure that the nonexpert is convinced of the validity and importance of proposed methodologies, the overall proposal should be written with a logical flow of ideas that build from basic to sophisticated concepts. Beginning each portion of the methods section with a short introduction for the nonexpert, followed by a more detailed description of the proposed methods, is an effective strategy to address the needs of both expert and nonexpert reviewers.


The investigator must convince reviewers that the chosen approach is feasible. Preliminary data provide the best demonstration of feasibility. Feasibility is often demonstrated by a track record of publications or peer-reviewed grant support for the applicant or mentor using the proposed experimental approach. Feasibility also can be demonstrated by appropriate statistical analysis of the proposal. For example, a power analysis and corresponding data on the number of patients with the required characteristics at the investigator's institution helps convince reviewers that a clinical study is feasible.

Anesthesiology Funding Sources

Funding for research performed by anesthesiologists is available from many sources. Because the discipline of anesthesiology overlaps many other fields, anesthesiologists have the opportunity to apply for research funds from agencies as diverse as the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Cancer Society, American Heart Association (national and local), American Thoracic Society, American Society for Regional Anesthesiology, critical care societies, Department of Veterans Affairs, National Science Foundation, Shriners, Society for Cardiovascular Anesthesiology, Society for Obstetrics and Perinatology, National Aeronautics and Space Aviation, NIH, and many other private foundations. Grants from FAER and IARS are available specifically to the anesthesiology community.

It is important that anesthesiologists continue to apply for NIH grants. For fiscal year 1996, the NIH awarded 149 research grants (including career development grants, R29, R01, and program project grants) to departments of anesthesiology, totaling $21 million in direct costs ([almost equal to]$31 million in total costs). Because of the diversity of research projects in anesthesiology, these grants were awarded by 14 different institutes, centers, and divisions within the NIH. In analyzing data for three recent review sessions (June 1996, October 1996, and February 1997) from the surgery, anesthesiology, and trauma study section, 26% of anesthesiology applications scored in the top 20th percentile, and 31% scored in the top 25th percentile; clearly no bias exists against anesthesiology in this predominantly surgical study section, at least in this limited sample (Alison Cole, anesthesiology representative for the National Institute of General Medicine Science at the NIH, personal communication, December, 1997). Table 1  

Table 1. Number of Recipients of NIH Research Project Annoucements  

Table 1. Number of Recipients of NIH Research Project Annoucements 

A brief list of funding opportunities available to anesthesiologists early in their career is shown in Table 2 . Several sites are available on the World Wide Web ( Table 3 ) to facilitate access to grant/training resources for anesthesiologists. We have created an additional website ( http://pkpd.icon.palo-alto.med.va.gov/grants/grants.htm ), which provides access to more comprehensive lists of funding agencies and direct links to funding sources. This website also contains example grants designed to illustrate the grant writing principles discussed in this article.

Table 2. Potential Funding Sources  

Table 2. Potential Funding Sources 

Table 3. Grant/Training Resources on the WWW  

Table 3. Grant/Training Resources on the WWW 

Successful grant applications require a well-trained investigator who carefully outlines a hypothesis-driven research proposal. Unique to FAER and IARS research committees is that the reviewers are mostly investigators and practicing anesthesiologists. These reviewers fully appreciate the importance of clinical research and enthusiastically support high-quality clinical studies. Although descriptive clinical studies are interesting to practicing clinicians, from a scientific perspective, clinical research must be driven by testable hypotheses. Without a testable hypothesis, clinical research cannot pass the test of adequate significance required for funding.

It is our hope that by demystifying the grant writing and review process that more anesthesiologists will be encouraged to submit proposals for research funding. As part of this effort, we strongly encourage residents and fellows interested in research careers to obtain adequate research training and to apply for appropriate fellowship/junior faculty awards early in their careers.

[section] NIH Extramural Data and Trends, Fiscal Years 1986 - 1995. Bethesda, Office of Reports and Analysis (component of the Office of Extramural Research), National Institutes of Health. (Published on-line and periodically updated. http://www.nih.gov/grants/award/award.htm ).

[double vertical bar] Report of the Committee on Rating Grant Applications. Revised 5/17/96. Bethesda, National Institutes of Health. (Published on-line. http://www.nih.gov/grants/peer/rga.pdf ).

# Review Criteria for Rating Unsolicited Research Grants. NIH Guide, Vol. 26, No. 22, 6/27/97. Bethesda, National Institutes of Health. (Published on-line. http://www.nih.gov/grants/guide/1997/97.06.27/notice-review-criter9.html ).

** Brown KS: A winning strategy for grant application: Focus on impact. The Scientist 1997; April 8:13–4

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Writing a Scientific Research Project Proposal

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Table of Contents

The importance of a well-written research proposal cannot be underestimated. Your research really is only as good as your proposal. A poorly written, or poorly conceived research proposal will doom even an otherwise worthy project. On the other hand, a well-written, high-quality proposal will increase your chances for success.

In this article, we’ll outline the basics of writing an effective scientific research proposal, including the differences between research proposals, grants and cover letters. We’ll also touch on common mistakes made when submitting research proposals, as well as a simple example or template that you can follow.

What is a scientific research proposal?

The main purpose of a scientific research proposal is to convince your audience that your project is worthwhile, and that you have the expertise and wherewithal to complete it. The elements of an effective research proposal mirror those of the research process itself, which we’ll outline below. Essentially, the research proposal should include enough information for the reader to determine if your proposed study is worth pursuing.

It is not an uncommon misunderstanding to think that a research proposal and a cover letter are the same things. However, they are different. The main difference between a research proposal vs cover letter content is distinct. Whereas the research proposal summarizes the proposal for future research, the cover letter connects you to the research, and how you are the right person to complete the proposed research.

There is also sometimes confusion around a research proposal vs grant application. Whereas a research proposal is a statement of intent, related to answering a research question, a grant application is a specific request for funding to complete the research proposed. Of course, there are elements of overlap between the two documents; it’s the purpose of the document that defines one or the other.

Scientific Research Proposal Format

Although there is no one way to write a scientific research proposal, there are specific guidelines. A lot depends on which journal you’re submitting your research proposal to, so you may need to follow their scientific research proposal template.

In general, however, there are fairly universal sections to every scientific research proposal. These include:

  • Title: Make sure the title of your proposal is descriptive and concise. Make it catch and informative at the same time, avoiding dry phrases like, “An investigation…” Your title should pique the interest of the reader.
  • Abstract: This is a brief (300-500 words) summary that includes the research question, your rationale for the study, and any applicable hypothesis. You should also include a brief description of your methodology, including procedures, samples, instruments, etc.
  • Introduction: The opening paragraph of your research proposal is, perhaps, the most important. Here you want to introduce the research problem in a creative way, and demonstrate your understanding of the need for the research. You want the reader to think that your proposed research is current, important and relevant.
  • Background: Include a brief history of the topic and link it to a contemporary context to show its relevance for today. Identify key researchers and institutions also looking at the problem
  • Literature Review: This is the section that may take the longest amount of time to assemble. Here you want to synthesize prior research, and place your proposed research into the larger picture of what’s been studied in the past. You want to show your reader that your work is original, and adds to the current knowledge.
  • Research Design and Methodology: This section should be very clearly and logically written and organized. You are letting your reader know that you know what you are going to do, and how. The reader should feel confident that you have the skills and knowledge needed to get the project done.
  • Preliminary Implications: Here you’ll be outlining how you anticipate your research will extend current knowledge in your field. You might also want to discuss how your findings will impact future research needs.
  • Conclusion: This section reinforces the significance and importance of your proposed research, and summarizes the entire proposal.
  • References/Citations: Of course, you need to include a full and accurate list of any and all sources you used to write your research proposal.

Common Mistakes in Writing a Scientific Research Project Proposal

Remember, the best research proposal can be rejected if it’s not well written or is ill-conceived. The most common mistakes made include:

  • Not providing the proper context for your research question or the problem
  • Failing to reference landmark/key studies
  • Losing focus of the research question or problem
  • Not accurately presenting contributions by other researchers and institutions
  • Incompletely developing a persuasive argument for the research that is being proposed
  • Misplaced attention on minor points and/or not enough detail on major issues
  • Sloppy, low-quality writing without effective logic and flow
  • Incorrect or lapses in references and citations, and/or references not in proper format
  • The proposal is too long – or too short

Scientific Research Proposal Example

There are countless examples that you can find for successful research proposals. In addition, you can also find examples of unsuccessful research proposals. Search for successful research proposals in your field, and even for your target journal, to get a good idea on what specifically your audience may be looking for.

While there’s no one example that will show you everything you need to know, looking at a few will give you a good idea of what you need to include in your own research proposal. Talk, also, to colleagues in your field, especially if you are a student or a new researcher. We can often learn from the mistakes of others. The more prepared and knowledgeable you are prior to writing your research proposal, the more likely you are to succeed.

One of the top reasons scientific research proposals are rejected is due to poor logic and flow. Check out our Language Editing Services to ensure a great proposal , that’s clear and concise, and properly referenced. Check our video for more information, and get started today.

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How to Write a Winning Clinical Research Proposal?

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proposal writing medical research

  • Christian Lattermann 8 &
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This chapter addresses general approaches towards writing a clinical research proposal. The landscape in research has changed in the last decade and has become more translational in nature. Therefore, research proposals are read and evaluated by scientists from various fields that may not be intricately familiar with specific techniques and technique-related jargon. This chapter is designed to address the need for more translational and reviewer-friendly proposal writing and is built on errors and mistakes commonly seen in research proposals.

