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Python allows you to assign values to multiple variables in one line:

Note: Make sure the number of variables matches the number of values, or else you will get an error.

One Value to Multiple Variables

And you can assign the same value to multiple variables in one line:

Unpack a Collection

If you have a collection of values in a list, tuple etc. Python allows you to extract the values into variables. This is called unpacking .

Unpack a list:

Learn more about unpacking in our Unpack Tuples Chapter.

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Multiple assignment in Python: Assign multiple values or the same value to multiple variables

In Python, the = operator is used to assign values to variables.

You can assign values to multiple variables in one line.

Assign multiple values to multiple variables

Assign the same value to multiple variables.

You can assign multiple values to multiple variables by separating them with commas , .

You can assign values to more than three variables, and it is also possible to assign values of different data types to those variables.

When only one variable is on the left side, values on the right side are assigned as a tuple to that variable.

If the number of variables on the left does not match the number of values on the right, a ValueError occurs. You can assign the remaining values as a list by prefixing the variable name with * .

For more information on using * and assigning elements of a tuple and list to multiple variables, see the following article.

  • Unpack a tuple and list in Python

You can also swap the values of multiple variables in the same way. See the following article for details:

  • Swap values ​​in a list or values of variables in Python

You can assign the same value to multiple variables by using = consecutively.

For example, this is useful when initializing multiple variables with the same value.

After assigning the same value, you can assign a different value to one of these variables. As described later, be cautious when assigning mutable objects such as list and dict .

You can apply the same method when assigning the same value to three or more variables.

Be careful when assigning mutable objects such as list and dict .

If you use = consecutively, the same object is assigned to all variables. Therefore, if you change the value of an element or add a new element in one variable, the changes will be reflected in the others as well.

If you want to handle mutable objects separately, you need to assign them individually.

after c = []; d = [] , c and d are guaranteed to refer to two different, unique, newly created empty lists. (Note that c = d = [] assigns the same object to both c and d .) 3. Data model — Python 3.11.3 documentation

You can also use copy() or deepcopy() from the copy module to make shallow and deep copies. See the following article.

  • Shallow and deep copy in Python: copy(), deepcopy()

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Mastering Multiple Variable Assignment in Python

Python's ability to assign multiple variables in a single line is a feature that exemplifies the language's emphasis on readability and efficiency. In this detailed blog post, we'll explore the nuances of assigning multiple variables in Python, a technique that not only simplifies code but also enhances its readability and maintainability.

Introduction to Multiple Variable Assignment

Python allows the assignment of multiple variables simultaneously. This feature is not only a syntactic sugar but a powerful tool that can make your code more Pythonic.

What is Multiple Variable Assignment?

  • Simultaneous Assignment : Python enables the initialization of several variables in a single line, thereby reducing the number of lines of code and making it more readable.
  • Versatility : This feature can be used with various data types and is particularly useful for unpacking sequences.

Basic Multiple Variable Assignment

The simplest form of multiple variable assignment in Python involves assigning single values to multiple variables in one line.

Syntax and Examples

Parallel Assignment : Assign values to several variables in parallel.

  • Clarity and Brevity : This form of assignment is clear and concise.
  • Efficiency : Reduces the need for multiple lines when initializing several variables.

Unpacking Sequences into Variables

Python takes multiple variable assignment a step further with unpacking, allowing the assignment of sequences to individual variables.

Unpacking Lists and Tuples

Direct Unpacking : If you have a list or tuple, you can unpack its elements into individual variables.

Unpacking Strings

Character Assignment : You can also unpack strings into variables with each character assigned to one variable.

Using Underscore for Unwanted Values

When unpacking, you may not always need all the values. Python allows the use of the underscore ( _ ) as a placeholder for unwanted values.

Ignoring Unnecessary Values

Discarding Values : Use _ for values you don't intend to use.

Swapping Variables Efficiently

Multiple variable assignment can be used for an elegant and efficient way to swap the values of two variables.

Swapping Variables

No Temporary Variable Needed : Swap values without the need for an additional temporary variable.

Advanced Unpacking Techniques

Python provides even more advanced ways to handle multiple variable assignments, especially useful with longer sequences.

