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SARAH J. TRACY is Professor of Human Communication, Arizona State University-Tempe, and an internationally recognized expert on qualitative research methods. She has contributed more than 75 essays to publications such as Qualitative Inquiry, Communication Monographs, and Management Communication Quarterly, and developed the renowned “eight big tent model” for high quality qualitative research. Sarah J. Tracy is Professor of Human Communication, Arizona State University-Tempe, and an internationally recognized expert on qualitative research methods.

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Dr. Sarah J. Tracy is Professor of organizational communication and qualitative methodology in the Hugh Downs School of Human Communication at Arizona State University. Her award-winning research has resulted in two books, including "Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting Analysis, Communicating Impact," a YouTube channel called “Get Your Qual On,” the “eight big-tent criteria” model for excellent qualitative research, and more than 70 scholarly essays.

She has led over 20 qualitative workshops in a number of international settings in which participants go beyond learning about qualitative methods to practicing specific qualitative crafts and analytic techniques. She approaches research from a use-inspired standpoint and endeavors toward creating scholarship that inspires wisdom, compassion, transformation, good humor, and well-being.

In her free time, Sarah enjoys yoga, crockpot cooking, laughing with her sweetheart Brad, and playing with her two adopted fur babies.

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Criteria for Good Qualitative Research: A Comprehensive Review

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  • Published: 18 September 2021
  • Volume 31 , pages 679–689, ( 2022 )

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  • Drishti Yadav   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-2974-0323 1  

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This review aims to synthesize a published set of evaluative criteria for good qualitative research. The aim is to shed light on existing standards for assessing the rigor of qualitative research encompassing a range of epistemological and ontological standpoints. Using a systematic search strategy, published journal articles that deliberate criteria for rigorous research were identified. Then, references of relevant articles were surveyed to find noteworthy, distinct, and well-defined pointers to good qualitative research. This review presents an investigative assessment of the pivotal features in qualitative research that can permit the readers to pass judgment on its quality and to condemn it as good research when objectively and adequately utilized. Overall, this review underlines the crux of qualitative research and accentuates the necessity to evaluate such research by the very tenets of its being. It also offers some prospects and recommendations to improve the quality of qualitative research. Based on the findings of this review, it is concluded that quality criteria are the aftereffect of socio-institutional procedures and existing paradigmatic conducts. Owing to the paradigmatic diversity of qualitative research, a single and specific set of quality criteria is neither feasible nor anticipated. Since qualitative research is not a cohesive discipline, researchers need to educate and familiarize themselves with applicable norms and decisive factors to evaluate qualitative research from within its theoretical and methodological framework of origin.

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Good Qualitative Research: Opening up the Debate

Beyond qualitative/quantitative structuralism: the positivist qualitative research and the paradigmatic disclaimer.

tracy 2020 qualitative research

What is Qualitative in Research

Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.

Introduction

“… It is important to regularly dialogue about what makes for good qualitative research” (Tracy, 2010 , p. 837)

To decide what represents good qualitative research is highly debatable. There are numerous methods that are contained within qualitative research and that are established on diverse philosophical perspectives. Bryman et al., ( 2008 , p. 262) suggest that “It is widely assumed that whereas quality criteria for quantitative research are well‐known and widely agreed, this is not the case for qualitative research.” Hence, the question “how to evaluate the quality of qualitative research” has been continuously debated. There are many areas of science and technology wherein these debates on the assessment of qualitative research have taken place. Examples include various areas of psychology: general psychology (Madill et al., 2000 ); counseling psychology (Morrow, 2005 ); and clinical psychology (Barker & Pistrang, 2005 ), and other disciplines of social sciences: social policy (Bryman et al., 2008 ); health research (Sparkes, 2001 ); business and management research (Johnson et al., 2006 ); information systems (Klein & Myers, 1999 ); and environmental studies (Reid & Gough, 2000 ). In the literature, these debates are enthused by the impression that the blanket application of criteria for good qualitative research developed around the positivist paradigm is improper. Such debates are based on the wide range of philosophical backgrounds within which qualitative research is conducted (e.g., Sandberg, 2000 ; Schwandt, 1996 ). The existence of methodological diversity led to the formulation of different sets of criteria applicable to qualitative research.