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Lattermann, C., Whalen, J.D. (2019). How to Write a Winning Clinical Research Proposal?. In: Musahl, V., et al. Basic Methods Handbook for Clinical Orthopaedic Research. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-58254-1_27

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87Chapter 4 Writing your research proposal

  • Published: November 2011
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In many ways it’s a reflection of yourself as a researcher and an insight into your proposed work. A poorly written proposal has the ability to wreck a project and embarrass the researcher before it has even begun. Similarly, a well-constructed proposal bodes well for the success of the project and displays the researcher in a good light amongst their peers and supervisors. The research proposal identifies: • What the topic is, both in terms of background and the individual area of interest. • What you plan to accomplish and why it needs doing. • What in particular you are trying to find out, i.e. the research question. • How you will get the answer to your question, i.e. your methodology. • What others will learn from it and why it is worth learning. • How long it will take. • How much money it will cost. Through your research proposal you are attempting to convince potential supporters that your project is worth doing, you are scientifically competent to run it, and are in possession of the necessary management skills to ensure its completion. The proposal concisely describes the key elements of the study process, although in sufficient depth to permit evaluation. It is a stand-alone document that must contain evidence of an answerable question, demonstrate your grasp of the literature, and also clearly show that your methodology is sound. A research time-table is required to demonstrate a realistic appreciation of how the study will progress through time. The research proposal serves many purposes to many different parties. Amongst these purposes, some of the key ones are: • Acting as a route map and timetable for all involved in your project. • Giving a clear overview of your planned work to ensure favourable decision at ethical review. • Gaining funding to carry out your proposed study. • Securing a place to undertake a higher scientific degree. • Being an opportunity to ‘blow your own trumpet’ on paper. Although there are several bodies who will be obliged to see your proposal, there is a reasonable chance it will end up being wider read than this, so a coherent piece of work will reflect well on you.

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Pediatrics Research Guide


Writing & Submitting Proposals

Proposal writing timeline.


Identify relevant funding sources

Gather funding opportunity information

Conceive the research question

  • Find collaborators & additional mentors
  • Confirm your Division’s commitment 
  • Develop a writing routine 
  • Draft Specific Aims 
  • Draft your NIH Biosketch
  • Seek Feedback
  • Talk to the relevant Program Officer(s)
  • Construct your Research Strategy / Plan Framework
  • Craft a Career Development Plan 
  • Use the Review Criteria to inform your Writing
  • Request letters 
  • Refine the Project Summary / Abstract
  • Follow Stanford specific Policies & Process

Polish your writing

Assemble the required administrative forms

The Department of Pediatrics is deeply committed to training the next generation of physician scientists and scientific leaders in biomedical research. An important aspect of this training is writing research proposals because developing a research proposal enables skill-building opportunities in thinking critically and communicating ideas. However, writing a compelling proposal is a time-consuming task because it takes time to develop your ideas, articulate your research goals, and incorporate feedback. The  Office of Pediatric Research Development  is here to support you as your proposal is developed and refined, so please contact us. 

In the school of medicine, proposals that postdoctoral fellows, clinical fellows, and instructors can apply for are considered fellowships or career development awards. , fellowships.

Fellowships, like NIH Fellowships (F32), provide funds to support the research training of students or postdoctoral fellows. Submission of fellowships is supported by the Research Management Group (RMG) Fellowship Team and require the Proposal Development Routing Form (PDRF).  Learn More .

Career Development Awards

Career Development Awards, like NIH K Awards (K01, K08, K23, K99/R00, etc.), provide funding to facilitate the transition to your next career stage (usually an independent position) by completion of career development and research plans. Submission of Career Development Awards is supported by the Research Management Group and require the Proposal In-take Form (PIF).  Learn More .

Proposal Documents Library

The Office of Pediatric Research Development maintains a library of proposal documents for most NIH and NSF funding mechanisms. Documents can be viewed and downloaded with a Stanford SUNet ID. Please note that these are only examples and therefore may not reflect the most current NIH/NSF requirements or requirements of your specific funding opportunity announcement.

Proposal Library Resources

Read First: How to Gain a Competitive Edge in Grant Writing

Proposal Examples

Templates and Checklists

General Proposal Timeline

Proposals can be 50-200 page documents - here is a general timeline of writing tasks and internal deadlines that will help you keep track of important milestones, proposal writing resources we recommend.

The Grant Application Writer's Workbook

The NIH K Award Workbook  (or check out from the Lane Medical Library)

A Practical Guide to Writing a Ruth L. Kirschstein NRSA Grant  (or check out from the Lane Medical Library)

Stylish Academic Writing

Writing Science in Plain English

Turbocharge Your Writing

8 tips for planning your proposal

DEVELOP The Research Question

6-12 months before deadline

  • Ask your faculty mentor(s), laboratory colleagues, and recent alumni about their experiences applying to external funding opportunities. Federal agencies, such as NIH and NSF, sponsor fellowships and career development awards. The NIH fellowships are focused on providing training for biomedical, behavioral, and clinical researchers. Nonfederal agencies, such as societies, foundations, and associations, also solicit proposals that support their missions.  Additionally, many institutions offer internally supported fellowships as well as institutional research training grants like NIH’s T32 awards. The Stanford School of Medicine’s Research Management Group (RMG) compiles biomedical / biosciences funding opportunities. 
  • Join the RMG’s mailing list
  • RMG lists of Fellowship funding opportunities
  • RMG list of Grants, including Career Development Awards
  • Stanford University Seed Funding
  • Searchable databases (see Pivot or Foundation Directory)

Read all proposal instructions very carefully to identify requirements, goals, and review criteria. All NIH funding should follow both the Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) and SF424 Application Guide. Examples of funded proposals, and even unfunded proposals can be helpful to examine. Generate a checklist of the required documents. 

  • Understanding NIH Funding Opportunities
  • RMG Tools & Templates
  • NIH’s SF424 Application Guide
  • HHMI Making the Right Moves – Getting Funded

Keep a small notebook or electronic file to record research ideas as they arise. Master your field’s literature to identify current trends and key players. Participate in scientific meetings annually to stay up to date. Because most impactful research combines ideas from several fields, read widely and attend seminars on diverse research topics. Staying curious will ensure a plethora of future research questions. 

  • Conceiving the research question
  • Signup for the Stanford Biomedical Seminar email list

Find collaborators & additional mentors

The most impactful, innovative research often results from scientific teams with diverse experiences and expertise. In addition, many fellowships and career development proposals require additional mentors or advisory committee members. Seek out new collaborators / mentors in order to gain new skills and move your research beyond the status quo. 

  • Use the Stanford Profiles to find potential collaborators at Stanford
  • Search funded projects at NIH RePORTER or use NIH Matchmaker

Confirm your Division's commitment

Discuss your career goals and your proposal ideas with the relevant Division Chief, this is required for clinical fellows within the Department of Pediatrics. Explain how writing a proposal is an important component of your training at Stanford and will prepare you for your next career stage. The Division Chief’s commitment to your future research and career training goals is critical. Some proposals, like NIH’s F32 and K Awards, even require documented institutional support included within your proposal. 

  • Department of Pediatrics Division Chief’s contact information

START Writing Research Plans

4-6 months before deadline

Develop a writing routine

. . . As a scientist, you are a professional writer. Writing is as important a tool in your toolbox as molecular biology, chemical analysis, statistics, or other purely “scientific” tools. Some of these tools allow us to generate data; others to analyze and communicate results. Writing is the most important of the latter. Because it forms the bridge to your audience, it can act as the rate-limiting step that constrains the effectiveness of all other   tools.  Joshua Schimel (Writing Science: How to Write Papers that Get Cited and Proposals that Get Funded. (Oxford University Press, USA, 2012)

As a scientist, writing is a critical way to communicate your ideas and receive funding. Developing a writing routine and a schedule for writing each week will reduce the stress around this process and ensure that your research moves forward. Create a schedule to write as often as possible, at least several times per week. Even when you aren’t working on a looming deadline, creating regular opportunities to record your ideas and questions will enable you to become a more impactful scientist. Create a timeline for how you will organize writing your proposal. 

  • 10 Simple Rules for Improving Your Writing Productivity
  • Turbocharge your Writing
  • Create Writing Schedule and Timetable – from The Grant Application Writer’s Workbook

Draft specific aims the executive summary of your proposal

Most proposals, such as NIH fellowships and career development awards, require a 1-page Specific Aims document that provides an executive summary of the entire proposal. This document is perfect for seeking feedback early and often from your mentor(s), peer(s), etc. Then, when you know your proposal’s conceptual framework is strong, use this document to plan the rest of your proposal. 

  • Tips & resources for writing Specific Aims
  • Writing Specific Aims that are Crystal Clear
  • Anatomy of a Specific Aims Page

Draft your NIH Biosketch if applicable

The NIH Biosketch should showcase your prior research and skills to convince reviewers you are the right person for this award and have the potential to be a strong independent researcher. Within the Personal Statement detail why you are the best person to receive the proposed funding. Provide a narrative of the significance of your prior work within the Contribution to Science sections. Use the non-fellowship NIH Biosketch format except when writing a NIH NRSA Fellowship (F30, F31, F32) or otherwise noted within the funding opportunity instructions. 

  • NIH Biosketch: The Place to Talk About Yourself
  • NIH Biosketch format pages, instructions, and examples

Seek feedback

Writing is more than crafting perfect sentences. It is an iterative process of seeking feedback and revising. Seeking feedback during the writing process should occur early and often. Be sure ask for feedback appropriate for your writing stage, so the experience is productive. Potential questions to ask your readers include: Does the writing peak your interest in the research topic? Is the preliminary data convincing? Is my presentation of the data accurate? Is the way I am organizing my ideas working? Have I included the relevant information outlined by the instructions and review criteria?

  • Getting Feedback and Revising

REFINE Proposal Documents

2-3 months before deadline

Talk to relevant Program Officer(s)

Many funding opportunities have personnel that will answer questions and/or will provide feedback. When applying to NIH funding, arrange a phone call with the relevant Program Officers (PO) to confirm your research plans fit with the goals of the funding opportunity and mission of the NIH institute. Then, after your proposal is reviewed, follow up with the relevant Program Officer to seek their advice in order to make your next proposal more fundable. 

  • What to Say—and Not Say—to Program Officers
  • When to Contact Program Officers

Construct your Research Strategy/Plan Framework

For NIH proposals, the Research Strategy, consists of three subsections – Significance, Innovation, and Approach. Broadly speaking the Significance addresses:  Why is the research important? ; the Innovation addresses:  What are your new solutions to overcoming barriers in the field ?; and the Approach addresses:  How will you tackle the proposed research?  The Research Strategy / Plan provides the rationale for your research and a description of the proposed experiments. 