Extended Unpacking

Using Asterisk ( * ): Python 3 introduced a syntax for extended unpacking where you can use * to collect multiple values.

Best Practices and Common Pitfalls

While multiple variable assignment is a powerful feature, it should be used judiciously.

  • Readability : Ensure that your use of multiple variable assignments enhances, rather than detracts from, readability.
  • Matching Lengths : Be cautious of the sequence length. The number of elements must match the number of variables being assigned.

Multiple variable assignment in Python is a testament to the language’s design philosophy of simplicity and elegance. By understanding and effectively utilizing this feature, you can write more concise, readable, and Pythonic code. Whether unpacking sequences or swapping values, multiple variable assignment is a technique that can significantly improve the efficiency of your Python programming.

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Python Numerical Methods

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This notebook contains an excerpt from the Python Programming and Numerical Methods - A Guide for Engineers and Scientists , the content is also available at Berkeley Python Numerical Methods .

The copyright of the book belongs to Elsevier. We also have this interactive book online for a better learning experience. The code is released under the MIT license . If you find this content useful, please consider supporting the work on Elsevier or Amazon !

< 2.0 Variables and Basic Data Structures | Contents | 2.2 Data Structure - Strings >

Variables and Assignment ¶

When programming, it is useful to be able to store information in variables. A variable is a string of characters and numbers associated with a piece of information. The assignment operator , denoted by the “=” symbol, is the operator that is used to assign values to variables in Python. The line x=1 takes the known value, 1, and assigns that value to the variable with name “x”. After executing this line, this number will be stored into this variable. Until the value is changed or the variable deleted, the character x behaves like the value 1.

TRY IT! Assign the value 2 to the variable y. Multiply y by 3 to show that it behaves like the value 2.

A variable is more like a container to store the data in the computer’s memory, the name of the variable tells the computer where to find this value in the memory. For now, it is sufficient to know that the notebook has its own memory space to store all the variables in the notebook. As a result of the previous example, you will see the variable “x” and “y” in the memory. You can view a list of all the variables in the notebook using the magic command %whos .

TRY IT! List all the variables in this notebook

Note that the equal sign in programming is not the same as a truth statement in mathematics. In math, the statement x = 2 declares the universal truth within the given framework, x is 2 . In programming, the statement x=2 means a known value is being associated with a variable name, store 2 in x. Although it is perfectly valid to say 1 = x in mathematics, assignments in Python always go left : meaning the value to the right of the equal sign is assigned to the variable on the left of the equal sign. Therefore, 1=x will generate an error in Python. The assignment operator is always last in the order of operations relative to mathematical, logical, and comparison operators.

TRY IT! The mathematical statement x=x+1 has no solution for any value of x . In programming, if we initialize the value of x to be 1, then the statement makes perfect sense. It means, “Add x and 1, which is 2, then assign that value to the variable x”. Note that this operation overwrites the previous value stored in x .

There are some restrictions on the names variables can take. Variables can only contain alphanumeric characters (letters and numbers) as well as underscores. However, the first character of a variable name must be a letter or underscores. Spaces within a variable name are not permitted, and the variable names are case-sensitive (e.g., x and X will be considered different variables).

TIP! Unlike in pure mathematics, variables in programming almost always represent something tangible. It may be the distance between two points in space or the number of rabbits in a population. Therefore, as your code becomes increasingly complicated, it is very important that your variables carry a name that can easily be associated with what they represent. For example, the distance between two points in space is better represented by the variable dist than x , and the number of rabbits in a population is better represented by nRabbits than y .

Note that when a variable is assigned, it has no memory of how it was assigned. That is, if the value of a variable, y , is constructed from other variables, like x , reassigning the value of x will not change the value of y .

EXAMPLE: What value will y have after the following lines of code are executed?

WARNING! You can overwrite variables or functions that have been stored in Python. For example, the command help = 2 will store the value 2 in the variable with name help . After this assignment help will behave like the value 2 instead of the function help . Therefore, you should always be careful not to give your variables the same name as built-in functions or values.

