Quality Education in the Philippines

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A. Overview What is good quality education? What is the use of this to our daily lives? What will the effects be on our future? These are but just a few questions that run through our mind when we think of what education is. Education, for many, is the forefront in building our future; it gives us the power of knowledge that helps us cope up with the different steps in our lives. Some think of it as a mere process to gain access to monetary security and better life, but this is not mere education should be.

It is one of the most powerful instruments for reducing poverty and inequality and lays a foundation for sustained economic growth. ” (2008) In my own words, education is merely a step to make us grow in all aspects of life, but useless without the proper guidance provided by the teachers and administrators and the given teaching aids used today. Good Quality education is a given name to those that have the complete or necessary requirements in having a good atmosphere for learning and proper growth.

Schools should have the goal to achieve this good quality education and garner more merits and more students. They should teach them by teaching them sing the new and effective methods rather than what we see in the old days. Education is not necessarily good at first, it takes years of service and practice to achieve this kind of excellence just as UST surpassed other institutions in this field.

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The effects of this kind of education can be seen through their fine work on students and the respect and love that they give on each one. It is through this kind of education that spawns great men of the past.

This will lead us to more lucrative jobs and better lives. This will determine our fate in this cruel world. “Education makes man a right thinker. It tells man how to think and how to make decision” Khan (2008). Teachers are the drivers of this future that we want. We can see their fruits of labor on the people that they have produced. One such example is Jose Rizal; he did not like the quality of education in the Philippines that is why he went abroad. He garnered intellectual fame through his wit and possession of good quality education.

So now I ask you, is education really only for those who want the finer things in life or is it also about the knowledge that we receive? This will now depend on the basis of our foundation as human people. I believe that to attain good quality education: we must push through the very thought of money and consider the power of knowledge, for if there is n power, then there will certainly be no knowledge. ”The modern world in which we live is often termed a “knowledge society”; education and information have become production factors potentially more valuable than labor and capital” (2008).

B. Research Aims This paper aims to: 1. discuss the reasons why we are lacking in teachers 2. discuss the similarity and difference of public from private schools 3. discuss the difference of a normal college program from a ladderized program 4. discuss ways on how to promote values, peace, and order inside the classroom 5. discuss how to make the class active through proper motivation C. Research Questions The proponent intends to provide answers to the following questions: 1.

Why are we lacking in teachers? 2. What are the similarities of public and private schools? 3. What are the differences of public and private schools? 4. How to promote effectively values, peace, and order inside a classroom? 5. How is motivation a key to having an active class? 6. What is a Ladderized program? 7. What is its difference with the normal college educational program? CHAPTER 2 METHODS A. Principle/s of Organization Cause and effect Is a form of analysis that examines the causes and consequences of events and ideas.

An organizational structure of text in which there is a description of events and their causes or consequences. Explanation: The author used the principle of cause and effect to give out reasons on why promoting values and motivating students will increase their perception in studying. The author also wants to express the possible effects if the teachers and parents will help in enhancing the skill of the child in his/ her aspect. Comparison and Contrast An organizational structure of text in which a description of similarities and differences among two or more things occurs.

Explanation: The author used the principle of comparison and contrast to differentiate the two Philippine college educational programs which are the normal and the ladderized program. By giving their differences and similarities the author achieved part of his paper which is to differentiate the two educational systems. B. Conceptual Framework Explanation: The author shows in this simple diagram what he points out on this paper. These topics will be discussed in this paper. The origination and development of the Philippine education system since many do not know where it began.

The differences between the two modern programs, the normal and the ladderized because some students are confused on the two programs since the ladderized program was just adapted by the Philippines on the year 2006. Motivating students can lead to many effects according to (Calderon, 1998) there are several definitions of motivation but they all amount to the arousal of interests that directs the learning towards a goal. ” The transformation of students takes place in school since it is where a student mainly spends his time.

This paper will discuss these topics to answer the questions given and to achieve the aim to discuss the quality education in the Philippines. CHAPTER 3 RELATED READINGS Start of Education in the Philippines When did it start? When was it developed? These are but a few of the question that run into one’s mind. It all started in ancient Philippines. The start of education was the use of Alibata, or otherwise known as the Tagalog script. The Pre-Spanish Philippine era already started with Education in writing in which resulted to the development of the Alibata.

This writing system was used by the ancient Filipinos in order to communicate with each other. When the Spaniards first set foot on the Philippine Island they saw that the use of the Tagalog script was their main form of communication and that the use of bamboo as papers and knives or styli as a pen or pencil. When the Spaniards conquered Philippines the writing system of Alibata was replaced by formal education system in Universities run by Spanish priests. Though until now in some parts of our country that the writing system of Alibata is still being used.

Modern Philippine Education Today our education has two programs offered a normal school program which is a straight education from elementary to college and another one is the ladderized program in which in college you will two years in technical and vocational schools and another one to three years(depending on your choice of course) as your college program. Ladderized program helps to ease the students in getting a college diploma that according to (Syjuco)” You start with tech-voc modules and thereafter will require much less college courses to earn a college diploma. In a normal educational program you will start from elementary to high school covering about twelve years and then taking up a course of your choice which will take about four-five years straight. The difference between them is that in a ladderized program you will need to have a two year technical vocational educational course before you can go to college to finish your chosen course while in a normal educational program you will just have to finish a four or five year course straight. Importance of Teachers

Today many of our schools are lacking of highly capable teachers, since most prefer to go abroad and continue their profession in other countries as a result we lack in instructors that can guide students to the right path. Many of today’s students choose education as a last choice of course for some say that it only has a low pay, but we only look at education in the technical or in the monetary side why not look at a different side? Our teachers are the ones responsible to help the parents of their students guide them to be a well educated and highly respectable citizen.