  • Writing the Research Strategy
  • NIH’s information on rigor
  • Tips for creating a Research Plan
  • Writing the WHY (Significance) and WHAT (Innovation) of the Research Strategy

Craft a Career Development Plan to propel you to your next career stage

Most proposals for postdocs or early faculty required a career development plan, including the NIH NRSA Fellowships and K Awards. Develop a career development plan that is based on your needs and design it to propel you towards your next career stage. Within the plan include regular meetings and opportunities for feedback from your mentoring team (mentor, co-mentor(s), advisory committee members, etc.)

  • Tips and resources for developing a complete career development training plan
  • How to Design a Winning Fellowship Proposal
  • Grad Grow (for postdocs and clinical fellows too) 
  • Determinants of academic success as a clinician-scientist

Use the Review Criteria to inform your writing

Use an understand of the review process and review criteria to inform your writing to ensure your proposal is responsive to the funding agencies goals. The structure, content, and language of the proposal should orient the reviewer to the proposal’s strengths and simplify the reviewer’s task of completing the critique form.  

  • Using the Review Process and Review Criteria to Inform Your Writing
  • What Happens to Your NIH Grant Application

Request Letters

It is imperative to allow enough time for your letter writers to write strong letters. Fellowship and Career Development Awards often require letters from mentor(s), co-mentor(s), advisory committee members, etc. that are included within the proposal application as well as confidential letters from referees which are submitted separately. Some funding agencies inhibit referees from being directly involved in the proposal so read the instructions very carefully. It is key to document within the letters strong support for you, your proposal, as well as the proposals expected outcomes so send relevant parts of your proposal to your letter writers too. Request institutional support letters at least 4 weeks before the proposal deadline. Make sure your letter writers are aware of any requirements and the due date. 

Avoiding bias within reference letters

NIH’s instructions for referees

Difference between letter of support and reference letters

HHMI Making the Write Moves – Letter of Reference

Refine the Project Summary/Abstract

The Project Summary / Abstract should be written last but not last minute. It should summarize your most well-articulated arguments for why you should be funded. The Project Summaries for funded NIH proposals are publicly available through NIH RePORTER. 

  • Professor Russ Altman’s formula for Abstracts
  • Look up Project Summaries for NIH funded proposals

FINISH Edits & Submit

30 days before deadline

Follow Stanford-specific Policies & Process

If you need a PI waiver, for example applying to a Career Development Award as a postdoc, complete the Department of Pediatrics PI request form at least 4-weeks before the proposal is due. Complete the Research Management Group’s RMG Proposal In-take Form (PIF) or Proposal Development Routing Form (PDRF) in SeRA which will alert your assigned Research Process Manager (RPM) that a proposal is planned. Inform your RPM if any subawards are proposed. Aim to have your complete proposal ready to submit 5 business days before the proposal due date to ensure compliance with Stanford internal deadline requirements

  • Department of Pediatrics PI request form
  • RMG’s Proposal In-take Form (PIF) guide
  • RMG’s Proposal Development Routing Form (PDRF) guide
  • RMG K Award Computer Lab course
  • RMG NRSA Fellowship Computer Lab course
  • Stanford School of Medicine Internal Deadlines

Polish your writing to focus on clarity, coherence, and conciseness. Reviewers are busy people and clear writing can entice them to want to read more. As you are adding the final touches, ensure your proposal addresses all the review criteria and instructions. Add subtitles to subsections and figures / tables that give the take-away messages, so reviewers quickly grasp key concepts. Ask someone (ideally a few people) to review the almost final drafts looking for typos and other errors. 

  • Tips & Resources for clear writing
  • Writing in the Sciences

Most NIH proposals use the Application Submission System & Interface for Submission Tracking (ASSIST) system to prepare and submit proposals electronically to NIH. Don’t wait for the last minutes to assemble the administrative proposal forms because unforeseen difficulties may arise. Remember that most proposals require your Research Process Manager (RPM) to ultimately click the submit button so follow any internal deadlines.  

  • Stanford’s Institutional Facts

Need help preparing grants?

Office of Pediatric Research Development offers free experienced grant writing and pre-award strategic planning 

Grant Writing Academy  for Graduate Students and Postdocs

Route To Getting Grants  (R2G2) for Junior Faculty

Office of Faculty Development an Diversity  (OFDD)

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Research Method

Home » How To Write A Research Proposal – Step-by-Step [Template]

How To Write A Research Proposal – Step-by-Step [Template]

Table of Contents

How To Write a Research Proposal

How To Write a Research Proposal

Writing a Research proposal involves several steps to ensure a well-structured and comprehensive document. Here is an explanation of each step:

1. Title and Abstract

  • Choose a concise and descriptive title that reflects the essence of your research.
  • Write an abstract summarizing your research question, objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes. It should provide a brief overview of your proposal.

2. Introduction:

  • Provide an introduction to your research topic, highlighting its significance and relevance.
  • Clearly state the research problem or question you aim to address.
  • Discuss the background and context of the study, including previous research in the field.

3. Research Objectives

  • Outline the specific objectives or aims of your research. These objectives should be clear, achievable, and aligned with the research problem.

4. Literature Review:

  • Conduct a comprehensive review of relevant literature and studies related to your research topic.
  • Summarize key findings, identify gaps, and highlight how your research will contribute to the existing knowledge.

5. Methodology:

  • Describe the research design and methodology you plan to employ to address your research objectives.
  • Explain the data collection methods, instruments, and analysis techniques you will use.
  • Justify why the chosen methods are appropriate and suitable for your research.

6. Timeline:

  • Create a timeline or schedule that outlines the major milestones and activities of your research project.
  • Break down the research process into smaller tasks and estimate the time required for each task.

7. Resources:

  • Identify the resources needed for your research, such as access to specific databases, equipment, or funding.
  • Explain how you will acquire or utilize these resources to carry out your research effectively.

8. Ethical Considerations:

  • Discuss any ethical issues that may arise during your research and explain how you plan to address them.
  • If your research involves human subjects, explain how you will ensure their informed consent and privacy.

9. Expected Outcomes and Significance:

  • Clearly state the expected outcomes or results of your research.
  • Highlight the potential impact and significance of your research in advancing knowledge or addressing practical issues.

10. References:

  • Provide a list of all the references cited in your proposal, following a consistent citation style (e.g., APA, MLA).

11. Appendices:

  • Include any additional supporting materials, such as survey questionnaires, interview guides, or data analysis plans.

Research Proposal Format

The format of a research proposal may vary depending on the specific requirements of the institution or funding agency. However, the following is a commonly used format for a research proposal:

1. Title Page:

  • Include the title of your research proposal, your name, your affiliation or institution, and the date.

2. Abstract:

  • Provide a brief summary of your research proposal, highlighting the research problem, objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes.

3. Introduction:

  • Introduce the research topic and provide background information.
  • State the research problem or question you aim to address.
  • Explain the significance and relevance of the research.
  • Review relevant literature and studies related to your research topic.
  • Summarize key findings and identify gaps in the existing knowledge.
  • Explain how your research will contribute to filling those gaps.

5. Research Objectives:

  • Clearly state the specific objectives or aims of your research.
  • Ensure that the objectives are clear, focused, and aligned with the research problem.

6. Methodology:

  • Describe the research design and methodology you plan to use.
  • Explain the data collection methods, instruments, and analysis techniques.
  • Justify why the chosen methods are appropriate for your research.

7. Timeline:

8. Resources:

  • Explain how you will acquire or utilize these resources effectively.

9. Ethical Considerations:

  • If applicable, explain how you will ensure informed consent and protect the privacy of research participants.

10. Expected Outcomes and Significance:

11. References:

12. Appendices:

Research Proposal Template

Here’s a template for a research proposal:

1. Introduction:

2. Literature Review:

3. Research Objectives:

4. Methodology:

5. Timeline:

6. Resources:

7. Ethical Considerations:

8. Expected Outcomes and Significance:

9. References:

10. Appendices:

Research Proposal Sample

Title: The Impact of Online Education on Student Learning Outcomes: A Comparative Study

1. Introduction

Online education has gained significant prominence in recent years, especially due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This research proposal aims to investigate the impact of online education on student learning outcomes by comparing them with traditional face-to-face instruction. The study will explore various aspects of online education, such as instructional methods, student engagement, and academic performance, to provide insights into the effectiveness of online learning.

2. Objectives

The main objectives of this research are as follows:

  • To compare student learning outcomes between online and traditional face-to-face education.
  • To examine the factors influencing student engagement in online learning environments.
  • To assess the effectiveness of different instructional methods employed in online education.
  • To identify challenges and opportunities associated with online education and suggest recommendations for improvement.

3. Methodology

3.1 Study Design

This research will utilize a mixed-methods approach to gather both quantitative and qualitative data. The study will include the following components:

3.2 Participants

The research will involve undergraduate students from two universities, one offering online education and the other providing face-to-face instruction. A total of 500 students (250 from each university) will be selected randomly to participate in the study.

3.3 Data Collection

The research will employ the following data collection methods:

  • Quantitative: Pre- and post-assessments will be conducted to measure students’ learning outcomes. Data on student demographics and academic performance will also be collected from university records.
  • Qualitative: Focus group discussions and individual interviews will be conducted with students to gather their perceptions and experiences regarding online education.

3.4 Data Analysis

Quantitative data will be analyzed using statistical software, employing descriptive statistics, t-tests, and regression analysis. Qualitative data will be transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically to identify recurring patterns and themes.

4. Ethical Considerations

The study will adhere to ethical guidelines, ensuring the privacy and confidentiality of participants. Informed consent will be obtained, and participants will have the right to withdraw from the study at any time.

5. Significance and Expected Outcomes

This research will contribute to the existing literature by providing empirical evidence on the impact of online education on student learning outcomes. The findings will help educational institutions and policymakers make informed decisions about incorporating online learning methods and improving the quality of online education. Moreover, the study will identify potential challenges and opportunities related to online education and offer recommendations for enhancing student engagement and overall learning outcomes.

6. Timeline

The proposed research will be conducted over a period of 12 months, including data collection, analysis, and report writing.