TIP! Now that you know how to assign variables, it is important that you learn to never leave unassigned commands. An unassigned command is an operation that has a result, but that result is not assigned to a variable. For example, you should never use 2+2 . You should instead assign it to some variable x=2+2 . This allows you to “hold on” to the results of previous commands and will make your interaction with Python must less confusing.

You can clear a variable from the notebook using the del function. Typing del x will clear the variable x from the workspace. If you want to remove all the variables in the notebook, you can use the magic command %reset .

In mathematics, variables are usually associated with unknown numbers; in programming, variables are associated with a value of a certain type. There are many data types that can be assigned to variables. A data type is a classification of the type of information that is being stored in a variable. The basic data types that you will utilize throughout this book are boolean, int, float, string, list, tuple, dictionary, set. A formal description of these data types is given in the following sections.

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Assign Values To Variables Direct Initialisation Method

How to assign values to variables in python.

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Harsh Pandey

Software Developer

Published on  Tue Mar 19 2024

Assigning values in Python to variables is a fundamental and straightforward process. This action forms the basis for storing and manipulating Python data. The various methods for assigning values to variables in Python are given below.

Assigning values to variables in Python using the Direct Initialization Method involves a simple, single-line statement. This method is essential for efficiently setting up variables with initial values.

To use this method, you directly assign the desired value to a variable. The format follows variable_name = value . For instance, age = 21 assigns the integer 21 to the variable age.

This method is not just limited to integers. For example, assigning a string to a variable would be name = "Alice" . An example of this implementation in Python is.

Python Variables – Assign Multiple Values

In Python, assigning multiple values to variables can be done in a single, efficient line of code. This feature streamlines the initializing of several variables at once, making the code more concise and readable.

Python allows you to assign values to multiple variables simultaneously by separating each variable and value with commas. For example, x , y, z = 1 , 2 , 3 simultaneously assigns 1 to x, 2 to y, and 3 to z.

Additionally, Python supports unpacking a collection of values into variables. For example, if you have a list values = [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] , you can assign these values to a, b, c by writing a , b , c = values .

Python’s capability to assign multiple values to multiple variables in a single line enhances code efficiency and clarity. This feature is applicable across various data types and includes unpacking collections into multiple variables, as shown in the examples.

Assign Values To Variables Using Conditional Operator

Assigning values to variables in Python using a conditional operator allows for more dynamic and flexible value assignments based on certain conditions. This method employs the ternary operator, a concise way to assign values based on a condition's truth value.

The syntax for using the conditional operator in Python follows the pattern: variable = value_if_ true if condition else value_if_ false . For example, status = 'Adult' if age >= 18 else 'Minor' assigns 'Adult' to status if age is 18 or more, and 'Minor' otherwise.

This method can also be used with more complex conditions and various data types. For example, you can assign different strings to a variable based on a numerical comparison

Using the conditional operator for variable assignment in Python enables more nuanced and condition-dependent variable initialization. It is particularly useful for creating readable one-liners that eliminate the need for longer if-else statements, as illustrated in the examples.

Python One Liner Conditional Statement Assigning

Python allows for one-liner conditional statements to assign values to variables, providing a compact and efficient way of handling conditional assignments. This approach utilizes the ternary operator for conditional expressions in a single line of code.

The ternary operator syntax in Python is variable = value_if_ true if condition else value_if_ false . For instance, message = 'High' if temperature > 20 else 'Low' assigns 'High' to message if temperature is greater than 20, and 'Low' otherwise.

This method can also be applied to more complex conditions.

Using one-liner conditional statements in Python for variable assignment streamlines the process, especially when dealing with simple conditions. It replaces the need for multi-line if-else statements, making the code more concise and readable.

Harsh Pandey

About the author

Software Developer adept in crafting efficient code and solving complex problems. Passionate about technology and continuous learning.

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Python One Line Conditional Assignment

Problem : How to perform one-line if conditional assignments in Python?

Example : Say, you start with the following code.

You want to set the value of x to 42 if boo is True , and do nothing otherwise.

Let’s dive into the different ways to accomplish this in Python. We start with an overview:

Exercise : Run the code. Are all outputs the same?

Next, you’ll dive into each of those methods and boost your one-liner superpower !