However, if a student becomes successful but does not have any values at all then his success means nothing if he or she cannot promote values. Our teachers play this important role in a child’s life so if a school lacks its teachers then a student cannot be properly taught then he or she cannot gain any success. These are but a few effects that are happening due to our lack of teachers. So we can see that teachers have the most important job of all which is to prepare them for the challenges of life.

According to Manapat (2008), “Whenever they hear one of their students achieve something, they always feel that they are part of it. ” Schools as Centers for Transformation Our education is slowly decreasing in its quality why? It is because of one simple reason, corruption. Our government has already planned a large amount for education but since some officials are corrupt that a big part of the money needed is inside their pockets. Now our schools are responsible to help the country to prevent these situations. Students are taught with values that will help them in future life.

According to (Clemente, 1996), “Schools can be the vehicle for the peaceful revolution to bring about a better Philippines. ” Our schools should be promoting peace and order to their campuses and help in stopping the hindrances for the students to learn and be active. Hindrances like unrecognized organizations, vices, and the likes are disadvantageous to a child’s learning for it may help in promoting the wrong values. A result of these may occur in the future wherein the child becomes a worker or an adult and due to his wrong values that he may not at all succeed in life.

Every teacher always say that no matter how much you have forgotten the lessons taught it is fine but forgetting the values learned is not acceptable. Values learned at school are what make a person who he or she is. Everyday our teachers are preparing lesson plans so when they discuss they can also relate it to real life situations and explain the values that can be learned through it. According to Manapat (2008), “Knowledge or intelligence is second than spirituality, one cannot be very intelligent and yet have lost track of his/ her spirit. Promoting discipline into a child can help change its behavior in class, at school and even anywhere else. According to Manapat (2008), “A disciplined student can face the challenges of life and succeed. ” Student Motivation A student whenever achieves anything a teacher will always be a part of it. Teachers should never discourage their students in having an interest in extraordinary things, for this may be an opportunity for the child to excel in this aspect. A parent should also not discourage their child in having a crush or entering a relationship since this is where their child gets their inspiration.

A teacher also needs an inspiration for teaching is not a very easy job. A teacher can help the parent of their student to develop the child into a responsible adult through proper motivation. According to Manapat (2008), “The students need to inspire their teachers because teachers also need to know whether or not they are able to give them quality education through their teaching. ” Motivating a student can help him/ her to develop in a certain aspect and also motivating the teacher can help to give more meaningful discussions.

A possible example of this would be if the student achieves success in sports a teacher should credit their student’s success since it can help the student to excel more on sports and possibly become a professional athlete in the future. So if both the teachers and the parents would cooperate the child can develop its potential and may become successful in life. Public and Private Schools Public Schools differ in size of school, teaching, uniform, facilities and others. During the old times they say that public schools are better than private schools that according to Cruz (2007) “All the bright students went o public schools. Why a private school when the public school was free and had a better reputation? Those in private schools went there by force of circumstance. ” Today, private schools are better than public schools since they are more advanced in curriculum than in public schools. Both public and private schools are doing their own way to give their students the quality education they deserve. This is through the PAASCU accreditation. If a school passes the accreditation they will be given levels of which level 1 being the first and level four being the highest.

According to PAASCU (2008) “PAASCU judges an institution not by comparison with other institutions but primarily by the degree to which each institution’s own avowed purposes are matched by actual practice in the various areas being evaluated. ” Public and private schools only differ in their physical appearances but in same in their goals and objectives both for the school and the student. CHAPTER 4 PROPOSITIONS These are the statements that the author has learned throughout his research work. These came from the author and not elsewhere.

These are the facts based from his interview, materials, readings and sources: Proposition 1: Discipline is key to success. Discipline is key to a man’s success because no man can face challenges if he is not disciplined. If he will be disciplined then he can make his own way into his success. He can choose what will be best for him. According to Manapat (2008), “Disciplined students can face the challenges of life. ” Proposition 2: We always need to connect God and knowledge. According to Manapat (2008), “We can never be knowledgeable and yet we lost track of our spiritual life”.

God created everything and we owe Him our knowledge. God is the one who guides us in our life and helps us in gaining new knowledge. Proposition 3: Teachers are always part of our success. We must always remember that if not for the teachings of our dear mentors then we would not have achieved success in life. Teachers have become a part of our lives since they patiently taught us the values that we learn. We make a special connection with them not only as our teachers but also as our friend in life. Proposition 4: Teachers also need the inspiration of their students.

If teachers see their students having high marks then they are motivated to work. Teachers improve their style of teaching based on their students’ capabilities. They can give their students their best performance if they know that they are motivated to gain new knowledge. Proposition 5: A teacher won’t give up their job no matter how hard it may be. A teacher will never give up their love for teaching. Our teachers will patiently guide us even if we are a slow learner until we got our momentum at studying. They are with us from the beginning up to the end.