The estimated budget for this research includes expenses related to data collection, software licenses, participant compensation, and research assistance. A detailed budget breakdown will be provided in the final research plan.

8. Conclusion

This research proposal aims to investigate the impact of online education on student learning outcomes through a comparative study with traditional face-to-face instruction. By exploring various dimensions of online education, this research will provide valuable insights into the effectiveness and challenges associated with online learning. The findings will contribute to the ongoing discourse on educational practices and help shape future strategies for maximizing student learning outcomes in online education settings.

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How to prepare a research proposal in the health sciences?


  • 1 Servicio de Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IIS-IP), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Madrid, España. Electronic address: [email protected].
  • 2 Servicio de Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IIS-IP), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Madrid, España.
  • PMID: 33277051
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.gastrohep.2020.07.028

Knowing how to properly prepare a research proposal is a real challenge - and being able to prepare an excellent research proposal is increasingly a requirement to compete for funding with assurances of success. With this in mind, we aim to share with the reader our experience (in many cases, unsuccessful) as applicants on the most important aspects of preparing a research proposal and securing its approval and funding. This article aims not only to list theoretical recommendations but also to share some personal and eminently practical suggestions on the following elements of a research proposal: the title, the abstract, the introduction, the objectives, the methodology, the work plan or schedule, the proposal's consistency and coherence, its viability, its applicability, the importance of the principal investigator and the research team, the proposal's limitations and alternatives, its budget, its references, and, finally, the research proposal's form or wording. In summary, a research proposal is a carefully written plan that includes all the scientific, ethical and logistical aspects of the study to be conducted. Writing a good research proposal requires considerable effort and a great deal of time, but it's worth it.

Keywords: Ciencias de la salud; Health sciences; Protocol; Protocolo; Proyecto de investigación; Research proposal.

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

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  • Research proposal writing: breaking the myth. Nte AR, Awi DD. Nte AR, et al. Niger J Med. 2006 Oct-Dec;15(4):373-81. doi: 10.4314/njm.v15i4.37249. Niger J Med. 2006. PMID: 17111720
  • Tips for writing a NAON research grant proposal. Lisanti P, Talotta D. Lisanti P, et al. Orthop Nurs. 2000 Mar-Apr;19(2):61-5. doi: 10.1097/00006416-200019020-00009. Orthop Nurs. 2000. PMID: 11062637 Review.
  • How to write a research grant proposal. Tornquist EM, Funk SG. Tornquist EM, et al. Image J Nurs Sch. 1990 Spring;22(1):44-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.1990.tb00168.x. Image J Nurs Sch. 1990. PMID: 2318494
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Medical Research Proposal Sample & Guide

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A medical research proposal sample is a great way to understand what your proposal should look like. It can give you the structure and guidance needed to create a successful proposal.  Well-written medical research proposals help researchers stand out from other applicants and boost their chances of being selected or funded. Read on to find out what a medical research proposal entails and how to write yours with our easy sample.

What Is a Medical Research Proposal?

A medical research proposal is a document that outlines the purpose and methodology of a proposed research project . It includes information about what the researcher intends to study, how they plan to conduct their research and measurement for success or failure.  The proposal also explains why the research is essential, what ethical considerations need to be considered, and the potential risks associated with it. 

Why Is a Medical Research Proposal Necessary?

A medical research proposal is essential because it outlines the critical information and details necessary to complete a project successfully.  This document ensures that everyone understands their position and how they will contribute resources, time, and effort to make the project successful. It also helps researchers to secure funding from sponsors and provide transparency for potential participants in the study. 

What to Include in a Medical Research Proposal?

A medical research proposal should include the following:

  • A brief description of the project, outlining the purpose and goals. 
  • An explanation of how you plan to collect data; through surveys or interviews with participants?
  • List any ethical considerations involved, including who will have access to the collected information and how it will be stored securely. 
  • Budget required for the research and any timeline associated with the completion of the study. 
  • Samples from past researchers, so you can learn more about what makes a successful medical research proposal. 

Steps on How to Write a Medical Research Proposal

It is important to remember that all proposals, no matter the topic, should follow specific steps to make them effective and organized. Here are a few steps to guide you:

person sitting while using laptop computer and green stethoscope near

Brainstorm and Outline the Problem

The first step is to brainstorm the project you are proposing, making sure that it has relevance in medicine. Determine what issue you are trying to address through your research and explain it clearly as a problem statement. 

Describe Your Project

Provide detailed information on your project, the aims, the expected outcomes, and any methods used to achieve them. 

Break It Into Small Sections

Once you have a clear vision of what you want to accomplish, break it down into small sections to effectively convey your thoughts. 

Set Your Objectives

Set specific objectives for your project and explain how you plan to achieve them. 

Outline Your Methodology

 Describe the processes used to collect data, analyze results, and draw conclusions from the research. 

Discuss Ethical Considerations

Explain any ethical considerations relevant to your proposed project, such as privacy and consent.

Write a Budget

Outline the cost of the project, including any equipment or materials needed.

Proofread the Proposal

Make sure to read through your proposal carefully before submitting it and ask someone else to do so, if possible. 

Medical Research Proposal Sample

To help you get started with your medical research proposal, here is an example: Project Aims:  This project aims to study air pollution’s effects on public health in a particular city.  Objectives:  To investigate how air pollution impacts public health in the target city and how to mitigate it. Methodology:  Data will be collected through surveys, interviews with residents, and environmental air quality sampling.  Ethical Considerations:  All participants in the project must be informed of the risks involved and consent to its use for research purposes. Personal information will be kept confidential and only used for research purposes.  Budget:  The budget allocated for this project is $5000. 

Developing a medical research proposal requires careful consideration and organization. Consequently, a medical research proposal sample might serve as an excellent starting point when writing your own project .

Medical Research Proposal Sample & Guide

Abir Ghenaiet

Abir is a data analyst and researcher. Among her interests are artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing. As a humanitarian and educator, she actively supports women in tech and promotes diversity.

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To create a medical research proposal, you need to find valuable information and create a complicated document. The proposal is mainly devised for investors, academic heads, or other people who would value the legitimacy of your project proposal and assess the merit. For successful research proposals, you need to follow certain guidelines for efficiency. We have all sorts of medical research proposal templates for users with specific needs. Whether it’s for a clinical Ph.D. research on public health issues or an undergraduate letter over pharmacology, we got them all right here. Or if you are wondering, you can use proposal templates that bring ready-made documents for your benefit!

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Medical Proposal

Proposal maker.

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If you are looking for medical proposal templates , this article is for you. We’ve put together a list of 10 options that you’ll find useful. Each template is available for free download. So, instead of creating yours from scratch, you can download any of these and it as a guide and inspiration to write a good medical proposal. Check them out below.

Best Medical Proposal Examples & Templates

1. sample medical proposal template.


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Size: A4, US

Your medical idea may be the next big thing. In fact, the idea may just be one of the best services you can offer your community. But, you need to remember that your ideas can’t come to fruition unless you are sure it’s something people would be willing to buy. This calls for a comprehensive proposal . If your medical service proposal clicks, you can be sure that different people will buy your idea and support you in whatever way you need. The best way to start writing a proposal fast is to use a custom medical proposal template. And here is a unique example that you’ll definitely love.

2. Simple Medical Business Proposal Template


Why would anyone choose to work with your medical business and not your competitor? This is an important question. In essence, it helps you to determine if the medical business would be useful to the target audience. But how exactly do you write a proposal that will get the hook you need? You can do so by doing research. Then, you can use the data that you collected to justify the content of your document. Now that you have collected the data you need, it’s time to put it into a professional format using a high-quality medical proposal template. Download this example.

3. Printable Medical Proposal Template


Size: 64 KB

People write medical proposals for two reasons. First, they want to communicate and implement ideas they believe will help the community. Second, they need to secure support from different bodies to realize the goal of the medical project. However, many of these proposals fail because they don’t address a problem in-depth. If you want your medical project proposal to gain the attention it deserves, you need to prove that it can solve a problem in the best way possible. The best way to go about this is to do your research and come up with concrete information. Check this sample for inspiration.

4. Medical Research Template Example


Size: 294 KB

So you have a medical research topic that you would like to work on. And you are certain that the subject can help many people in the community. However, you don’t have a reasonable budget plan to fund the project. What do you do? Well, the best thing would be to write a comprehensive medical proposal. Then, share it with entities you would like to help you. Remember, a good medical research proposal is the one that highlights the problem of concern as well as the objective of the research. Check out this sample template for more ideas. The file is free to download.

5. Business Proposal for Medical Coding Solutions


Size: 463 KB

Medical coding is a business in demand. At least you have an opportunity to give it a shot because there is a thriving market out there. But first, you need to start with the basics. You need to do your research, understand your target, and then write them a proposal. The proposal here is more like your marketing pitch . So, you need to make sure the proposal is clear, comprehensive, and communicate the right message to the right audience. Here is a well-written example that you should have a look at. This template is free to download, just click the link above.

6. Printable Medical Billing Proposal Template


Size: 108 KB

Did you know that there is a high demand for medical billing services today? So, if you are skilled and have experience in this area, there is a market out there waiting for you. Your success rate depends on how you market your services . You first need to have a unique proposal that your potential buyer won’t help but look read. And if you can capture their attention with your proposal, you bet that’s marketing half done. So, how do you write a good medical billing proposal? You can do that by getting ideas from this sample proposal template. You can download the template for free by clicking the download link above.

7. Simple Research Proposal Template


Writing a medical research proposal isn’t difficult. But there are rules to follow. At the very least, you need to spend time brainstorming ideas. Remember, the goal of your proposal is to win your target over. And if you nail it in the brainstorming stage, you can attract attention to the actual proposal. A good proposal is clear and direct to the point. Grab the attention of your target with the title of the proposal. If you do, you have their attention. The document should also show a list of your aims (objectives). Download this sample template and check the format of the research proposal.

8. Medical Grant Proposal Checklist


Size: 65 KB

Maybe you have never written a medical grant proposal and you are looking for a good example to use as a guide. Or, maybe it has been a while since you wrote one and you are just looking for some inspiration. Whatever the case, you will find this example template quite useful. Click the link above to download this document for free.