Method 1: Ternary Operator

The most basic ternary operator x if c else y returns expression x if the Boolean expression c evaluates to True . Otherwise, if the expression c evaluates to False , the ternary operator returns the alternative expression y .

Let’s go back to our example problem! You want to set the value of x to 42 if boo is True , and do nothing otherwise. Here’s how to do this in a single line:

While using the ternary operator works, you may wonder whether it’s possible to avoid the ...else x part for clarity of the code? In the next method, you’ll learn how!

If you need to improve your understanding of the ternary operator, watch the following video:

The Python Ternary Operator -- And a Surprising One-Liner Hack

You can also read the related article:

  • Python One Line Ternary

Method 2: Single-Line If Statement

Like in the previous method, you want to set the value of x to 42 if boo is True , and do nothing otherwise. But you don’t want to have a redundant else branch. How to do this in Python?

The solution to skip the else part of the ternary operator is surprisingly simple— use a standard if statement without else branch and write it into a single line of code :

To learn more about what you can pack into a single line, watch my tutorial video “If-Then-Else in One Line Python” :

If-Then-Else in One Line Python

Method 3: Ternary Tuple Syntax Hack

A shorthand form of the ternary operator is the following tuple syntax .

Syntax : You can use the tuple syntax (x, y)[c] consisting of a tuple (x, y) and a condition c enclosed in a square bracket. Here’s a more intuitive way to represent this tuple syntax.

In fact, the order of the <OnFalse> and <OnTrue> operands is just flipped when compared to the basic ternary operator. First, you have the branch that’s returned if the condition does NOT hold. Second, you run the branch that’s returned if the condition holds.

Clever! The condition boo holds so the return value passed into the x variable is the <OnTrue> branch 42 .

Don’t worry if this confuses you—you’re not alone. You can clarify the tuple syntax once and for all by studying my detailed blog article.

Related Article : Python Ternary — Tuple Syntax Hack

Python One-Liners Book: Master the Single Line First!

Python programmers will improve their computer science skills with these useful one-liners.

Python One-Liners will teach you how to read and write “one-liners”: concise statements of useful functionality packed into a single line of code. You’ll learn how to systematically unpack and understand any line of Python code, and write eloquent, powerfully compressed Python like an expert.

The book’s five chapters cover (1) tips and tricks, (2) regular expressions, (3) machine learning, (4) core data science topics, and (5) useful algorithms.

Detailed explanations of one-liners introduce key computer science concepts and boost your coding and analytical skills . You’ll learn about advanced Python features such as list comprehension , slicing , lambda functions , regular expressions , map and reduce functions, and slice assignments .

You’ll also learn how to:

  • Leverage data structures to solve real-world problems , like using Boolean indexing to find cities with above-average pollution
  • Use NumPy basics such as array , shape , axis , type , broadcasting , advanced indexing , slicing , sorting , searching , aggregating , and statistics
  • Calculate basic statistics of multidimensional data arrays and the K-Means algorithms for unsupervised learning
  • Create more advanced regular expressions using grouping and named groups , negative lookaheads , escaped characters , whitespaces, character sets (and negative characters sets ), and greedy/nongreedy operators
  • Understand a wide range of computer science topics , including anagrams , palindromes , supersets , permutations , factorials , prime numbers , Fibonacci numbers, obfuscation , searching , and algorithmic sorting

By the end of the book, you’ll know how to write Python at its most refined , and create concise, beautiful pieces of “Python art” in merely a single line.

Get your Python One-Liners on Amazon!!

While working as a researcher in distributed systems, Dr. Christian Mayer found his love for teaching computer science students.

To help students reach higher levels of Python success, he founded the programming education website Finxter.com that has taught exponential skills to millions of coders worldwide. He’s the author of the best-selling programming books Python One-Liners (NoStarch 2020), The Art of Clean Code (NoStarch 2022), and The Book of Dash (NoStarch 2022). Chris also coauthored the Coffee Break Python series of self-published books. He’s a computer science enthusiast, freelancer , and owner of one of the top 10 largest Python blogs worldwide.

His passions are writing, reading, and coding. But his greatest passion is to serve aspiring coders through Finxter and help them to boost their skills. You can join his free email academy here.

