APA Style 6th Edition: Citing Your Sources

  • Basics of APA Formatting
  • In Text Quick View
  • Block Quotes
  • Books & eBooks
  • Thesis/Dissertation

Standard Format

Various examples.

  • Conference Presentations
  • Course Documents
  • Social Media
  • Government Documents
  • Academic Integrity and Plagiarism
  • Additional Resources
  • Sample Reference Page

Dissertation or thesis available from a database service:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (year of publication).  Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis).  Retrieved from Name of database.  (Accession or Order No.)

For an unpublished dissertation or thesis:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (year of creation).  Title of dissertation or thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis).  Name of Institution, Location.

Thesis, from a commercial database

Nicometo, D. N. (2015). (Order No. 1597712). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1717577238).

Dissertation, from an institutional database

Andrea, H. (2014). (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/

Unpublished master’s thesis

Curry, J.  (2016).  (Unpublished master’s thesis).  Pacific Oaks College, Pasadena, CA.

See Ch 7 pp. 207-208 APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules

Formatting:

  • Italicize the title
  • Identify whether source is doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis in parentheses after the title
  • << Previous: Articles
  • Next: Websites >>
  • Last Updated: Sep 22, 2022 11:20 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.usc.edu/APA-citation-style

American Psychological Association

Published Dissertation or Thesis References

This page contains reference examples for published dissertations or theses.

Kabir, J. M. (2016). Factors influencing customer satisfaction at a fast food hamburger chain: The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Publication No. 10169573) [Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Miranda, C. (2019). Exploring the lived experiences of foster youth who obtained graduate level degrees: Self-efficacy, resilience, and the impact on identity development (Publication No. 27542827) [Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University]. PQDT Open. https://pqdtopen.proquest.com/doc/2309521814.html?FMT=AI

Zambrano-Vazquez, L. (2016). The interaction of state and trait worry on response monitoring in those with worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. UA Campus Repository. https://repository.arizona.edu/handle/10150/620615

  • Parenthetical citations : (Kabir, 2016; Miranda, 2019; Zambrano-Vazquez, 2016)
  • Narrative citations : Kabir (2016), Miranda (2019), and Zambrano-Vazquez (2016)
  • A dissertation or thesis is considered published when it is available from a database such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global or PDQT Open, an institutional repository, or an archive.
  • If the database assigns publication numbers to dissertations and theses, include the publication number in parentheses after the title of the dissertation or thesis without italics.
  • Include the description “Doctoral dissertation” or “Master’s thesis” followed by a comma and the name of the institution that awarded the degree. Place this information in square brackets after the dissertation or thesis title and any publication number.
  • In the source element of the reference, provide the name of the database, repository, or archive.
  • The same format can be adapted for other published theses, including undergraduate theses, by changing the wording of the bracketed description as appropriate (e.g., “Undergraduate honors thesis”).
  • Include a URL for the dissertation or thesis if the URL will resolve for readers (as shown in the Miranda and Zambrano-Vazquez examples).
  • If the database or archive requires users to log in before they can view the dissertation or thesis, meaning the URL will not work for readers, end the reference with the database name (as in the Kabir example).

Published dissertation or thesis references are covered in the seventh edition APA Style manuals in the Publication Manual Section 10.6 and the Concise Guide Section 10.5

citing sources dissertation

APA 7th Edition Citation Examples

  • Volume and Issue Numbers
  • Page Numbers
  • Undated Sources
  • Citing a Source Within a Source
  • In-Text Citations
  • Academic Journals
  • Encyclopedia Articles
  • Book, Film, and Product Reviews
  • Online Classroom Materials
  • Conference Papers
  • Technical + Research Reports
  • Court Decisions
  • Treaties and Other International Agreements
  • Federal Regulations: I. The Code of Federal Regulations
  • Federal Regulations: II. The Federal Register
  • Executive Orders
  • Charter of the United Nations
  • Federal Statutes

Format for dissertations and theses

Dissertations and theses database.

  • Interviews, E-mail Messages + Other Personal Communications
  • Social Media
  • Business Sources
  • PowerPoints
  • AI: ChatGPT, etc.

Author last name, first initial. (Year).  Title of dissertation/thesis  (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis, University]. Database. URL

  • Author:  List the last name, followed by the first initial (and second initial). See  Authors  for more information.
  • Year:  List the year between parentheses, followed by a period.
  • Title of dissertation/thesis:  In italics. Capitalize the first word of the title, subtitle, and proper nouns.
  • Publication number: Can be found in Dissertations and Theses database, listed in the item record as “Dissertation/thesis number.”
  • Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis:  List whether it is a dissertation or a thesis.
  • University:  List the university associated with the dissertation/thesis.
  • Database:  List database the dissertation/thesis was found in, if found in a database.
  • URL:  List URL if found on the free Web rather than in a database.

See specific examples below.