9. Mobile Medical Care Project Proposal


Size: 137 KB

If you would like to pitch your mobile medical project ideas to a specific audience, you will need to write a mobile medical proposal. Check out this sample proposal template for some ideas. The template is available for free download.

10. Medical Service Proposal Template


Size: 157 KB

Would you like to request for a proposal for a medical service fast? There is an easier way to do that. You only need a well-written template and you are good to get started. Here’s a sample template that you can download and use.


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Health research on South Asian communities must be led by South Asians, say researchers

by Canadian Medical Association Journal


Funding agencies in Canada need to review their policies for evaluating research proposals to ensure that South Asian research is conducted by South Asians, write authors in a commentary, titled "A call to stop extractive health research on South Asian diaspora communities in Canada," in the Canadian Medical Association Journal .

Much of the health research conducted in Canada on South Asian diaspora communities has historically been marked by unequal power relations, rather than meaningfully engaging and benefiting these communities.

As the largest and fastest growing diverse visible minority in Canada, South Asian communities are diverse in language, culture, religion, migration history, and lived experience. Their health status and needs are equally diverse.

"When South Asian investigators do not lead the research, study findings are open to misguided interpretations that follow colonial bias and false cultural stereotypes, promote experimental bias, and uphold scientific and structural racism," writes Dr. Gina Agarwal, a professor in the Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, with co-authors.

"This extractive practice, whereby the composition of the research team does not reflect the study population, is not uncommon and risks becoming worse as funding agencies and academic journals express interest in research examining and documenting the health patterns, practices, and lived experiences of racialized communities."

Research teams conducting research on South Asian communities should include South Asian leads, and funders should include South Asian people in reviewing research grants.

"South Asian communities and academics must be meaningfully engaged in a health research process that acknowledges South Asian people as valuable health research leaders with lived experiences and expertise. This process should build accountability, ownership, and best practices in research involving South Asian participants and communities in Canada."

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Sodhi M , Rezaeianzadeh R , Kezouh A , Etminan M. Risk of Gastrointestinal Adverse Events Associated With Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists for Weight Loss. JAMA. 2023;330(18):1795–1797. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.19574

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Risk of Gastrointestinal Adverse Events Associated With Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists for Weight Loss

  • 1 Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2 StatExpert Ltd, Laval, Quebec, Canada
  • 3 Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences and Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
  • Medical News & Perspectives As Ozempic’s Popularity Soars, Here’s What to Know About Semaglutide and Weight Loss Melissa Suran, PhD, MSJ JAMA
  • Special Communication Patents and Regulatory Exclusivities on GLP-1 Receptor Agonists Rasha Alhiary, PharmD; Aaron S. Kesselheim, MD, JD, MPH; Sarah Gabriele, LLM, MBE; Reed F. Beall, PhD; S. Sean Tu, JD, PhD; William B. Feldman, MD, DPhil, MPH JAMA
  • Medical News & Perspectives What to Know About Wegovy’s Rare but Serious Adverse Effects Kate Ruder, MSJ JAMA
  • Comment & Response GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and Gastrointestinal Adverse Events—Reply Ramin Rezaeianzadeh, BSc; Mohit Sodhi, MSc; Mahyar Etminan, PharmD, MSc JAMA
  • Comment & Response GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and Gastrointestinal Adverse Events Karine Suissa, PhD; Sara J. Cromer, MD; Elisabetta Patorno, MD, DrPH JAMA
  • Research Letter GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Use and Risk of Postoperative Complications Anjali A. Dixit, MD, MPH; Brian T. Bateman, MD, MS; Mary T. Hawn, MD, MPH; Michelle C. Odden, PhD; Eric C. Sun, MD, PhD JAMA
  • Original Investigation Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Use and Risk of Gallbladder and Biliary Diseases Liyun He, MM; Jialu Wang, MM; Fan Ping, MD; Na Yang, MM; Jingyue Huang, MM; Yuxiu Li, MD; Lingling Xu, MD; Wei Li, MD; Huabing Zhang, MD JAMA Internal Medicine
  • Research Letter Cholecystitis Associated With the Use of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists Daniel Woronow, MD; Christine Chamberlain, PharmD; Ali Niak, MD; Mark Avigan, MDCM; Monika Houstoun, PharmD, MPH; Cindy Kortepeter, PharmD JAMA Internal Medicine

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists are medications approved for treatment of diabetes that recently have also been used off label for weight loss. 1 Studies have found increased risks of gastrointestinal adverse events (biliary disease, 2 pancreatitis, 3 bowel obstruction, 4 and gastroparesis 5 ) in patients with diabetes. 2 - 5 Because such patients have higher baseline risk for gastrointestinal adverse events, risk in patients taking these drugs for other indications may differ. Randomized trials examining efficacy of GLP-1 agonists for weight loss were not designed to capture these events 2 due to small sample sizes and short follow-up. We examined gastrointestinal adverse events associated with GLP-1 agonists used for weight loss in a clinical setting.

We used a random sample of 16 million patients (2006-2020) from the PharMetrics Plus for Academics database (IQVIA), a large health claims database that captures 93% of all outpatient prescriptions and physician diagnoses in the US through the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) or ICD-10. In our cohort study, we included new users of semaglutide or liraglutide, 2 main GLP-1 agonists, and the active comparator bupropion-naltrexone, a weight loss agent unrelated to GLP-1 agonists. Because semaglutide was marketed for weight loss after the study period (2021), we ensured all GLP-1 agonist and bupropion-naltrexone users had an obesity code in the 90 days prior or up to 30 days after cohort entry, excluding those with a diabetes or antidiabetic drug code.

Patients were observed from first prescription of a study drug to first mutually exclusive incidence (defined as first ICD-9 or ICD-10 code) of biliary disease (including cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, and choledocholithiasis), pancreatitis (including gallstone pancreatitis), bowel obstruction, or gastroparesis (defined as use of a code or a promotility agent). They were followed up to the end of the study period (June 2020) or censored during a switch. Hazard ratios (HRs) from a Cox model were adjusted for age, sex, alcohol use, smoking, hyperlipidemia, abdominal surgery in the previous 30 days, and geographic location, which were identified as common cause variables or risk factors. 6 Two sensitivity analyses were undertaken, one excluding hyperlipidemia (because more semaglutide users had hyperlipidemia) and another including patients without diabetes regardless of having an obesity code. Due to absence of data on body mass index (BMI), the E-value was used to examine how strong unmeasured confounding would need to be to negate observed results, with E-value HRs of at least 2 indicating BMI is unlikely to change study results. Statistical significance was defined as 2-sided 95% CI that did not cross 1. Analyses were performed using SAS version 9.4. Ethics approval was obtained by the University of British Columbia’s clinical research ethics board with a waiver of informed consent.

Our cohort included 4144 liraglutide, 613 semaglutide, and 654 bupropion-naltrexone users. Incidence rates for the 4 outcomes were elevated among GLP-1 agonists compared with bupropion-naltrexone users ( Table 1 ). For example, incidence of biliary disease (per 1000 person-years) was 11.7 for semaglutide, 18.6 for liraglutide, and 12.6 for bupropion-naltrexone and 4.6, 7.9, and 1.0, respectively, for pancreatitis.

Use of GLP-1 agonists compared with bupropion-naltrexone was associated with increased risk of pancreatitis (adjusted HR, 9.09 [95% CI, 1.25-66.00]), bowel obstruction (HR, 4.22 [95% CI, 1.02-17.40]), and gastroparesis (HR, 3.67 [95% CI, 1.15-11.90) but not biliary disease (HR, 1.50 [95% CI, 0.89-2.53]). Exclusion of hyperlipidemia from the analysis did not change the results ( Table 2 ). Inclusion of GLP-1 agonists regardless of history of obesity reduced HRs and narrowed CIs but did not change the significance of the results ( Table 2 ). E-value HRs did not suggest potential confounding by BMI.

This study found that use of GLP-1 agonists for weight loss compared with use of bupropion-naltrexone was associated with increased risk of pancreatitis, gastroparesis, and bowel obstruction but not biliary disease.

Given the wide use of these drugs, these adverse events, although rare, must be considered by patients who are contemplating using the drugs for weight loss because the risk-benefit calculus for this group might differ from that of those who use them for diabetes. Limitations include that although all GLP-1 agonist users had a record for obesity without diabetes, whether GLP-1 agonists were all used for weight loss is uncertain.

Accepted for Publication: September 11, 2023.

Published Online: October 5, 2023. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.19574

Correction: This article was corrected on December 21, 2023, to update the full name of the database used.

Corresponding Author: Mahyar Etminan, PharmD, MSc, Faculty of Medicine, Departments of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences and Medicine, The Eye Care Center, University of British Columbia, 2550 Willow St, Room 323, Vancouver, BC V5Z 3N9, Canada ( [email protected] ).

Author Contributions: Dr Etminan had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Concept and design: Sodhi, Rezaeianzadeh, Etminan.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.

Drafting of the manuscript: Sodhi, Rezaeianzadeh, Etminan.

Critical review of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.

Statistical analysis: Kezouh.

Obtained funding: Etminan.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Sodhi.

Supervision: Etminan.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

Funding/Support: This study was funded by internal research funds from the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of British Columbia.

Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Data Sharing Statement: See Supplement .

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How to write a successful grant application: guidance provided by the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy

Anita e. weidmann.

1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Innsbruck University, Innsbruck, Austria

Cathal A. Cadogan

2 School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Daniela Fialová

3 Department of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic

4 Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic

Ankie Hazen

5 Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Martin Henman

6 Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Monika Lutters

7 Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland

Betul Okuyan

8 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey

Vibhu Paudyal

9 University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Francesca Wirth

10 Department of Pharmacy, University of Malta, Msida, Malta

Considering a rejection rate of 80–90%, the preparation of a research grant is often considered a daunting task since it is resource intensive and there is no guarantee of success, even for seasoned researchers. This commentary provides a summary of the key points a researcher needs to consider when writing a research grant proposal, outlining: (1) how to conceptualise the research idea; (2) how to find the right funding call; (3) the importance of planning; (4) how to write; (5) what to write, and (6) key questions for reflection during preparation. It attempts to explain the difficulties associated with finding calls in clinical pharmacy and advanced pharmacy practice, and how to overcome them. The commentary aims to assist all pharmacy practice and health services research colleagues new to the grant application process, as well as experienced researchers striving to improve their grant review scores. The guidance in this paper is part of ESCP’s commitment to stimulate “ innovative and high-quality research in all areas of clinical pharmacy ”.