Among qualitative researchers, the dilemma of governing the measures to assess the quality of research is not a new phenomenon, especially when the virtuous triad of objectivity, reliability, and validity (Spencer et al., 2004 ) are not adequate. Occasionally, the criteria of quantitative research are used to evaluate qualitative research (Cohen & Crabtree, 2008 ; Lather, 2004 ). Indeed, Howe ( 2004 ) claims that the prevailing paradigm in educational research is scientifically based experimental research. Hypotheses and conjectures about the preeminence of quantitative research can weaken the worth and usefulness of qualitative research by neglecting the prominence of harmonizing match for purpose on research paradigm, the epistemological stance of the researcher, and the choice of methodology. Researchers have been reprimanded concerning this in “paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences” (Lincoln & Guba, 2000 ).

In general, qualitative research tends to come from a very different paradigmatic stance and intrinsically demands distinctive and out-of-the-ordinary criteria for evaluating good research and varieties of research contributions that can be made. This review attempts to present a series of evaluative criteria for qualitative researchers, arguing that their choice of criteria needs to be compatible with the unique nature of the research in question (its methodology, aims, and assumptions). This review aims to assist researchers in identifying some of the indispensable features or markers of high-quality qualitative research. In a nutshell, the purpose of this systematic literature review is to analyze the existing knowledge on high-quality qualitative research and to verify the existence of research studies dealing with the critical assessment of qualitative research based on the concept of diverse paradigmatic stances. Contrary to the existing reviews, this review also suggests some critical directions to follow to improve the quality of qualitative research in different epistemological and ontological perspectives. This review is also intended to provide guidelines for the acceleration of future developments and dialogues among qualitative researchers in the context of assessing the qualitative research.

The rest of this review article is structured in the following fashion: Sect.  Methods describes the method followed for performing this review. Section Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Studies provides a comprehensive description of the criteria for evaluating qualitative studies. This section is followed by a summary of the strategies to improve the quality of qualitative research in Sect.  Improving Quality: Strategies . Section  How to Assess the Quality of the Research Findings? provides details on how to assess the quality of the research findings. After that, some of the quality checklists (as tools to evaluate quality) are discussed in Sect.  Quality Checklists: Tools for Assessing the Quality . At last, the review ends with the concluding remarks presented in Sect.  Conclusions, Future Directions and Outlook . Some prospects in qualitative research for enhancing its quality and usefulness in the social and techno-scientific research community are also presented in Sect.  Conclusions, Future Directions and Outlook .

For this review, a comprehensive literature search was performed from many databases using generic search terms such as Qualitative Research , Criteria , etc . The following databases were chosen for the literature search based on the high number of results: IEEE Explore, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. The following keywords (and their combinations using Boolean connectives OR/AND) were adopted for the literature search: qualitative research, criteria, quality, assessment, and validity. The synonyms for these keywords were collected and arranged in a logical structure (see Table 1 ). All publications in journals and conference proceedings later than 1950 till 2021 were considered for the search. Other articles extracted from the references of the papers identified in the electronic search were also included. A large number of publications on qualitative research were retrieved during the initial screening. Hence, to include the searches with the main focus on criteria for good qualitative research, an inclusion criterion was utilized in the search string.

From the selected databases, the search retrieved a total of 765 publications. Then, the duplicate records were removed. After that, based on the title and abstract, the remaining 426 publications were screened for their relevance by using the following inclusion and exclusion criteria (see Table 2 ). Publications focusing on evaluation criteria for good qualitative research were included, whereas those works which delivered theoretical concepts on qualitative research were excluded. Based on the screening and eligibility, 45 research articles were identified that offered explicit criteria for evaluating the quality of qualitative research and were found to be relevant to this review.

Figure  1 illustrates the complete review process in the form of PRISMA flow diagram. PRISMA, i.e., “preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses” is employed in systematic reviews to refine the quality of reporting.

figure 1

PRISMA flow diagram illustrating the search and inclusion process. N represents the number of records

Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Studies

Fundamental criteria: general research quality.