Proposition 6: There are no challenges that are hard if we are guided by God and we are disciplined. Challenges are part of life but if we are disciplined, we can always face them. Discipline helps us to be prepared in facing life’s challenges. If God guides us then we can make the right decisions that can help us develop our life. Proposition 7: Years of experience can help a teacher in giving a quality education. Every year as we progress in life, our knowledge also increases. Teachers who have years of experience can help their students in developing techniques in solving problems.

They can use their experiences in their approach to the students in tackling the lesson. Proposition 8: Motivated students can perform differently than others. Students who are motivated can perform better in class. A student can achieve more in life through motivation. Through this that they can excel and be disciplined in their studies therefore helping them prepare for their future life. Proposition 9: Philippines lack highly capable teachers. Our country is having a hard time in adapting and coping up with the educational system of the other countries why?

It is simply because we lack the teachers who are capable of giving quality education. Many students who are scholars after finishing college, they will go to other countries and practice their profession there and not serve the Philippines. According to Salamat (2006), “With their low wages unable to keep up with the rising cost of living, more and more teachers leave the country to get a higher pay teaching in the U. S. ” Proposition 10: Teachers and parents cooperate to help the child develop its potential. They both help us in developing our otentials through their support. It is their duty to help us grow but it is also our duty to help them help us to reach our potentials. Reaching our full potentials can help us in having our future secured. Teachers alongside with parents help each other in knowing the child’s performance. “A good parent-teacher relationship can be the difference between knowing how your child’s doing in school and knowing how he tells you he’s doing. ”(2009) Proposition 11: A peaceful and orderly environment can help a child develop his values.

A school’s environment is a very important factor in developing values. These values can help them in life, since by knowing and promoting it that one can earn respect. An environment with peace and order will be able to stop the hindrances for the students to receive their educational right. Proposition 12: Ladderized program can help a student get to college easier. A ladderized program is just having a two year technical vocational course then a two-four year course, again depending on your chosen course, as a continuation for your college.

This program has just been adapted by our country last 2006. This program also helps a student to take up college at a low tuition fee. Proposition 13: Parents guiding their children can help them get better performance. A student can perform better if they will be guided by their parents more. It is like a parent looking up for their children while they are growing. A parent should not be too confident that their child is getting enough guidance from their schools. A parent should also guide their child to help them decide on important matters and to help deepen their relationship.

According to Sanders (2008) “Increase the 1-to-1 support your child receives with personal career and education guidance to help your child sort through his/her best-fit choices. ” CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS A. Summary of Main Points The author learned through his research that major factors contribute in determining the quality of education that the Philippines give. One is the low salary of teachers that they tend to migrate to other countries to get better payment. Teachers should be given higher wages since they have the most important job of all which is to guide and help the students in their life.

Another is the school environment if the environment of the school is inappropriate then it will greatly affect the performance of the student. Students will never grow in their studies or will never be molded into their true potential. This is due to their school’s environment; if it is not suitable in learning then the students will not be able to learn what they will need to use in their lives. Students are having difficulties choosing the right school since they will have to choose the standards, the environment, and other criteria.

The country’s educational system is giving students two choices in college; one is to continue in their normal college program or to be in a ladderized program. Being in a ladderized program makes a student enter into a two year technical vocational course then one to three years, which will depend on your course, will be your final college degree. The students need to be guided to know their preferences because knowing their preference can help them grow in their chosen career. The students need to be motivated not only by their teachers but also their parents since they can be able to perform better.

Students are not the only one who needs to be inspired and motivated, teachers also need to be inspired and motivated so that they can also perform their best in their class. Students will be receiving more quality lessons if teachers are at their best. Private schools are not the only ones who should give their students quality education. Even in a public school, teachers should be giving their students high standards in teaching. Students can always perform better if they are motivated, guided, and given their lessons accurately. B. Recommendation After series of research the proponent recommends, . Higher salary of teachers. Teachers should also be given importance for they have the hardest job of all. They leave our country because they believe that they can get more money so the students in other countries can receive the quality education that should have been given to students in our country. Teachers are working not only because it is their job but it is their life. 2. Motivate students to perform better. Students’ performances are judged by their grades, activities, and other co-curricular activities. They perform their best when they are inspired and reaching a goal.

They need to be guided by their teachers and parents so they will know how to transfer their motivation positively and in a way that it can help them to perform better in class. 3. Have a clear connection with the teacher of your child. Parents having a clear connection or relating with their child’s teachers and guidance counselors can help them know on how their child’s saying they are performing than what their teachers are saying. Co-relating with your child’s teachers and guidance counselors can help inform you of what your child’s behavior is while at school. . Giving discipline to students can help them in life. Discipline is one major key to success. It is through this that they can concentrate more and focus more on their goals and therefore achieving it. A disciplined student is different from a student who does nothing. A disciplined student performs better in class and other activities because he can focus but a student who does nothing can reach nothing. 5. Schools should fix their facilities and environment. A student can focus more on his studies if his environment is suitable for learning.