Writing research grants is a central part of any good quality research. Once a detailed research proposal has been submitted, it is subjected to an expert peer review process. Such reviews are designed to reach a funding decision, with feedback provided to improve the study for this and any future submissions. Depending on the length of the proposal, complexity of the research and experience of the research team, a proposal can take between six to twelve months to write [ 1 ]. Ample time must be given to the writing of hypothesis/research aim, budgeting, discussion with colleagues and several rounds of feedback [ 2 ]. The draft research proposal should always be completed well before the deadline to allow for last minute delays. An application which is not fully developed should not be submitted since it will most likely be rejected [ 3 ].

Despite the large effort that goes into each grant application, success rates are low. Application success rates for Horizon 2020 were < 15% [ 4 ] and < 20% for the National Institute of Health (NIH) [ 5 – 8 ]. With these statistics in mind, it is evident that often repeated submissions are required before securing funding. Due to a paucity of specific clinical pharmacy grant awarding bodies, writing a grant application for a clinical pharmacy or pharmacy practice research project often involves multidisciplinary collaborations with other healthcare professions and focus on a specific patient population or condition. There is no guarantee of success when trying to secure funding for research. Even the most seasoned researchers will have applications rejected. The key is to never give up. This commentary provides useful pointers for the planning and execution of grant writing.

Conceptualising your research idea

Before writing a research grant proposal/application, consider what the research should achieve in the short, medium, and long term, and how the research goals will serve patients, science and society [ 9 , 10 ]. Practical implications of research, policy impact or positive impact on society and active patient/public involvement are highly valued by many research agencies as research should not be conducted “only for research”, serving the researchers’ interests. EU health policy and action strategies (CORDIS database) and other national strategies, such as national mental health strategy for grants within mental disorders, should be considered, as well as dissemination strategies, project deliverables, outcomes and lay public invitations to participate. The Science Community COMPASS has developed a useful “Message Box Tool” that can help in the identification of benefits and solutions, as well as the all-important “So What?” of the research [ 11 ]. Clearly determine what the lead researcher’s personal and professional strengths, expertise and past experiences are, and carefully select the research team to close these gaps [ 12 – 14 ].

How to find the right funding call

When trying to identify the right type of grant according to the research ambitions, one should be mindful that several types of grants exist, including small project grants (for equipment, imaging costs), personal fellowships (for salary costs, sometimes including project costs), project grants (for a combination of salary and project costs), programme grants (for comprehensive project costs and salary for several staff members), start-up grants and travel grants [ 15 ]. Types of grants include EU grants (e.g. Horizon, Norway Grant), commercial grants (e.g. healthcare agencies and insurance companies), New Health Program grants ideal for new, reimbursed clinical pharmacy service projects and national grants (e.g. FWF (Austria), ARRS (Slovenia), NKFIH (Hungary), NCN (Poland), FWO (Belgium), HRZZ (Croatia), GAČR (Czech Republic), SNSF (Switzerland), SSF (Sweden). It is worth remembering that early career researchers, normally within ten years of finishing a PhD, have a particular sub-category within most grants.

Many national agencies only have one “Pharmacy” category. This results in clinical pharmacy and advanced clinical pharmacy practice projects competing with pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmaceutical biology and pharmacy technology submissions, thereby reducing the success rate as these research areas can often be very advanced in most EU countries compared to clinical and advanced pharmacy practice. A second possible submission category is “Public Health”. Several essential factors can impact the grant selection, such as research field, budget capacity, leading researcher’s experience and bilateral grants. Examples of successful clinical pharmacy funded research studies can be found in the published literature [ 16 – 20 ].

Plan, plan, plan

One key element of successful grant writing is the ability to plan and organise time. In order to develop a realistic work plan and achieve milestones, it is imperative to note deadlines and to be well-informed about the details of what is required. The development of a table or Gantt Chart that notes milestones, outcomes and deliverables is useful [ 21 ].

All funders are quite specific about what they will and will not fund. Research your potential funders well in advance. It is vital to pay attention to the aims, ambitions and guidelines of the grant awarding bodies and focus your proposal accordingly. Submitting an application which does not adhere to the guidelines may lead to very early rejection. It is helpful to prepare the grant application in such a way that the reviewers can easily find the information they are looking for [ 15 , 22 ]. This includes checking the reviewers’ reports and adding “bolded” sentences into the application to allow immediate emphasis. Reviewers’ reports are often available on the agencies’ websites. It is extremely useful to read previously submitted and funded or rejected proposals to further help in the identification of what is required in each application. Most funding agencies publish a funded project list, and the ‘Centre for Open Science (COS) Database of Funded Research’ enables tracking of funding histories from leading agencies around the world [ 23 ]. Another useful recommendation is to talk to colleagues who have been successful when applying to that particular funder. Funding agency grant officers can provide advice on the suitability of the proposal and the application process.

It is important to pay particular attention to deadlines for the grant proposal and ensure that sufficient time is allocated for completion of all parts of the application, particularly those that are not fully within one’s own control, for example, gathering any required signatures/approvals. Funders will generally not review an application submitted beyond the deadline.

Lastly, it is important to obtain insight into the decision process of grants. Research applications are sent to several reviewers, who are either volunteers or receive a small compensation to judge the application on previously determined criteria. While the judging criteria may vary from funder to funder, the key considerations are:

  • Is there a clear statement of the research aim(s)/research question(s)/research objective(s)?
  • Is the proposed research “state-of-the-art” in its field and has all relevant literature been reviewed?
  • Is the method likely to yield valid, reliable, trustworthy data to answer question 1.?
  • If the answer to the second question is ’yes’, then what is the impact of financing this study on patient care, professional practice, society etc.?
  • Is there sufficient confidence that the research team will deliver this study on time with expected quality outputs and on budget?
  • Does the study provide value for money?

How to write

The key to good grant proposal writing is to be concise yet engaging. The use of colour and modern web-based tools such as #hashtags, webpage links, and links to YouTube presentations are becoming increasingly popular to improve the interest of a submission and facilitate a swift decision-making process. Ensure use of the exact section headings provided in the guidance, and use the keywords provided in the funding call documentation to reflect alignment with the funding bodies’ key interests. Attention to detail cannot be overstated; the quality and accuracy of the research proposal reflect the quality and accuracy of the research [ 24 ]. Try to adopt a clear, succinct, and simple writing style, making the grant easy to read. Having a clear focus can help to boost a grant to the top of a reviewer’s pile [ 25 , 26 ]. A clearly stated scientific question, hypothesis, and rationale are imperative. The reviewer should not have to work to understand the project [ 27 ]. Allow for plenty of time to incorporate feedback from trusted individuals with the appropriate expertise and consider having reviews for readability by non-experts.

What to write

Abstract, lay summary and background/rationale.

Take sufficient time to draft the scientific abstract and summary for the lay public. These should clearly state the long-term goal of the research, the aim and specific testable objectives, as well as the potential impact of the work. The research aim is a broad statement of research intent that sets out what the project hopes to achieve at the end. Research objectives are specific statements that define measurable outcomes of the project [ 28 , 29 ].

The lay summary is important for non-subject experts to quickly grasp the purpose and aims of the research. This is important in light of the increased emphasis on patient and public involvement in the design of the research. The abstract is often given little attention by the applicants, yet is essential. If reviewers have many applications to read, they may form a quick judgement when reading the abstract. The background should develop the argument for the study. It should flow and highlight the relevant literature and policy or society needs statements which support the argument, but at the same time must be balanced. It should focus on the need for the study at the local, national and international level, highlighting the knowledge gap the study addresses and what the proposed research adds. Ensure this section is well-referenced. The innovation section addresses the ‘‘So what?’’ question and should clearly explain how this research is important to develop an understanding in this field of practice and its potential impact. Will it change practice, or will it change the understanding of the disease process or its treatment? Will it generate new avenues for future scientific study? [ 30 ].

Hypothesis/aims and objectives

For the hypothesis, state the core idea of the grant in one or two sentences. It should be concise, and lead to testable specific aims. This section is fundamental; if it is unclear or poorly written, the reviewers may stop reading and reject the application. Do not attempt to make the aims overly complex. Well-written aims should be simply stated. Criteria such as PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcomes) [ 31 ], and FINER (feasible, interesting, novel, ethical, relevant) [ 32 ], provide useful frameworks to help in writing aim(s), research question(s), objective(s) and hypotheses. Pay attention to the distinction between aim(s), research question(s), objective(s) and hypotheses. While it is tempting to want to claim that enormously complex problems can be solved in a single project, do not overreach. It is important to be realistic [ 25 ].

Experimental design, methods and expertise

The methodology is one of the most important parts of getting a grant proposal accepted. The reviewing board should be convinced that the relevant methodology is well within the research teams’ expertise. Any evidence of potential success, such as preliminary results or pilot studies strengthen the application significantly [ 33 ]. The methodology must relate directly to the aim. Structuring this section into specific activities/ set of activities that address each research question or objective should be considered. This clarifies how each question/ objective will be addressed. Each work-package should clearly define the title of the research question/objective to be addressed, the activities to be carried out including milestones and deliverables, and the overall duration of the proposed work-package. Deliverables should be presented in table format for ease of review. Each subsequent work-package should start once the previous one has been completed to provide a clear picture of timelines, milestones and deliverables which reflect stakeholder involvement and overall organisation of the proposed project. Using relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines enhances the quality of detail included in the design [ 34 ]. Key elements of this methodology are detailed in Table  1 .