Various researchers have put forward criteria for evaluating qualitative research, which have been summarized in Table 3 . Also, the criteria outlined in Table 4 effectively deliver the various approaches to evaluate and assess the quality of qualitative work. The entries in Table 4 are based on Tracy’s “Eight big‐tent criteria for excellent qualitative research” (Tracy, 2010 ). Tracy argues that high-quality qualitative work should formulate criteria focusing on the worthiness, relevance, timeliness, significance, morality, and practicality of the research topic, and the ethical stance of the research itself. Researchers have also suggested a series of questions as guiding principles to assess the quality of a qualitative study (Mays & Pope, 2020 ). Nassaji ( 2020 ) argues that good qualitative research should be robust, well informed, and thoroughly documented.

Qualitative Research: Interpretive Paradigms

All qualitative researchers follow highly abstract principles which bring together beliefs about ontology, epistemology, and methodology. These beliefs govern how the researcher perceives and acts. The net, which encompasses the researcher’s epistemological, ontological, and methodological premises, is referred to as a paradigm, or an interpretive structure, a “Basic set of beliefs that guides action” (Guba, 1990 ). Four major interpretive paradigms structure the qualitative research: positivist and postpositivist, constructivist interpretive, critical (Marxist, emancipatory), and feminist poststructural. The complexity of these four abstract paradigms increases at the level of concrete, specific interpretive communities. Table 5 presents these paradigms and their assumptions, including their criteria for evaluating research, and the typical form that an interpretive or theoretical statement assumes in each paradigm. Moreover, for evaluating qualitative research, quantitative conceptualizations of reliability and validity are proven to be incompatible (Horsburgh, 2003 ). In addition, a series of questions have been put forward in the literature to assist a reviewer (who is proficient in qualitative methods) for meticulous assessment and endorsement of qualitative research (Morse, 2003 ). Hammersley ( 2007 ) also suggests that guiding principles for qualitative research are advantageous, but methodological pluralism should not be simply acknowledged for all qualitative approaches. Seale ( 1999 ) also points out the significance of methodological cognizance in research studies.

Table 5 reflects that criteria for assessing the quality of qualitative research are the aftermath of socio-institutional practices and existing paradigmatic standpoints. Owing to the paradigmatic diversity of qualitative research, a single set of quality criteria is neither possible nor desirable. Hence, the researchers must be reflexive about the criteria they use in the various roles they play within their research community.

Improving Quality: Strategies

Another critical question is “How can the qualitative researchers ensure that the abovementioned quality criteria can be met?” Lincoln and Guba ( 1986 ) delineated several strategies to intensify each criteria of trustworthiness. Other researchers (Merriam & Tisdell, 2016 ; Shenton, 2004 ) also presented such strategies. A brief description of these strategies is shown in Table 6 .

It is worth mentioning that generalizability is also an integral part of qualitative research (Hays & McKibben, 2021 ). In general, the guiding principle pertaining to generalizability speaks about inducing and comprehending knowledge to synthesize interpretive components of an underlying context. Table 7 summarizes the main metasynthesis steps required to ascertain generalizability in qualitative research.

Figure  2 reflects the crucial components of a conceptual framework and their contribution to decisions regarding research design, implementation, and applications of results to future thinking, study, and practice (Johnson et al., 2020 ). The synergy and interrelationship of these components signifies their role to different stances of a qualitative research study.

figure 2

Essential elements of a conceptual framework

In a nutshell, to assess the rationale of a study, its conceptual framework and research question(s), quality criteria must take account of the following: lucid context for the problem statement in the introduction; well-articulated research problems and questions; precise conceptual framework; distinct research purpose; and clear presentation and investigation of the paradigms. These criteria would expedite the quality of qualitative research.

How to Assess the Quality of the Research Findings?

The inclusion of quotes or similar research data enhances the confirmability in the write-up of the findings. The use of expressions (for instance, “80% of all respondents agreed that” or “only one of the interviewees mentioned that”) may also quantify qualitative findings (Stenfors et al., 2020 ). On the other hand, the persuasive reason for “why this may not help in intensifying the research” has also been provided (Monrouxe & Rees, 2020 ). Further, the Discussion and Conclusion sections of an article also prove robust markers of high-quality qualitative research, as elucidated in Table 8 .

Quality Checklists: Tools for Assessing the Quality

Numerous checklists are available to speed up the assessment of the quality of qualitative research. However, if used uncritically and recklessly concerning the research context, these checklists may be counterproductive. I recommend that such lists and guiding principles may assist in pinpointing the markers of high-quality qualitative research. However, considering enormous variations in the authors’ theoretical and philosophical contexts, I would emphasize that high dependability on such checklists may say little about whether the findings can be applied in your setting. A combination of such checklists might be appropriate for novice researchers. Some of these checklists are listed below:

The most commonly used framework is Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) (Tong et al., 2007 ). This framework is recommended by some journals to be followed by the authors during article submission.

Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR) is another checklist that has been created particularly for medical education (O’Brien et al., 2014 ).

Also, Tracy ( 2010 ) and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP, 2021 ) offer criteria for qualitative research relevant across methods and approaches.

Further, researchers have also outlined different criteria as hallmarks of high-quality qualitative research. For instance, the “Road Trip Checklist” (Epp & Otnes, 2021 ) provides a quick reference to specific questions to address different elements of high-quality qualitative research.

Conclusions, Future Directions, and Outlook

This work presents a broad review of the criteria for good qualitative research. In addition, this article presents an exploratory analysis of the essential elements in qualitative research that can enable the readers of qualitative work to judge it as good research when objectively and adequately utilized. In this review, some of the essential markers that indicate high-quality qualitative research have been highlighted. I scope them narrowly to achieve rigor in qualitative research and note that they do not completely cover the broader considerations necessary for high-quality research. This review points out that a universal and versatile one-size-fits-all guideline for evaluating the quality of qualitative research does not exist. In other words, this review also emphasizes the non-existence of a set of common guidelines among qualitative researchers. In unison, this review reinforces that each qualitative approach should be treated uniquely on account of its own distinctive features for different epistemological and disciplinary positions. Owing to the sensitivity of the worth of qualitative research towards the specific context and the type of paradigmatic stance, researchers should themselves analyze what approaches can be and must be tailored to ensemble the distinct characteristics of the phenomenon under investigation. Although this article does not assert to put forward a magic bullet and to provide a one-stop solution for dealing with dilemmas about how, why, or whether to evaluate the “goodness” of qualitative research, it offers a platform to assist the researchers in improving their qualitative studies. This work provides an assembly of concerns to reflect on, a series of questions to ask, and multiple sets of criteria to look at, when attempting to determine the quality of qualitative research. Overall, this review underlines the crux of qualitative research and accentuates the need to evaluate such research by the very tenets of its being. Bringing together the vital arguments and delineating the requirements that good qualitative research should satisfy, this review strives to equip the researchers as well as reviewers to make well-versed judgment about the worth and significance of the qualitative research under scrutiny. In a nutshell, a comprehensive portrayal of the research process (from the context of research to the research objectives, research questions and design, speculative foundations, and from approaches of collecting data to analyzing the results, to deriving inferences) frequently proliferates the quality of a qualitative research.

Prospects : A Road Ahead for Qualitative Research

Irrefutably, qualitative research is a vivacious and evolving discipline wherein different epistemological and disciplinary positions have their own characteristics and importance. In addition, not surprisingly, owing to the sprouting and varied features of qualitative research, no consensus has been pulled off till date. Researchers have reflected various concerns and proposed several recommendations for editors and reviewers on conducting reviews of critical qualitative research (Levitt et al., 2021 ; McGinley et al., 2021 ). Following are some prospects and a few recommendations put forward towards the maturation of qualitative research and its quality evaluation:

In general, most of the manuscript and grant reviewers are not qualitative experts. Hence, it is more likely that they would prefer to adopt a broad set of criteria. However, researchers and reviewers need to keep in mind that it is inappropriate to utilize the same approaches and conducts among all qualitative research. Therefore, future work needs to focus on educating researchers and reviewers about the criteria to evaluate qualitative research from within the suitable theoretical and methodological context.

There is an urgent need to refurbish and augment critical assessment of some well-known and widely accepted tools (including checklists such as COREQ, SRQR) to interrogate their applicability on different aspects (along with their epistemological ramifications).

Efforts should be made towards creating more space for creativity, experimentation, and a dialogue between the diverse traditions of qualitative research. This would potentially help to avoid the enforcement of one's own set of quality criteria on the work carried out by others.

Moreover, journal reviewers need to be aware of various methodological practices and philosophical debates.

It is pivotal to highlight the expressions and considerations of qualitative researchers and bring them into a more open and transparent dialogue about assessing qualitative research in techno-scientific, academic, sociocultural, and political rooms.