The school’s environment and facilities plays a major role in the quality of education that they can give. Since it can help the students to do better in class and to use the different facilities to gather knowledge and learn. BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www. gov. ph/news/default. asp? i=15637 (January 27, 2009) www. alibata. ph (January 27, 2009) http://web. worldbank. org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTEDUCATION/0,,menuPK:282391~pagePK:149018~piPK:149093~theSitePK:282386,00. html (February 15, 2009) Clemente, A. (1996). Philippines Into the 21st Century: Quezon City: Valeria Publishing House www. alrisala. rg/Articles/mailing_list/importance_of_education. html (February 10, 2009) Cruz, Neal. “Public schools used to be better than private schools” Philippine Daily Inquirer. February 4, 2007 Meinardus, Ronald. “The Crisis of Philippine Education in the Philippines” Business World Internet Edition. June 30, 2003 Calderon, Jose. Foundations of Education: Manila, Philippines: Rex Printing Company ———————– Student Transformation Development Origination Student Motivation Inspiration Moral Support Values Peace and order Ladderized Normal Educational Programs Philippine Education Skill Enhancement

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Quality Education in the Philippines


Essay on Education System In The Philippines

Students are often asked to write an essay on Education System In The Philippines in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Education System In The Philippines

The philippine education structure.

The education system in the Philippines is divided into three levels. These are the elementary level, the secondary level, and the tertiary level. The system is overseen by the Department of Education for basic education, and the Commission on Higher Education for college and university education.

Elementary Education

Elementary education in the Philippines is compulsory. It lasts for six years, starting at age six. The goal of this stage is to teach basic literacy, numeracy, and knowledge about the world. The curriculum includes subjects like Math, Science, English, Filipino, and Social Studies.

Secondary Education

Secondary education in the Philippines is divided into two parts: Junior High School (Grade 7-10) and Senior High School (Grade 11-12). These years prepare students for the next stage of their education or for work. They study a range of subjects, including electives based on their interests.

Tertiary Education

Tertiary education in the Philippines includes undergraduate and postgraduate studies. Students can choose from a wide range of courses. This stage is not compulsory but is important for those who want to pursue professional careers. The quality of tertiary education varies from institution to institution.

Challenges and Reforms

The Philippine education system faces challenges like lack of resources and overcrowded classrooms. To address these, the government introduced the K-12 program in 2013. This extended basic education to 13 years and aimed to improve the quality of education. The success of these reforms is still being evaluated.

250 Words Essay on Education System In The Philippines

The education system in the Philippines is managed by the Department of Education. It is split into three levels: elementary, secondary, and tertiary. Students start school at the age of 5 or 6. They spend six years in elementary school and four years in high school. After high school, they can choose to go to college for further studies.

Elementary education is the first step. It starts with kindergarten for children aged 5 or 6. This is followed by six years of primary education where students learn basic skills like reading, writing, and math.

High School Education

After completing elementary education, students move on to high school. This is a four-year program where they learn more advanced subjects. After high school, students can choose whether to go to college or start working.

College Education

College education is optional in the Philippines. Students who choose to go to college can study for a bachelor’s degree, which usually takes four years. They can also choose to study for a master’s or doctoral degree after that.

Quality of Education

The quality of education in the Philippines is improving. The government is working hard to make sure all children can go to school. They are also trying to improve the quality of teaching and learning in schools.

In conclusion, the education system in the Philippines is structured and comprehensive, aiming to provide quality education to all its students. This system, though facing challenges, is continually improving to ensure a bright future for the youth of the country.

500 Words Essay on Education System In The Philippines


The education system in the Philippines is unique and has evolved over many years. It is known for its strong emphasis on basic education, which is made up of six years of elementary school and four years of high school. In 2013, the K-12 program was introduced, adding two more years to the high school curriculum.

Structure of the Education System

The Philippine education system is divided into three levels. The first level is the elementary or primary level, which lasts for six years. Children usually start school at the age of six.

The second level is the secondary or high school level. This lasts for four years. Students usually enter high school at the age of 12 or 13.

The third level is the tertiary or higher education level. This includes colleges and universities. Students can pursue different degrees depending on their interests and career goals.

K-12 Program

The K-12 program was added to the education system in 2013. This program added two more years to the high school level, making it six years in total. The extra years are meant to prepare students for work, entrepreneurship, skills development, or higher education.

Teaching Methods

Teachers in the Philippines use a variety of methods to teach students. They use lectures, group work, and hands-on activities. They also use technology, like computers and projectors, to make learning more engaging.

Despite its strengths, the education system in the Philippines faces many challenges. One of these is the lack of resources. Many schools lack basic facilities like classrooms, libraries, and science labs. There is also a shortage of teachers in some areas.

Another challenge is the quality of education. Some students struggle with reading and math, even after finishing elementary school. This shows that the education system needs to improve in these areas.

The education system in the Philippines has made many changes to improve the quality of education. The K-12 program is one of these changes. It aims to prepare students for the future, whether they choose to work, start a business, or continue their studies. Despite the challenges, the country continues to work on improving its education system for the benefit of its students.