How to Write the Python if Statement in one Line

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Have you ever heard of writing a Python if statement in a single line? Here, we explore multiple ways to do exactly that, including using conditional expressions in Python.

The if statement is one of the most fundamental statements in Python. In this article, we learn how to write the Python if in one line.

The if is a key piece in writing Python code. It allows developers to control the flow and logic of their code based on information received at runtime. However, many Python developers do not know they may reduce the length and complexity of their if statements by writing them in a single line.

For this article, we assume you’re somewhat familiar with Python conditions and comparisons. If not, don’t worry! Our Python Basics Course will get you up to speed in no time. This course is included in the Python Basics Track , a full-fledged Python learning track designed for complete beginners.

We start with a recap on how Python if statements work. Then, we explore some examples of how to write if statements in a single line. Let’s get started!

How the if Statement Works in Python

Let’s start with the basics. An if statement in Python is used to determine whether a condition is True or False . This information can then be used to perform specific actions in the code, essentially controlling its logic during execution.

The structure of the basic if statement is as follows:

The <expression> is the code that evaluates to either True or False . If this code evaluates to True, then the code below (represented by <perform_action> ) executes.

Python uses whitespaces to indicate which lines are controlled by the if statement. The if statement controls all indented lines below it. Typically, the indentation is set to four spaces (read this post if you’re having trouble with the indentation ).

As a simple example, the code below prints a message if and only if the current weather is sunny:

The if statement in Python has two optional components: the elif statement, which executes only if the preceding if/elif statements are False ; and the else statement, which executes only if all of the preceding if/elif statements are False. While we may have as many elif statements as we want, we may only have a single else statement at the very end of the code block.

Here’s the basic structure:

Here’s how our previous example looks after adding elif and else statements. Change the value of the weather variable to see a different message printed:

How to Write a Python if in one Line

Writing an if statement in Python (along with the optional elif and else statements) uses a lot of whitespaces. Some people may find it confusing or tiresome to follow each statement and its corresponding indented lines.

To overcome this, there is a trick many Python developers often overlook: write an if statement in a single line !

Though not the standard, Python does allow us to write an if statement and its associated action in the same line. Here’s the basic structure:

As you can see, not much has changed. We simply need to “pull” the indented line <perform_action> up to the right of the colon character ( : ). It’s that simple!

Let’s check it with a real example. The code below works as it did previously despite the if statement being in a single line. Test it out and see for yourself:

Writing a Python if Statement With Multiple Actions in one Line

That’s all well and good, but what if my if statement has multiple actions under its control? When using the standard indentation, we separate different actions in multiple indented lines as the structure below shows:

Can we do this in a single line? The surprising answer is yes! We use semicolons to separate each action in the same line as if placed in different lines.

Here’s how the structure looks:

And an example of this functionality:

Have you noticed how each call to the print() function appears in its own line? This indicates we have successfully executed multiple actions from a single line. Nice!

By the way, interested in learning more about the print() function? We have an article on the ins and outs of the print() function .

Writing a Full Python if/elif/else Block Using Single Lines

You may have seen this coming, but we can even write elif and else statements each in a single line. To do so, we use the same syntax as writing an if statement in a single line.

Here’s the general structure:

Looks simple, right? Depending on the content of your expressions and actions, you may find this structure easier to read and understand compared to the indented blocks.

Here’s our previous example of a full if/elif/else block, rewritten as single lines:

Using Python Conditional Expressions to Write an if/else Block in one Line

There’s still a final trick to writing a Python if in one line. Conditional expressions in Python (also known as Python ternary operators) can run an if/else block in a single line.

A conditional expression is even more compact! Remember it took at least two lines to write a block containing both if and else statements in our last example.

In contrast, here’s how a conditional expression is structured:

The syntax is somewhat harder to follow at first, but the basic idea is that <expression> is a test. If the test evaluates to True , then <value_if_true> is the result. Otherwise, the expression results in <value_if_false> .

As you can see, conditional expressions always evaluate to a single value in the end. They are not complete replacements for an if/elif/else block. In fact, we cannot have elif statements in them at all. However, they’re most helpful when determining a single value depending on a single condition.