Summary of the key elements of the experimental design, methods and expertise

Key elements of experimental design, methods and expertise
Study design State, justify and explain the study design and methodology.
Setting Where will the study be conducted? Explain and justify the setting.
Target population What is the study population? What are the inclusion and exclusion criteria?
Sampling, sample size Is sampling required? If so, what is the sampling approach and sample size needed?
Recruitment What is the approach for recruitment?
Data collection What is the plan for data collection? How are tools to be developed, tested and piloted?
Outcome measures What is going to be ‘measured’ (noting that the term ‘measure’ is different in qualitative studies)? The outcome measures should directly relate to the specific research questions/ objectives.
Validity, reliability, trustworthiness What steps are planned to maximise data validity and reliability (and possibly responsiveness) for quantitative studies and trustworthiness for qualitative studies?
Analysis What are the plans for analysis? The analysis plan must relate directly to the research question (s)/ objective (s).
Monitoring What are the milestones and key performance indicators for the study? Depending on the funding body and the nature of the study, a monitoring and oversight/ advisory committee may need to be established.
Limitations, mitigation What are the risks? What could go wrong? It is imperative to highlight these and plan mitigation measures.
Expertise The research team must have the appropriate level of experience and expertise from relevant disciplines to give the reviewers confidence that the study will be delivered as planned. It is not mandatory for all team members to be highly experienced, since developing research capacity is also important, however all team members should have defined roles.
Patient and public engagement Depending on the funding body it may be very important to thoroughly consider patient and public involvement in the study design, development of the research aim planning of the study design, written grant proposal and participation in the proposed study [ ]. Engaging the public in the research can improve the quality and impact of the research proposal [ ].
Ethics and governance Details of ethics board approvals including to be obtained for the study are crucial as are details of all governance measures followed.

Proposed budget

The budget should be designed based on the needs of the project and the funding agency’s policies and instructions. Each aspect of the budget must be sufficiently justified to ensure accountability to the grant awarding body [ 35 ]. Costing and justification of the time of those involved, any equipment, consumables, travel, payment for participants, dissemination costs and other relevant costs are required. The funders will be looking for value for money and not necessarily a low-cost study. Ensure that the total budget is within the allocated funding frame.

Provide a breakdown of the key work packages and tasks to be completed, as well as an indication of the anticipated duration. Include a Gantt chart (A table detailing the most general project content milestones and activities) to demonstrate that all aspects of the proposal have been well thought through [ 21 ].

Critical appraisal, limitations, and impact of the proposed research

It is important to detail any strengths and limitations of the proposed project. Omitting these will present the reviewing board with sufficient grounds to reject the proposal [ 36 ]. Provide a clear statement about the short and long-term impact of the research [ 37 , 38 ]. The reviewers will pay particular attention to the differences the study can make and how potential impact aligns with the funding bodies goals as well as national policies. This statement is essential to make an informed decision whether or not to support the application. Useful diagrams summarise the different levels of impact [ 39 ].

Table  2 provides a summary of the key elements of project grants and key questions to ask oneself.

Summary of the key elements of project grants and key questions to ask oneself.

(Adapted from [ 5 ]: Koppelmann GH, Holloway JW. Successful grant writing. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2012; 13:63–66.)

Key questions to ask oneself

What is the research question being addressed?

How important, or how big is the identified knowledge gap?

Why is this research project needed?

What previous literature is available on this research topic?

How innovative is the grant proposal compared to already published or ongoing research?

What would the impact of the study results on healthcare, economics and society be?

What research is being done by other groups?

What type of methodological approach would be required in an ideal world to address this issue?

What is needed to bring this research project to a wider audience?

Does the researcher and team have all the relevant skills, techniques, and knowledge?

Am I ready to be a principal investigator or should I be a co-investigator?

Although the grant writing process is time-consuming and complex, support is widely available at each stage. It is important to involve colleagues and collaborators to improve the proposal as much as possible and invest time in the detailed planning and execution. Even if the grant is not awarded, do not be disheartened. Use the feedback for improvement and exercise resilience and persistence in pursuing your research ambition.

The guidance in this paper is part of ESCP’s commitment to stimulate “innovative and high-quality research in all areas of clinical pharmacy”. In a previous ESCP survey, it was found that few opportunities for collaboration (especially for grant applications) was one of the key barriers for members towards conducting research [ 40 ]. ESCP promotes networking, which is essential for multi-centre grant applications, both among ESCP members and with other organisations as it recognises the need for “multi-centre research in all areas of clinical pharmacy both within countries and between countries or differing healthcare delivery systems”. ESCP is planning to relaunch its own research grant which was paused during the pandemic, and it is also planning to provide ESCP members with information about the research grants offered by other organizations. ESCP is exploring partnering with other organisations to develop research proposals in areas of common interest and, in the near future, it will ask its members about their research priorities. Taken together, these initiatives will inform ESCP’s research strategy and help it to formulate policies to address the challenges its members face.


Research works of Assoc. Prof. Fialová were also supported by the institutional program Cooperation of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University.

Open access funding provided by University of Innsbruck and Medical University of Innsbruck. This work was conducted without external funding.

Conflicts of interest

The authors have not disclosed any competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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Mastering Research Grant Writing in 2024: Navigating new policies and funder demands

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Entering the world of grants and government funding can leave you confused; especially when trying to identify the right program for you or your organization. Furthermore, there is a significant shift in the research funding landscape in 2024. This is attributed to evolution in the policies, AI technologies, and increased competition to secure grants.

A report published by Clarivate in 2023 on ‘Research Offices of the Future’ revealed the increasing pressure among research offices to obtain funding. Additionally, the report suggested AI’s potential in compilation of information for grant applications, analysis of unsuccessful grant bids, writing grant applications, and meeting research security requirements set by funders.

Table of Contents

Potential of AI in Grant Application

Currently, the role of AI in grant applications is substantial. However, its potential in revolutionizing researchers’ and institutions’ approach towards grant writing and submission process cannot be ignored. Here are some ways how AI can impact the grant application process:

1. Enhance Proposal Writing

AI-powered tools like TRINKA can assist in drafting and refining grant proposals by providing language suggestions, ensuring clarity, and checking for consistency. These tools can also help in identifying and correcting grammatical errors, improving the overall quality of the application.

2. Identify Suitable Grants

AI algorithms can analyze a researcher’s profile, past work, and current project details to match them with the most appropriate funding opportunities. This targeted approach can improve the chances of finding the right grant programs and reduce the time spent searching for potential funding sources.

3. Provide Data-driven Insights

By analyzing data from previous grant submissions, AI can share strategies on how to present a grant application. It can also suggest relevant literature, methodologies, and potential collaborators aligning with the funder’s priorities.

4. Review and Feedback

AI can analyze the relevance, feasibility, and impact of a research, helping the funding agencies in the evaluation process. For researchers, AI tools can provide a preliminary feedback on their proposals. Furthermore, it can identify the areas for improvement before submitting applications.

While AI promises to have a tremendous impact on the grant application process, it is imperative to address the legal, regulatory, and ethical concerns associated with it. Furthermore, the quality of AI-generated recommendations depends on the quality of the training and input data. This necessitates the need of proper measures for data privacy protection, avoiding misinformation, and inaccurate interpretation of the current funding and grant-making polices.

Trends in Grant Funding

The global trends in grant funding is marked by notable policy changes across major regions. The Funding Trends report by Clarivate suggests a steady increase in the number of grants awarded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) over the past five years.

Clarivate Funding Trends Report

Source: Clarivate Funding Trends Report – May 2023

However, this has led to increased competition for research funding, with success rates for grant applications  often falling between 10-20%. However, to aid researchers in developing grant applications, Clarivate introduced the Web of Science™ Grants Index in 2024. By integrating awarded grant data from over 400 global funders, the tool helps researchers to make informed decisions by exploring previously funded projects.

Similarly, in Japan, Kakenhi Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research continue to be a significant source of funding, supporting a wide range of research projects. Additionally, these grants provide financial support for creative and pioneering research projects that will become the foundation of social development. The research output obtained from the studies under these grants are widely published in academic journals. Furthermore, the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research ( KAKENHI ) Database consists of “ KAKEN – Search Research Projects .” This facilitates users to search for research projects conducted by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research. As a result, it streamlines the grant search process and increases the chances of securing funding support.

The recent trends in grant procurement highlight both ongoing challenges and new opportunities. These trends include:

1. Emphasis on Societal Issues

There is an increasing focus on grants addressing climate change, public health, and social inequality, with a notable rise in funding for renewable energy research, community health initiatives, and diversity and inclusion programs.

2. Collaborative Grant Programs

Growing popularity of grants encouraging partnerships between multiple stakeholders, emphasizing interdisciplinary approaches and cross-sector collaboration.

3. Sustainability

Rising interest in projects that deliver immediate results and have long-term positive impacts on communities, ecosystems, and economies.

4. Advances in Technology

Use of data analytics and AI by funding agencies to better assess the impact and feasibility of proposals, leading to more informed decision-making.

5. Intense Competition

Increased competition for limited funding, with donors prioritizing innovative, impactful, and well-written projects that address significant issues.

In response to these trends, there is a growing emphasis on capacity building and support services to help applicants improve their grant-writing skills and develop robust proposals. A data published by NIH reported a success rate of approximately 20% in 2022 for research grant application. Therefore it is essential to understand the criteria for funding decisions. Although different funding bodies have varying requirements, here are some general criteria followed by the funders for fund allocation and decision making.

General Criteria for Fund Allocation

Different funding agencies tailor these criteria to their specific missions and strategic goals. This ensures that the most promising and relevant projects receive support. Therefore, understanding the funder requirements can increase the chances of funding.

Writing Effective Grant Proposals

The quality of a grant application can significantly influence the outcome. This makes it essential to craft a compelling and well-organized proposal. A well-written grant application not only increases the chances of receiving funds but also has far-reaching impacts.

Impact of a well written grant application

Researchers can also consider professional grant writing services like Enago Grant Writing Service . These experts not only guide you in targeting the right grants for your discipline and type of research but also tailors grant proposals to the requirements of specific agencies, while maintaining its quality. This maximizes your chances of acceptance with minimal time investment.

As we traverse through the evolving landscape of research funding in 2024, mastering the art of grant writing becomes increasingly crucial. The competitive nature of securing grants necessitates a strategic approach. This includes integration of AI technologies to streamline and enhance the application process. Furthermore, by relying on the right tools and staying abreast of global trends, researchers can position themselves more favorably in the quest for funding. With continued emphasis on training and support services, researchers can address the funding dilemma.