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Book cover

International Handbook on Education in South East Asia pp 1–27 Cite as

Overview of Education in the Philippines

  • Lorraine Pe Symaco 3 &
  • Marie Therese A. P. Bustos 4  
  • Later version available View entry history
  • First Online: 24 December 2021

239 Accesses

Part of the book series: Springer International Handbooks of Education ((SIHE))

The Philippines has embarked on significant education reforms for the past three decades to raise the quality of education at all levels and address inclusion and equity issues. The country’s AmBisyon Natin 2040 or the national vision for a prosperous and healthy society by 2040 is premised on education’s role in developing human capital through quality lifelong learning opportunities. Education governance is handled by three government agencies overseeing the broad education sector of the country. At the same time, regional initiatives relating to ASEAN commitments are also witnessed in the sector. However, despite the mentioned education reforms and initiatives, the education system remains beset by challenges. This chapter will give readers an overview of the education system of the Philippines through an account of its historical context and its main providers and programs. Key reforms and issues within the sector are also discussed.

  • Philippines
  • Early childhood education
  • Basic education
  • Higher education
  • Technical vocational education and training

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quality education in the philippines essay

The Current Education Issues in the Philippines — and How Childhope Rises to the Challenge

  • August 25, 2021

Even before COVID-19 struck and caused problems for millions of families, the country’s financial status is one of the top factors that add to the growing education issues in the Philippines. Furthermore, more children, youth, and adults can’t get a leg up and are thus left behind due to unfair access to learning.

Moving forward, such issues can lead to worse long-term effects. Now, we’ll delve deep into the current status and how we can take part in social efforts to help fight these key concerns of our country.

Crisis in Philippine Education: How is It Really?

Filipinos from rich households or living in cities and developed towns have more access to private schools. In contrast, less favored groups are more bound to deal with lack of classrooms, teachers, and means to sustain topnotch learning.

A 2018 study found that a sample number of 15-year-old Filipino students ranked last in reading comprehension out of 79 countries . They also ranked 78 th in science and math. One key insight from this study is it implies those tested mostly came from public schools. Hence, the crisis also lies in the fact that a lot of Filipinos can’t read or do simple math.

Indeed, it’s clear that there is a class divide between rich and poor students in the country. Though this is the case, less developed states can focus on learning if it’s covered in their top concerns. However, the Philippines doesn’t invest on topnotch learning as compared to its neighbor countries. In fact, many public schools lack computers and other tools despite the digital age. Further, a shortfall in the number of public school teachers is also one of the top issues in the country due to their being among the lowest-paid state workers. Aside from that, more than 3 million children, youth, and adults remain unenrolled since the school shutdown.

It goes without saying that having this constant crisis has its long-term effects. These include mis- and disinformation, poor decision-making, and other social concerns.

The Education System in the Philippines

Due to COVID-19, education issues in the Philippines have increased and received new challenges that worsened the current state of the country. With the sudden events brought about by the health crisis, distance learning modes via the internet or TV broadcasts were ordered. Further, a blended learning program was launched in October 2020, which involves online classes, printouts, and lessons broadcast on TV and social platforms. Thus, the new learning pathways rely on students and teachers having access to the internet.

Education issues in the Philippines include lack of resources and access to online learning

This yet brings another issue in the current system. Millions of Filipinos don’t have access to computers and other digital tools at home to make their blended learning worthwhile. Hence, the value of tech in learning affects many students. Parents’ and guardians’ top concerns with this are:

  • Money for mobile load
  • Lack of gadget
  • Poor internet signal
  • Students’ struggle to focus and learn online
  • Parents’ lack of knowledge of their kids’ lessons

It’s key to note that equipped schools have more chances to use various ways to deal with the new concerns for remote learning. This further shows the contrasts in resources and training for both K-12 and tertiary level both for private and public schools.

One more thing that can happen is that schools may not be able to impart the most basic skills needed. To add, the current status can affect how tertiary education aims to impart the respect for and duty to knowledge and critical outlook. Before, teachers handled 40 to 60 students. With the current online setup, the quality of learning can be compromised if the class reaches 70 to 80 students.

Data on Students that Have Missed School due to COVID-19

Of the world’s student population, 89% or 1.52 billion are the children and youth out of school due to COVID-19 closures. In the Philippines, close to 4 million students were not able to enroll for this school year, as per the DepEd. With this, the number of out-of-school youth (OSY) continues to grow, making it a serious issue needing to be checked to avoid worse problems in the long run.

List of Issues When it Comes to the Philippines’ Education System

For a brief rundown, let’s list the top education issues in the Philippines:

  • Quality – The results of the 2014 National Achievement Test (NAT) and the National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE) show that there had been a drop in the status of primary and secondary education.
  • Budget – The country remains to have one of the lowest budget allotments to learning among ASEAN countries.
  • Cost – There still is a big contrast in learning efforts across various social groups due to the issue of money—having education as a status symbol.
  • OSY – The growing rate of OSY becomes daunting due to the adverse effects of COVID-19.
  • Mismatch – There is a large sum of people who are jobless or underpaid due to a large mismatch between training and actual jobs.
  • Social divide – There is no fair learning access in the country.
  • Lack of resources – Large-scale shortfalls in classrooms, teachers, and other tools to sustain sound learning also make up a big issue.

All these add to the big picture of the current system’s growing concerns. Being informed with these is a great first step to know where we can come in and help in our own ways. Before we talk about how you can take part in various efforts to help address these issues, let’s first talk about what quality education is and how we can achieve it.