Take a look at the code below, which determines the value of is_baby depending on whether or not the age is below five:

This is the exact use case for a conditional expression! Here’s how we rewrite this if/else block in a single line:

Much simpler!

Go Even Further With Python!

We hope you now know many ways to write a Python if in one line. We’ve reached the end of the article, but don’t stop practicing now!

If you do not know where to go next, read this post on how to get beyond the basics in Python . If you’d rather get technical, we have a post on the best code editors and IDEs for Python . Remember to keep improving!

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Python Operators

Precedence and associativity of operators in python.

  • Python Arithmetic Operators
  • Difference between / vs. // operator in Python
  • Python - Star or Asterisk operator ( * )
  • What does the Double Star operator mean in Python?
  • Division Operators in Python
  • Modulo operator (%) in Python
  • Python Logical Operators
  • Python OR Operator
  • Difference between 'and' and '&' in Python
  • not Operator in Python | Boolean Logic

Ternary Operator in Python

  • Python Bitwise Operators

Python Assignment Operators

Assignment operators in python.

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  • Merging and Updating Dictionary Operators in Python 3.9
  • New '=' Operator in Python3.8 f-string

Python Relational Operators

  • Comparison Operators in Python
  • Python NOT EQUAL operator
  • Difference between == and is operator in Python
  • Chaining comparison operators in Python
  • Python Membership and Identity Operators
  • Difference between != and is not operator in Python

In Python programming, Operators in general are used to perform operations on values and variables. These are standard symbols used for logical and arithmetic operations. In this article, we will look into different types of Python operators. 

  • OPERATORS: These are the special symbols. Eg- + , * , /, etc.
  • OPERAND: It is the value on which the operator is applied.

Types of Operators in Python

  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Comparison Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Bitwise Operators
  • Assignment Operators
  • Identity Operators and Membership Operators

Python Operators

Arithmetic Operators in Python

Python Arithmetic operators are used to perform basic mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication , and division .

In Python 3.x the result of division is a floating-point while in Python 2.x division of 2 integers was an integer. To obtain an integer result in Python 3.x floored (// integer) is used.

Example of Arithmetic Operators in Python

Division operators.

In Python programming language Division Operators allow you to divide two numbers and return a quotient, i.e., the first number or number at the left is divided by the second number or number at the right and returns the quotient. 

There are two types of division operators: 

Float division

  • Floor division

The quotient returned by this operator is always a float number, no matter if two numbers are integers. For example:

Example: The code performs division operations and prints the results. It demonstrates that both integer and floating-point divisions return accurate results. For example, ’10/2′ results in ‘5.0’ , and ‘-10/2’ results in ‘-5.0’ .

Integer division( Floor division)

The quotient returned by this operator is dependent on the argument being passed. If any of the numbers is float, it returns output in float. It is also known as Floor division because, if any number is negative, then the output will be floored. For example:

Example: The code demonstrates integer (floor) division operations using the // in Python operators . It provides results as follows: ’10//3′ equals ‘3’ , ‘-5//2’ equals ‘-3’ , ‘ 5.0//2′ equals ‘2.0’ , and ‘-5.0//2’ equals ‘-3.0’ . Integer division returns the largest integer less than or equal to the division result.

Precedence of Arithmetic Operators in Python

The precedence of Arithmetic Operators in Python is as follows:

  • P – Parentheses
  • E – Exponentiation
  • M – Multiplication (Multiplication and division have the same precedence)
  • D – Division
  • A – Addition (Addition and subtraction have the same precedence)
  • S – Subtraction

The modulus of Python operators helps us extract the last digit/s of a number. For example:

  • x % 10 -> yields the last digit
  • x % 100 -> yield last two digits

Arithmetic Operators With Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Modulo and Power

Here is an example showing how different Arithmetic Operators in Python work:

Example: The code performs basic arithmetic operations with the values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ . It adds (‘+’) , subtracts (‘-‘) , multiplies (‘*’) , computes the remainder (‘%’) , and raises a to the power of ‘b (**)’ . The results of these operations are printed.

Note: Refer to Differences between / and // for some interesting facts about these two Python operators.