Frequent debates on the use of evaluative criteria are required to solve some potentially resolved issues (including the applicability of a single set of criteria in multi-disciplinary aspects). Such debates would not only benefit the group of qualitative researchers themselves, but primarily assist in augmenting the well-being and vivacity of the entire discipline.

To conclude, I speculate that the criteria, and my perspective, may transfer to other methods, approaches, and contexts. I hope that they spark dialog and debate – about criteria for excellent qualitative research and the underpinnings of the discipline more broadly – and, therefore, help improve the quality of a qualitative study. Further, I anticipate that this review will assist the researchers to contemplate on the quality of their own research, to substantiate research design and help the reviewers to review qualitative research for journals. On a final note, I pinpoint the need to formulate a framework (encompassing the prerequisites of a qualitative study) by the cohesive efforts of qualitative researchers of different disciplines with different theoretic-paradigmatic origins. I believe that tailoring such a framework (of guiding principles) paves the way for qualitative researchers to consolidate the status of qualitative research in the wide-ranging open science debate. Dialogue on this issue across different approaches is crucial for the impending prospects of socio-techno-educational research.

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Yadav, D. Criteria for Good Qualitative Research: A Comprehensive Review. Asia-Pacific Edu Res 31 , 679–689 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-021-00619-0

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Accepted : 28 August 2021

Published : 18 September 2021

Issue Date : December 2022

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-021-00619-0

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tracy 2020 qualitative research

Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting Analysis, Communicating Impact

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tracy 2020 qualitative research

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tracy 2020 qualitative research

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  1. Sarah J. Tracy

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  3. (PDF) Critiquing a Qualitative Study Using Tracy’s Big-tent Criteria

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  4. The Qualitative Research Proposal

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VIDEO

  1. Understanding Quantitative and Qualitative Research Method

  2. Qualitative Research Types & Experimental/Nonexperimental Research

  3. THE PROCESS OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH USING QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE APPROACHES

  4. Spring 2020 Qualitative Research Methods-Week 2

  5. Analytic Strategies for Qualitative Research

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COMMENTS

  1. Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting ...

    QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS THE DEFINITIVE STEP-BY-STEP RESOURCE FOR QUALITATIVE AND ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting Analysis, Communicating Impact is a comprehensive guide on both the theoretical foundations and practical application of qualitative methodology. Adopting a phronetic-iterative approach, this foundational book leads readers ...

  2. Qualitative Research Methods

    QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS THE DEFINITIVE STEP-BY-STEP RESOURCE FOR QUALITATIVE AND ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting Analysis, Communicating Impact is a comprehensive guide on both the theoretical foundations and practical application of qualitative methodology. Adopting a phronetic-iterative approach, this foundational book leads readers ...

  3. Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting Analysis

    Detailed contents viii Preface: is this book for me? xiv 1 Developing contextual research that matters 1 2 Entering the conversation of qualitative research 20 3 Paradigmatic reflections and theoretical foundations 37 4 Fieldwork and fieldplay: Negotiating access and exploring the scene 64 5 Proposal writing: Explaining your research to institutional review boards, instructors, supervisory ...

  4. Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting Analysis

    I had the good fortune to use an early draft of Sarah Tracy's Qualitative Research Methods text when I was a graduate student. In particular, I appreciated the accessible language, myriad examples, and comprehensive set of resources that address the entire process of conducting qualitative research from understanding theory/paradigm to data ...

  5. Tracy: Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting

    Tracy: Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting Analysis, Communicating Impact, 2nd Edition. Home. Browse by Chapter. Browse by Chapter. Browse by Resource. Browse by Resource. More Information. More Information. Title Home on Wiley.com . How to Use This Site. Table of Contents.

  6. Qualitative research methods: collecting evidence, crafting analysis

    Along with providing clear and concise guidance on how to design and theoretically grounded research studies, write proposals, and navigate ethical challenges, qualitative methodology expert Sarah J. Tracy also offers invaluable tips for recruiting participants, practicing fieldwork, and conducting interviews and focus groups.

  7. Qualitative Research Methods

    She has contributed more than 50 essays to such publications as Qualitative Inquiry, Communication Monographs, Management Communication Quarterly, and others. Dr. Tracy's research has garnered international acclaim and she regularly serves as qualitative methodology expert for granted research.