Childhope Philippines' program employability session

What Quality Education Means

Now, how do we really define this? For VVOB , it is one that provides all learners with what they need to become economically productive that help lead them to holistic development and sustainable lifestyles. Further, it leads to peaceful and democratic societies and strengthens one’s well-being.

VVOB also lists its 6 dimensions:

  • Contextualization and Relevance
  • Child-friendly Teaching and Learning
  • Sustainability
  • Balanced Approach
  • Learning Outcomes

Aside from these, it’s also key to set our vision to reach such standards. Read on!

Vision for a Quality Education

Of course, any country would want to build and keep a standard vision for its learning system: one that promotes cultural diversity; is free from bias; offers a safe space and respect for human rights; and forms traits, skills, and talent among others.

With the country’s efforts to address the growing concerns, one key program that is set to come out is the free required education from TESDA with efforts to focus on honing skills, including technical and vocational ones. Also, OSY will be covered in the grants of the CHED.

Students must not take learning for granted. In times of crises and sudden changes, having access to education should be valued. Aside from the fact that it is a main human right, it also impacts the other human rights that we have. Besides, the UN says that when learning systems break, having a sustained state will be far from happening.

Childhope Philippines keeps abreast of changes to face education issues in the Philippines

How Childhope KalyEskwela Program Deals with Changes

The country rolled out its efforts to help respond to new and sudden changes in learning due to the effects of COVID-19 measures. Here are some of the key ones we can note:

  • Continuous learning – Since the future of a state lies on how good the learning system is, the country’s vision for the youth is to adopt new learning paths despite the ongoing threat of COVID-19.
  • Action plans – These include boosting the use of special funds to help schools make modules, worksheets, and study guides approved by the DepEd. Also, LGUs and schools can acquire digital tools to help learners as needed.

Now, even with the global health crisis, Childhope Philippines remains true to its cause to help street children:

  • Mobile learning – The program provides topnotch access to street children to new learning methods such as non-formal education .
  • Access to tools – This is to give out sets of school supplies to help street kids attend and be ready for their remote learning.
  • Online learning sessions – These are about Skills for Life, Life Skill Life Goal Planning, Gender Sensitivity, Teenage Pregnancy and Adolescent Reproductive Health.

You may also check out our other programs and projects to see how we help street children fulfill their right to education . You can be a part of these efforts! Read on to know how.

Shed a Light of Hope for Street Children to Reach Their Dreams

Building a system that empowers the youth means helping them reach their full potential. During these times, they need aid from those who can help uphold the rights of the less privileged. These include kids in the streets and their right to attain quality education.

You may hold the power to change lives, one child at a time. Donate or volunteer , and help us help street kids learn and reach their dreams and bring a sense of hope and change toward a bright future. You may also contact us for more details. We’d love to hear from you!

With our aim to reach more people who can help, we’re also in social media! Check out our Facebook page to see latest news on our projects in force.

Subscribe to our Mailing List

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quality education in the philippines essay

  • Geopolitics
  • Environment

Philippines needs to improve its education system

quality education in the philippines essay

The research arm of Switzerland-based business school, the International Institute for Management Development (IMD) recently released the results of its survey on the talent competitiveness of 63 countries from around the world. Based on the rankings, the Philippines managed to jump up to 49th place from 55th last year. 

Regardless of the jump, the ASEAN country, unfortunately, still performed the worst when compared to other bloc members. In order to understand how this happened, it’s important to look at what the study uses for its indicators.

The World Talent Ranking looks at three main factors when determining how to rank a country. The investment and development factor, which measures resources used to cultivate homegrown human capital;  the appeal factor, which evaluates the extent to which a country attracts and retains foreign and local talent; and the readiness factor, which looks at the quality of skills and competencies of a country’s labour force.

While a simple example of the investment and development factor would be whether a country is able to provide education to its citizens, the readiness factor seems to indicate that it is also important to look at the quality of the education provided. This, according to the study, is where countries like the Philippines fall short.

Quality of education

For the three factors, the Philippines scored 31st for appeal, 61st for investment and development, and 26th for readiness. Similarly, last year, the Philippines scored lowest for investment and development.

ASEAN talent ranking 2019

In 2018, the IMD World Competitiveness Center’s director, Arturo Bris told the media that the Philippines’ labour force is not as equipped with skills that firms are looking for.

He acknowledged that it was true that the Philippines was making progress in managing its talent pool and is, in fact, one of only two countries in Southeast Asia along with Malaysia which has improved government investment in education as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP).

“However, in 2018, The Philippines witnessed a deterioration of its ability to provide the economy with the skills needed, which points to a mismatch between school curriculums and the demands of companies,” he said.

But it isn’t just a Swiss business school that thinks the Philippines needs to improve its quality of education. In June last year, local media reported the Philippine Business for Education (PBEd) as saying that while the state of education nationwide has progressed in terms of accessibility, it still has a long way to go when it comes to delivery of quality learning for the success of every learner.

PBEd executive director, Love Basillote said this can be attributed to many factors such as prevalence of malnutrition and a shortage of appropriate learning tools, adding that many college graduates are not work-ready due to a lack of socio-emotional skills.

“Our recommendation is we focus on learning by starting early, monitoring learning, raising accountability and aligning actors,” she said, also suggesting that the country participate consistently in international learning assessments to make Filipino learners and graduates globally competitive.