Comparison of Python Operators

In Python Comparison of Relational operators compares the values. It either returns True or False according to the condition.

= is an assignment operator and == comparison operator.

Precedence of Comparison Operators in Python

In Python, the comparison operators have lower precedence than the arithmetic operators. All the operators within comparison operators have the same precedence order.

Example of Comparison Operators in Python

Let’s see an example of Comparison Operators in Python.

Example: The code compares the values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ using various comparison Python operators and prints the results. It checks if ‘a’ is greater than, less than, equal to, not equal to, greater than, or equal to, and less than or equal to ‘b’ .

Logical Operators in Python

Python Logical operators perform Logical AND , Logical OR , and Logical NOT operations. It is used to combine conditional statements.

Precedence of Logical Operators in Python

The precedence of Logical Operators in Python is as follows:

  • Logical not
  • logical and

Example of Logical Operators in Python

The following code shows how to implement Logical Operators in Python:

Example: The code performs logical operations with Boolean values. It checks if both ‘a’ and ‘b’ are true ( ‘and’ ), if at least one of them is true ( ‘or’ ), and negates the value of ‘a’ using ‘not’ . The results are printed accordingly.

Bitwise Operators in Python

Python Bitwise operators act on bits and perform bit-by-bit operations. These are used to operate on binary numbers.

Precedence of Bitwise Operators in Python

The precedence of Bitwise Operators in Python is as follows:

  • Bitwise NOT
  • Bitwise Shift
  • Bitwise AND
  • Bitwise XOR

Here is an example showing how Bitwise Operators in Python work:

Example: The code demonstrates various bitwise operations with the values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ . It performs bitwise AND (&) , OR (|) , NOT (~) , XOR (^) , right shift (>>) , and left shift (<<) operations and prints the results. These operations manipulate the binary representations of the numbers.

Python Assignment operators are used to assign values to the variables.

Let’s see an example of Assignment Operators in Python.

Example: The code starts with ‘a’ and ‘b’ both having the value 10. It then performs a series of operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and a left shift operation on ‘b’ . The results of each operation are printed, showing the impact of these operations on the value of ‘b’ .

Identity Operators in Python

In Python, is and is not are the identity operators both are used to check if two values are located on the same part of the memory. Two variables that are equal do not imply that they are identical. 

Example Identity Operators in Python

Let’s see an example of Identity Operators in Python.

Example: The code uses identity operators to compare variables in Python. It checks if ‘a’ is not the same object as ‘b’ (which is true because they have different values) and if ‘a’ is the same object as ‘c’ (which is true because ‘c’ was assigned the value of ‘a’ ).

Membership Operators in Python

In Python, in and not in are the membership operators that are used to test whether a value or variable is in a sequence.

Examples of Membership Operators in Python

The following code shows how to implement Membership Operators in Python:

Example: The code checks for the presence of values ‘x’ and ‘y’ in the list. It prints whether or not each value is present in the list. ‘x’ is not in the list, and ‘y’ is present, as indicated by the printed messages. The code uses the ‘in’ and ‘not in’ Python operators to perform these checks.

in Python, Ternary operators also known as conditional expressions are operators that evaluate something based on a condition being true or false. It was added to Python in version 2.5. 

It simply allows testing a condition in a single line replacing the multiline if-else making the code compact.

Syntax :   [on_true] if [expression] else [on_false] 

Examples of Ternary Operator in Python

The code assigns values to variables ‘a’ and ‘b’ (10 and 20, respectively). It then uses a conditional assignment to determine the smaller of the two values and assigns it to the variable ‘min’ . Finally, it prints the value of ‘min’ , which is 10 in this case.

In Python, Operator precedence and associativity determine the priorities of the operator.

Operator Precedence in Python

This is used in an expression with more than one operator with different precedence to determine which operation to perform first.

Let’s see an example of how Operator Precedence in Python works:

Example: The code first calculates and prints the value of the expression 10 + 20 * 30 , which is 610. Then, it checks a condition based on the values of the ‘name’ and ‘age’ variables. Since the name is “ Alex” and the condition is satisfied using the or operator, it prints “Hello! Welcome.”