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Workshop on “A Systematic Guide on Planning and Writing Fundamental Research Grant Proposals”

Faculty of Engineering (FE) organized a workshop titled “A Systematic Guide on Planning and Writing Fundamental Research Grant Proposals” on Thursday, June 27, 2024, at 11 AM in D-Building, AIUB permanent campus. The agenda of the workshop was to identify strategies and provide guidance for writing effective research proposals that are better aligned with funding agency goals and community needs. The distinguished speaker of the workshop was Dr. Nowshad Amin ( Professor, Faculty of Engineering (EEE), AIUB, SMIEEE, IEEE-EDS DL (R10) ) .

Dr. Nowshad Amin began his speech by introducing himself with a brief biography and a short summary of the numerous grants and funds he has secured over the years. In the preface to his speech, he discussed the current state of research and development (R&D) in the universities of Bangladesh and brought attention to the relatively low research output. He encouraged the faculty members to take a more active role in pursuing research, and advised them to try for the Grant for Advanced Research in Education (GARE) from Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) next year. In the main body of his presentation, the speaker emphasized the need for research to be inspired by the actual needs of people and related to sustainable development goals (SDG). After providing an academic definition of the term “research”, he explained what writing a research proposal involves and what parameters need to be considered to make a project fundable. He strongly asserted the importance of understanding the guidelines, goals and needs of funding agencies, using the guidelines of Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) grant schemes as an example. After identifying the MOHE grants assigned for Fundamental, Trans-Disciplinary, Long Term and Prototype Research, Dr. Amin explained the assessment criteria for Fundamental Research in detail and walked the workshop participants through the process of writing the essential elements of a research proposal. He put extra emphasis on the selection of an appropriate, clear and unambiguous title, and provided examples of both successful and unsuccessful project titles, explaining the reasons behind the rejections in the latter cases. He also cautioned the audience to plan their projects carefully based on a realistic timeline and a budget with reasonable limits. In the last part of his speech, he detailed the duties of a project team leader and provided advice on fulfilling those responsibilities.

Following a short question answer session ,  Prof. Dr. ABM Siddique Hossain (Professor and Dean, Faculty of Engineering, AIUB) thanked the honorable speaker for sharing his valuable experience, and presented a token of appreciation to the speaker, concluding the workshop. The goal of this event was in perfect harmony with the Sustainable Development Goal of Quality Education (SDG 4)

Post Title


  1. Medical Proposal

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  2. Medical Proposal Template

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  3. FREE 10+ Clinical Research Proposal Templates in PDF

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  1. Session 16: Grants and Proposal Writing By Dr. Kauser Abdullah Malik (FCCU)

  2. Conducting proposal online session 20/7/2023

  3. Creating a research proposal

  4. Lecture 7: Writing a Grant Proposal or A Research proposal

  5. Introduction To Research Proposal Writing 1

  6. How to write Research proposal for phD? PhD interview


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    Writing the proposal of a research work in the present era is a challenging task due to the constantly evolving trends in the qualitative research design and the need to incorporate medical ...

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    A proposal needs to show how your work fits into what is already known about the topic and what new paradigm will it add to the literature, while specifying the question that the research will answer, establishing its significance, and the implications of the answer. [ 2] The proposal must be capable of convincing the evaluation committee about ...

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    Writing a research proposal can be quite challenging, but a good starting point could be to look at some examples. We've included a few for you below. Example research proposal #1: "A Conceptual Framework for Scheduling Constraint Management" Example research proposal #2: "Medical Students as Mediators of Change in Tobacco Use" Title page

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    Debra A. Schwinn, Elizabeth R. DeLong, Steven L. Shafer; Writing Successful Research Proposals for Medical Science ... Capable medical researchers ultimately write research proposals for funding by the NIH. Standards of excellence for NIH grants are high (only the top [almost equal to] 20% of grants are funded). ...

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    It puts the proposal in context. 3. The introduction typically begins with a statement of the research problem in precise and clear terms. 1. The importance of the statement of the research problem 5: The statement of the problem is the essential basis for the construction of a research proposal (research objectives, hypotheses, methodology ...

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    research grant proposal. − Receiving relevant and up-to-date information about new research methods. − Establishing collaborative associations with peers. − Constructive feedback on research proposals and throughout the research process. − Assistance in the development of a long-term research and writing plan.

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    The main purpose of a scientific research proposal is to convince your audience that your project is worthwhile, and that you have the expertise and wherewithal to complete it. The elements of an effective research proposal mirror those of the research process itself, which we'll outline below. Essentially, the research proposal should ...

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    3.3 Material/Methods/Study Design. This is the most technical part of your proposal and should be written as such. Hence, there is no need to "tell a story" but stay short, brief and to the point. In the following is a short bullet point list of elements that should be include in your material/method section:

  9. Writing your research proposal

    The research proposal identifies: What the topic is, both in terms of background and the individual area of interest. What you plan to accomplish and why it needs doing. What in particular you are trying to find out, i.e. the research question. How you will get the answer to your question, i.e. your methodology.

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    Here is an explanation of each step: 1. Title and Abstract. Choose a concise and descriptive title that reflects the essence of your research. Write an abstract summarizing your research question, objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes. It should provide a brief overview of your proposal. 2.

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    Writing the proposal of a research work in the present era is a challenging task due to the constantly evolving trends in the qualitative research design and the need to incorporate medical advances into the methodology. The proposal is a detailed plan or 'blueprint' for the intended study, and once it is completed, the research project should ...

  13. Protocol Writing in Clinical Research

    Protocol writing allows the researcher to review and critically evaluate the published literature on the interested topic, plan and review the project steps and serves as a guide throughout the investigation. The proposal is an inevitable document that enables the researcher to monitor the progress of the project [ 5 ].

  14. PDF Sample Research Proposal

    1 Sample Research Proposal Resident: John Smith, PGY2 Research Mentor: Jane Doe, MD, Section of General Internal Medicine Date of Proposal: February 5, 2009 I. Title of Proposed Research Project Medical Students as Mediators of Change in Tobacco Use II. Specific Aims In conducting this study, we will accomplish the following specific aims:

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    Science*. Writing / standards*. Knowing how to properly prepare a research proposal is a real challenge - and being able to prepare an excellent research proposal is increasingly a requirement to compete for funding with assurances of success. With this in mind, we aim to share with the reader our experience (in many cases, unsucc ….

  16. Medical Research Proposal Sample & Guide

    A medical research proposal is a document that outlines the purpose and methodology of a proposed research project. It includes information about what the researcher intends to study, how they plan to conduct their research and measurement for success or failure. The proposal also explains why the research is essential, what ethical ...

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    Faculty Affairs and Development. Office of the Research Dean Weill Cornell Medicine 1300 York Ave. New York, NY 10065 [email protected].

  18. Sample Proposals

    ISP Proposal Samples. Analysis of a. Scientific or. Medical Problem. Community Service & Leadership. Medical Education. Scientific Research. Focused Clinical Multidisciplinary. SMP1 - [71 kb]

  19. 6+ SAMPLE Medical Research Proposal in PDF

    Writing a medical research proposal can help you to explain your goals and key arguments. It will allow you to consider each stage of the research process in order to create a clear and thorough strategy. As stated, you should not proceed with submitting your document before verifying all that you have written are factual and is connected to ...

  20. 17+ Medical Research Proposal Templates in PDF

    As our Medical Research Proposal in Google Docs Submission Form has been designed in Word format to give you the unique experience of writing your proposals with factual information and numeric data to make your project more appealing. To get the best results, download this immediately! 15. Medical Research Proposal Format in DOC

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    A one-day workshop on proposal writing for research for health care professionals was organized by Hospital Research Board (HRB), Nepal Cancer Hospital and Research Center Pvt. Ltd, Harisiddhi, Lalitpur, Nepal on 2nd March 2019. The main aim of this workshop was to identify, motivate and prepare health care professionals for conducting research ...

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    Writing a medical research proposal isn't difficult. But there are rules to follow. At the very least, you need to spend time brainstorming ideas. Remember, the goal of your proposal is to win your target over. And if you nail it in the brainstorming stage, you can attract attention to the actual proposal. A good proposal is clear and direct ...

  23. Health research on South Asian communities must be led by South Asians

    Funding agencies in Canada need to review their policies for evaluating research proposals to ensure that South Asian research is conducted by South Asians, write authors in a commentary, titled ...

  24. Discovery Science Projects

    The Minnesota Partnership for Biotechnology & Medical Genomics is now accepting funding proposals to support Discovery Science projects that address critical knowledge gaps in the biology of approaches to human health. Proposals that leverage interdisciplinary approaches and have the potential for high impact are encouraged. Up to $750,000 for PIs at UMN and/or Mayo Clinic

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    We used a random sample of 16 million patients (2006-2020) from the PharMetrics Plus for Academics database (IQVIA), a large health claims database that captures 93% of all outpatient prescriptions and physician diagnoses in the US through the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) or ICD-10. In our cohort study, we included new users of semaglutide or liraglutide, 2 ...

  26. How to write a successful grant application: guidance provided by the

    Conceptualising your research idea. Before writing a research grant proposal/application, consider what the research should achieve in the short, medium, and long term, and how the research goals will serve patients, science and society [9, 10].Practical implications of research, policy impact or positive impact on society and active patient/public involvement are highly valued by many ...

  27. Secure Research Funding in 2024: AI-powered grant writing ...

    In response to these trends, there is a growing emphasis on capacity building and support services to help applicants improve their grant-writing skills and develop robust proposals. A data published by NIH reported a success rate of approximately 20% in 2022 for research grant application. Therefore it is essential to understand the criteria ...

  28. Workshop on "A Systematic Guide on Planning and Writing Fundamental

    Sunday 14 July 2024. Faculty of Engineering (FE) organized a workshop titled "A Systematic Guide on Planning and Writing Fundamental Research Grant Proposals" on Thursday, June 27, 2024, at 11 AM in D-Building, AIUB permanent campus. The agenda of the workshop was to identify strategies and provide guidance for writing effective research proposals that are better aligned with funding ...