The World Talent Ranking 2018 cited the country’s top weaknesses in the areas of total public expenditure on education, pupil-teacher ratio in primary and secondary schools, and remuneration in service professions and labour force growth.

Upgrading digital skills

The World Economic Forum (WEF) head of Asia Pacific and Member of the Executive Committee, Justin Wood noted that Industry 4.0, also known as the Fourth Industrial Revolution, was unfolding at accelerating speed and changing the skills that workers will need for the jobs of the future.

On 19 November  last year, a coalition of major technology companies pledged to develop digital skills for the ASEAN workforce. Being part of the WEF’s Digital ASEAN initiative, the pledge aims to train some 20 million people in Southeast Asia by 2020, especially those working in small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs).

The move is most welcomed especially due to the threat of huge job displacement across the region. Now, following results from the World Talent Ranking, it seems that this initiative would be much needed in the Philippines as well.

However, the Philippines must understand that the pledge will only go so far in ensuring that it has the right workforce for the new skills demands of companies. Improving the quality of education in the country is still critical and as 2019’s results highlight, the Philippines needs to continue working on this.

This article was first published on 5 December, 2019. 

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The spotty quality of Philippine basic education is something we knew anecdotally but until the PISA results of 2018, did not have objective evidence to bring this into a national discourse on education quality.  (Back in 2000, then Secretary of Education, Brother Andrew Gonzales, FSC, had Philippine Grade 7-8 students aged 12-13 years tested under TIMSS [International Math and Science Study] to dismal results.  The next DepED Secretary, Senator Raul Roco took the Philippines out of TIMSS rationalizing the move by saying it was a waste of funds to pay for expensive testing if we already knew the outcome.)

The  2018 PISA results  were not stellar.  Test results for the country’s 15-year olds randomly tested as a group scored the country lowest among the 79 countries tested in Reading literacy and second lowest in Science and Mathematics literacy.

This was the first time the Philippines has ventured into the PISA, or Programme for International Student Assessment, and international testing since 2000.  Despite of the poor results, the Department of Education (DepED) should be commended for taking a brave approach to PISA. By doing so, we now have a baseline around which we can hold discussions that are evidence-based and not tendentious. The results, dismal as they are, show where we are today as an education system and how far we need to go to be a better-performing one.

In the letter of invitation to the launch of a new program to push for quality in the education system ( Sulong EduKalidad ) using the PISA results as a springboard, Secretary Leonor T. Briones wrote, “The results, which we anticipate will mirror our performance in the National Achievement Test, will put into sharp focus the challenge we face as we aim to globalize our quality standards.”

What is PISA and why is it important?

PISA is a worldwide study by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) that evaluates education systems in member and non-member countries. A total of 79 countries participated in the latest PISA test in 2018 by measuring 15-year olds’ academic performance in mathematics, science and reading.

The test, done every 3 years, is a system test where a randomly selected group of students in each participating country are tested. The aim of the test is to provide comparable data that would give each country a chance to benchmark its education system against the best in the world in order to improve on education policies, practices, and outcomes. The test does not focus on factual knowledge; rather, it focuses on problem-solving and cognition – two essential 21 st  century skills.

The application of skills and knowledge to solve real-world problems serves as an indicator of how prepared a student might be for the real world.

In addition to testing students, PISA has survey questions that can provide insight that might help explain how country education systems perform. Access to this data should be invaluable to the Philippines and DepED (Department of Education) for policy planning and programming. In previous tests, PISA looked at factor inputs (quality of teachers, material inputs) and the effects these might have on learning outcomes in different countries.

Comparison between boys and girls test performance is also useful data for policy and programming.  (In the 2018 test, data was also collected on bullying. Here, data on the Philippines should be studied more carefully given that reported bullying was highest for the Philippines among all countries in PISA 2018. This will be the subject of a future article.)

What does PISA tell us about our education system?

The headline news is that the Philippines scored lowest in Reading and second lowest in Mathematics and Science among the 79 participating countries.

15-year olds tested in Reading literacy had an average score of 340 (out of a possible 600) versus the OECD average of 487. A breakdown of this score revealed that 81% were reading below level.  And of this number, 24% were one level lower and 57% were two or more levels below.

In Science literacy, the average scores were similar. The average score for the Philippines was 357 versus the OECD average of 489.

In Mathematics literacy, the average score for the Philippines was 353 versus 489 for the OECD average.

Philippine girls, in all three tests, were marginally better than boys but not by much.

The way forward

The initial conclusion points to low levels of reading comprehension which might be at the root of the problem. We pride ourselves as being a country with a high level of literacy.

The name of the game today, however, is about functional literacy (Reading, Writing, Arithmetic plus an ability to follow written and verbal instructions to accomplish given tasks and solve problems) proceeding to more complex problem-solving.

The latter requires an ability to break down problems into smaller parts and then re-assemble these in a meaningful manner in order to come up with a solution or create something new.  Our 15-year olds, for the most part, are having difficulty doing this based on the PISA test results.

In management, if doing something does not produce the desired results, it is time to do something new.  Putting more resources into the same old processes will only result in more of the same poor results.

What is needed is to think of a different way to get the superior results we are aiming for. The system needs to introduce self-correcting processes and mechanisms.  More specifically, the Philippine education system needs to be better streamlined so that better results (i.e., Learning outcomes) can be realized.