Operator Associativity in Python

If an expression contains two or more operators with the same precedence then Operator Associativity is used to determine. It can either be Left to Right or from Right to Left.

The following code shows how Operator Associativity in Python works:

Example: The code showcases various mathematical operations. It calculates and prints the results of division and multiplication, addition and subtraction, subtraction within parentheses, and exponentiation. The code illustrates different mathematical calculations and their outcomes.

To try your knowledge of Python Operators, you can take out the quiz on Operators in Python . 

Python Operator Exercise Questions

Below are two Exercise Questions on Python Operators. We have covered arithmetic operators and comparison operators in these exercise questions. For more exercises on Python Operators visit the page mentioned below.

Q1. Code to implement basic arithmetic operations on integers

Q2. Code to implement Comparison operations on integers

Explore more Exercises: Practice Exercise on Operators in Python

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Proposal: Annotate types in multiple assignment

In the latest version of Python (3.12.3), type annotation for single variable assignment is available:

However, in some scenarios like when we want to annotate the tuple of variables in return, the syntax of type annotation is invalid:

In this case, I propose two new syntaxes to support this feature:

  • Annotate directly after each variable:
  • Annotate the tuple of return:

In other programming languages, as I know, Julia and Rust support this feature in there approaches:

I’m pretty sure this has already been suggested. Did you go through the mailing list and searched for topics here? Without doing that, there’s nothing to discuss here. (Besides linking to them).

Secondly, try to not edit posts, but post a followup. Some people read these topics in mailing list mode and don’t see your edits.

  • https://mail.python.org
  • https://mail.python.org/archives

:slight_smile:

For reference, PEP 526 has a note about this in the “Rejected/Postponed Proposals” section:

Allow type annotations for tuple unpacking: This causes ambiguity: it’s not clear what this statement means: x, y: T Are x and y both of type T , or do we expect T to be a tuple type of two items that are distributed over x and y , or perhaps x has type Any and y has type T ? (The latter is what this would mean if this occurred in a function signature.) Rather than leave the (human) reader guessing, we forbid this, at least for now.

Personally I think the meaning of this is rather clear, especially when combined with an assignment, and I would like to see this.

Thank you for your valuable response, both regarding the discussion convention for Python development and the history of this feature.

I have found a related topic here: https://mail.python.org/archives/list/[email protected]/thread/5NZNHBDWK6EP67HSK4VNDTZNIVUOXMRS/

Here’s the part I find unconvincing:

Under what circumstances will fun() be hard to annotate, but a, b will be easy?

It’s better to annotate function arguments and return values, not variables. The preferred scenario is that fun() has a well-defined return type, and the type of a, b can be inferred (there is no reason to annotate it). This idea is presupposing there are cases where that’s difficult, but I’d like to see some examples where that applies.

Does this not work?

You don’t need from __future__ as of… 3.9, I think?

:confused:

3.10 if you want A | B too: PEP 604 , although I’m not sure which version the OP is using and 3.9 hasn’t reached end of life yet.

We can’t always infer it, so annotating a variable is sometimes necessary or useful. But if the function’s return type is annotated then a, b = fun() allows type-checkers to infer the types of a and b . This stuff isn’t built in to Python and is evolving as typing changes, so what was inferred in the past might be better in the future.

So my question above was: are there any scenarios where annotating the function is difficult, but annotating the results would be easy? That seems like the motivating use case.

Would it be a solution to put it on the line above? And not allow assigning on the same line? Then it better mirrors function definitions.

It’s a long thread, so it might have been suggested already.

Actually, in cases where the called function differs from the user-defined function, we should declare the types when assignment unpacking.

Here is a simplified MWE:

NOTE: In PyTorch, the __call__ function is internally wrapped from forward .

Can’t you write this? That’s shorter than writing the type annotations.

This is the kind of example I was asking for, thanks. Is the problem that typing tools don’t trace the return type through the call because the wrapping isn’t in python?

I still suggest to read the thread you linked, like I’m doing right now.

The __call__ function is not the same as forward . There might be many other preprocessing and postprocessing steps involved inside it.

Yeah, quite a bit of pre-processing in fact… unless you don’t have hooks by the looks of it:

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