  8. Tracy: Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting

    Welcome to the Web site for Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting Analysis, Communicating Impact, 2nd Edition by Sarah J. Tracy. This Web site gives you access to the rich tools and resources available for this text. You can access these resources in two ways:

  9. Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting Analysis

    THE DEFINITIVE STEP-BY-STEP RESOURCE FOR QUALITATIVE AND ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH. Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting Analysis, Communicating Impact is a comprehensive guide on both the theoretical foundations and practical application of qualitative methodology. Adopting a phronetic-iterative approach, this foundational book leads readers through the chronological ...

  10. PDF COM 609: Advanced Qualitative Research Methods in Communication Sp 2020

    COM 609: Advanced Qualitative Research Methods in Communication ... *Tracy, S. J. (2020). Qualitative research methods: Collecting evidence, crafting analysis, communicating impact, 2nd Ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. ISBN-13: 978-1119390787 or ISBN-

  11. Criteria for Good Qualitative Research: A Comprehensive Review

    Fundamental Criteria: General Research Quality. Various researchers have put forward criteria for evaluating qualitative research, which have been summarized in Table 3.Also, the criteria outlined in Table 4 effectively deliver the various approaches to evaluate and assess the quality of qualitative work. The entries in Table 4 are based on Tracy's "Eight big‐tent criteria for excellent ...

  12. Qualitative Quality: Eight "Big-Tent" Criteria for Excellent

    This article presents a model for quality in qualitative research that is uniquely expansive, yet flexible, in that it makes distinctions among qualitative research's means ... Tracy, S.J., Lutgen-Sandvik, P., & Alberts, J.K. ( 2006). Night-mares, demons and slaves: Exploring the painful metaphors of workplace bullying. ...

  13. Qualitative research methods: collecting evidence, crafting analysis

    Many people never think explicitly about [research methods], and if they do, they think that research methods are difficult to learn and painstaking to conduct. ... by S. J. Tracy, West Sussex, UK, John Wiley & Sons, 2019, Ltd. 368 pp., $115.50 (paperback), ISBN: 978-1-4051-9202-3 ... " Qualitative research methods: collecting evidence ...

  14. Tracy: Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting

    Tracy: Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting Analysis, Communicating Impact

  15. Thematic Co-occurrence Analysis: Advancing a Theory and Qualitative

    Other thematic analysis procedures would also be appropriate (see Miles, Huberman, & Saldana, 2014; Tracy, 2020). After themes emerge, researchers should hold them to Owen's (1984) ... Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 (2), 77-101. 10.1191/1478088706qp063oa [Google Scholar]

  16. ‪Sarah J. Tracy‬

    Fracturing the real‐self↔ fake‐self dichotomy: Moving toward "crystallized" organizational discourses and identities. SJ Tracy, A Trethewey. Communication theory 15 (2), 168-195. , 2005. 581. 2005. Becoming a character for commerce: Emotion labor, self-subordination, and discursive construction of identity in a total institution.

  17. (PDF) Book review Qualitative research methods: Collecting evidence

    PDF | On Feb 20, 2020, Juan Liang published Book review Qualitative research methods: Collecting evidence, crafting analysis, communicating impact (2nd ed.) | Find, read and cite all the research ...

  18. A Phronetic Iterative Approach to Data Analysis in Qualitative Research

    This essay lays out a pragmatic and easy-to-understand method for analyzing qualitative data. First, I provide an overview of the phronetic iterative approach to qualitative data analysis, distinguishing it from other approaches and showing its unique value as an umbrella framework that can be utilized by a range of qualitative researchers. Then I explain and provide examples of key steps of ...

  19. PDF Big Tent Criteria for Qualitative Quality

    6 BIG TENT CRITERIA FOR QUALITATIVE UALITY of author order and acknowledgments to participants, funding sources, research assistants,andsupportivecolleagues. Credibility In quantitative research, credibility is achieved through reliability, replicability,

  20. Full article: Social rights in relation to digitalization, mobile phone

    Introduction. The digitalization of social and health care services has attracted considerable research interest from several different disciplines (Cuesta et al., Citation 2020; De Rosa, Citation 2017), but only to a limited extent from a social rights perspective and rarely with a focus on health in a particularly marginalized group like women experiencing homelessness.