What might be done?

  • One, de-clutter the curriculum.
  • Two, start with building strong fundamentals in Reading and Writing as basic building blocks (Learning tools).   (The question of what language – English of Filipino – is a topic that needs more discussion at the national level and will be the subject of a future essay.)
  • Three, refocus and strengthen teacher pre-service and in-service training around the top two concerns.

On the curriculum, ours is actually comparable in scope to other countries including high-performing PISA countries with one major difference:  The DepED curriculum is too cluttered with mandated competencies to be covered.

In science and mathematics, for example, a study that looked at high performing countries versus low performers did a correlation between the number of competencies required (i.e., things to be studied in a given school year) versus test scores.

The major finding: high-performing countries focused on a lesser number of competencies (8 to 12 in a given year) versus low-performing countries which covered as many as 80+ competencies in the same year. This meant that students in high-performing countries had time to digest concepts, do more practice on problem sets or written exercises, and generally had time gain facility and competence on the subject studied.

Students in countries that pushed for more competencies to be learned (including the Philippines), on the other hand, were forced to nibble on different competencies without much chance to internalize concepts, gain practice solving problems, or generate solutions. This “smorgasbord” approach does not result in deep learning or the acquisition of expertise.

Rethinking (de-cluttering) the curriculum should start in Grade 1. The early grades should focus on foundational competencies cutting down on the number of academic subjects to be taken. At higher grade levels, we should abandon the spiraling approach that DepED does in mathematics and science and move back to a more focused discipline approach to these two subject areas.

Teacher training and development is another area that needs to be better managed. Thankfully, DepED is embarking on this with at least two initiatives:

  • The Philippine Professional Standards for Teachers first rolled out in 2019; and,
  • The transformation of the National Educators Academy of the Philippines (NEAP) as the lead institute in DepED on teacher training and development to starting in 2020.

If these two initiatives can be implemented well and sustained, this will make a big difference in the long term.

But the key to turning these dismal results around has to begin with Reading and Writing.  This starts with preparation for reading in Kindergarten and Grade 1 to at-level reading proficiency in all grade levels after.  Here, reading does not mean in English alone (though this is the language of the PISA test as decided by DepED); reading in any language including the mother tongue will have a positive effect on test-taking whether for math, science or reading.

A 9-year plan

PISA not only provides us with a baseline of where we are today. It can also provide us with a benchmark target to aim for. This can be the Olympic target for our basic education system.

What should we be aiming for?

We should aspire to be at the world average within nine years (three PISA test cycles).  By 2018 scoring, this means raising our 15-year olds’ average score by 130-140 points over a nine-year period.  Objectively, this means bringing the reading level of our 15-year olds up by 3 levels (or one level per test cycle).

To realize this Olympic dream for gold, we need to start at the base (Grade 1) and scaffold a strong foundation building upwards to Grade 12. This will take time to realize results. In the next two PISA tests (2021 and 2024), we will still be doing remediation as our students are already in their late elementary years or junior high school.

But if we start at strengthening Reading at Grade 1 today (school year 2020-2021), by 2027, our Grade 1 students will be taking the PISA test and hopefully, we will be rewarded with much better results.

No quick fix

There may be a sense of urgency given the dire results.  But a problem as complex as this needs systemic, systematic, and structural reform to be long-term and sustainable.  This will take time and will demand patience and grit.

We need a clear strategy to address this problem and as in all strategy situations, we should ask ourselves four important questions:

  • Where are we today? (Dismal PISA results.)
  • Where do we want to be in 10 years? (At the PISA average or 3 reading levels higher than the 2018 scores.)
  • How do we get there? (De-clutter the curriculum to allow students to deepen learning of featured competencies + Focus on building strong foundational reading skills + Improved teacher pre-service and in-service training.)
  • How do you know you are on the right path and trajectory?  (Continue international testing (PISA, TIMSS) + Restructure the National Achievement Tests as a proper assessment tool)

Quality, not spending

The politician response to this situation will be, without doubt, to spend more on education. While it is true that the Philippines is still below the desired share of GDP spending for education (and below our neighbors’ education spending), we should make sure that the manner by which we spend reflects quality and not quantity.

The annual budget for the Department of Education has grown five-fold in a short 10-year period.  While this has helped the Department deal with material shortages, this Learning problem is less about a lack of resources and more about new ways to address the Low Learning situation. This is a concern about quality (how things are done).

The PISA results jolt us.  But if it does to us what it did to Peru years ago (Peru had dismal results in its first PISA test but used this to rally its education sector to perform better), then there is hope that the same can happen here.

But this cannot be a quick fix.  What is needed is not a one- or two-year effort.  What is required is a sustained undertaking spanning multiple presidential administrations.  That will be the true test of how focused we can be in reforming our education system and how serious we are in addressing this situation.

Juan Miguel Luz is a Fellow of FEU Public Policy Center

NOTE:  This essay is a revision of the same article published by Rappler (December 11, 2019) by the author.

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The Roots of Education Inequality in the Philippines and Its Outcomes

The Roots of Education Inequality in the Philippines and Its Outcomes essay

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Geographic root, socioeconomic root, corruption root, class inequality as the root of education inequality.

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