Dissertations:

Pecore, J. T. (2004). Sounding the spirit of Cambodia: The living tradition of Khmer music and dance-drama in a Washington, DC community  (Publication No. 3114720) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. 

Master's Theses:

Hollander, M. M. (2017). Resitance to authority: Methodological innovations and new lessons from the Milgram experiment   (Publication No. 10289373) [Master's thesis, University of Wisconsin - Madison]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

APA calls for the citation to include a unique identifying number for the dissertation, labeling it “Publication No.” That number can be found in Dissertations and Theses database, listed in the item record as “Dissertation/thesis number.”

Karamanos, X. (2020). The influence of professional development models on student mathematics performance in New Jersey public elementary schools [Doctoral dissertation, Seton Hall University]. Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs). https://scholarship.shu.edu/dissertations/2732

Bordo, V. C. (2011). Making a case for the use of foreign language in the educational activities of nonprofit arts organizations [Master's thesis, University of Akron]. OhioLINK Electronic Theses & Dissertations Center. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=akron1311135640

Caprette, C. L. (2005). Conquering the cold shudder: The origin and evolution of snake eyes  [Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University].

Angelova, A. N. (2004). Data pruning  [Master's thesis, California Institute of Technology].

See  Publication Manual , 10.6.

  • << Previous: Federal Statutes
  • Next: Images >>
  • Last Updated: Mar 18, 2024 12:55 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.umgc.edu/apa-examples

citing sources dissertation

How to Cite Resources in APA 7: Citing Dissertations and Theses

  • Citing Print Resources
  • Citing Electronic Sources
  • Citing Dissertations and Theses
  • Video Tutorial

Citing Dissertations in APA Style

Citing a Dissertation Found in the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database:

Author last name, Author initial. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Database or Archive Name. 

Olds, J. L. (2018). An investigation of district promotion, retention, and intervention policies and practices for elementary students in four Southern California counties (Publication No. 3544644) [Doctoral dissertation, Azusa Pacific University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Note: You may have to look carefully at the record in ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global to determine the publication number.

Citing a Print Dissertation Found in a Library and not Available Through ProQuest Dissertations and Theses:

Author last name, Author initial. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis  [Unpublished doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis], Name of Institution Awarding the Degree.

Heil, J. A. (2016). Authors, audiences, and Elizabethan prologics  [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Texas A&M University.

Note: Most APU dissertations should also appear in ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global . If you are going to cite an APU dissertation, you should check ProQuest to see if a publication number is available, then follow the guidelines for citing dissertations found in ProQuest . This is the most consistent way to ensure that readers of your paper will be able to retrieve the original source.

Citing Government Documents in APA Style

The APA citation format for government documents is similar to the APA format for citing eBooks.

Citing a U.S. government report available on government agency Web site:

Government Agency. (Year of publication). Title of report (Report No. xxx, if given) . Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxx

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.). America's children and the environment (ACE). Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/envirohealth/children/

Baldi, S. (2007). Highlights from PISA 2006: Performance of U.S. 15-year-old students in science and mathematics literacy in an international context (NCES Report No. 2008016). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/PUBSEARCH/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2008016

White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans. (2005). Pathways to Hispanic family learning: Highlighting public and private efforts to meet the education needs of the Hispanic family. Retrieved from http://www.yesican.gov/publications/pdf/pathways.pdf

Note: Not every government document will have a report number. If you’re unable to find one, just leave that part out of the citation. Always use the personal name of an author, if it is given. If a corporate author is listed instead of a personal author, use the agency/department name instead of a personal name.

  • << Previous: Citing Electronic Sources
  • Next: Video Tutorial >>
  • Last Updated: May 13, 2024 12:29 PM
  • URL: https://apu.libguides.com/APA_7th_Edition
  • Franklin University |
  • Help & Support |
  • Locations & Maps |

Franklin University logo

  • | Research Guides

To access Safari eBooks,

  • Select not listed in the Select Your Institution drop down menu.
  • Enter your Franklin email address and click Go
  • click "Already a user? Click here" link
  • Enter your Franklin email and the password you used to create your Safari account.

Continue Close

APA Citation Style 7th Edition

  • APA Style Overview
  • Sample Documents & Guides
  • Multiple Sources With the Same Author and Year
  • Websites & Web Documents
  • Course Materials (Slides, Lecture Notes, Specialty Software)
  • Citing Business Databases
  • Film, Videos, & Podcasts
  • Art, Photos, Tables & Figures
  • Legal Materials & Tax Codes

Citing Dissertations (7th edition)

  • Pamphlet or Brochure
  • Interviews, E-mail, Intranet, Religious Works, & Secondary Sources (7th edition)
  • Footnotes This link opens in a new window
  • Formatting an Appendix
  • Evaluating Sources This link opens in a new window
  • Understanding Plagiarism
  • RefWorks This link opens in a new window
  • Published Dissertation
  • Unpublished Dissertation
  • Dissertation Published Online (Not in a Database)

 

 

 

Author, A. A. (2020).

[Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree].

[Master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree].

Database Name.

Archive Name.

https://xxxxx

For a doctoral or master's thesis available from a database service such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global:

Reference List

Dempsey-Richardson, C. (2013). 'It's like we were being watched ... like there were only three walls, and not a fourth wall': Manifestations of metafiction in Buffy the vampire slayer  (Order No. 14333 04638 ) [Master's thesis, Eastern Kentucky University].  ProQuest  Dissertations & Theses Global.

Nicosia, M. (2016).  Performing the female superhero: An analysis of identity acquisition, violence, and hypersexuality in DC comics  [Doctoral dissertation, Bowling Green State University]. Electronic Theses and Dissertation Center.  https://etd.ohiolink.edu/

In-Text Citations

Parenthetical citations:

  • Paraphrase: (Dempsey-Richardson, 2013);  (Nicosia, 2016)
  • Quotation: (Dempsey-Richardson, 2013, p. 6);  (Nicosia, 2016, p. 110)

Narrative citations: Dempsey-Richardson (2013);  Nicosia (2016)

NOTE: Remember to use proper spacing and hanging indentations.

Author, A. A. (2020)  [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of Institution Awarding the Degree.

Kassover, A. (1987). Treatment of abusive males: Voluntary vs. court mandated referrals  [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Nova University.

Considine, M. (1986). Australian insurance politics in the 1970s: Two case studies  [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Melbourne.

Parenthetical citations:  (Kassover, 1987); (Considine, 1986)

Narrative citations: Kassover (1987); Considine (1986)

NOTE:   Remember to use proper spacing and hanging indentations.

 


 

 

 


Author, A. A. (2020)

 [Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree].

 [Master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree].

Database Name.

Archive Name.

https://xxxxx

Hutcheson, V. (2012). Dealing with dual differences: Social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer adolescents [Master's thesis, The College of William & Mary]. William & Mary Digital Archive.  https://digitalarchive.wm.edu/handle/10288/16594

Parenthetical citations: 

  • Paraphrase: (Hutcheson, 2012)
  • Quotation: (Hutcheson, 2012, p. 12)

Narrative citation: Hutcheson (2012)

  • << Previous: Legal Materials & Tax Codes
  • Next: Pamphlet or Brochure >>
  • Last Updated: May 29, 2024 3:56 PM
  • URL: https://guides.franklin.edu/APA

Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in MLA

How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in MLA

Citing a thesis or dissertation.

Thesis – A document submitted to earn a degree at a university.

Dissertation – A document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university.

The formatting for thesis and dissertation citations is largely the same. However, you should be sure to include the type of degree after the publication year as supplemental information. For instance, state if the source you are citing is an undergraduate thesis or a PhD dissertation.

MLA Thesis and Dissertation Citation Structure (print)

Last, First M.  Title of the Thesis/Dissertation. Year Published. Name of University, type of degree.

MLA Thesis and Dissertation Citation Structure (online)

Last, First M.  Title of the Thesis/Dissertation. Year Published. Name of University, type of degree.  Website Name , URL.

ThesisDissertationImage

Wilson, Peggy Lynn. Pedagogical Practices in the Teaching of English Language in Secondary Public Schools in Parker County . 2011. University of Maryland, PhD dissertation.

In-text Citation Structure

(Author Last Name page #)

In-text Citation Example

(Wilson 14)

MLA Formatting Guide

MLA Formatting

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Block Quotes
  • et al Usage
  • In-text Citations
  • Paraphrasing
  • Page Numbers
  • Sample Paper
  • Works Cited
  • MLA 8 Updates
  • MLA 9 Updates
  • View MLA Guide

Citation Examples

  • Book Chapter
  • Journal Article
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Website (no author)
  • View all MLA Examples

How useful was this post?

Click on a star to rate it!

We are sorry that this post was not useful for you!

Let us improve this post!

Tell us how we can improve this post?

MLA Citation Examples

Writing Tools

Citation Generators

Other Citation Styles

Plagiarism Checker

Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style.

Get Started

Banner

APA Style, 7th edition - Citing Sources

  • Getting Started
  • Formatting the Paper

Dissertation & SPP Format Pieces

Creating a toc in apa, dnp spp toc examples, edd toc examples, important: signature page, the abstract & keywords.

  • Student vs. Professional
  • Writing Style
  • All about the DOI
  • OVERVIEW - READ FIRST!
  • Dictionary Entry
  • Government Report
  • Journal Article
  • Lecture Notes
  • Legal Resources
  • Lexicomp via UpToDate
  • Magazine Article
  • Newsletter Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Online Course or MOOC
  • Organization Report
  • Social Media
  • Tables & Figures
  • Video: Films on Demand
  • Video: Online
  • Video: Psychotherapy.net
  • Video: YouTube
  • APA Paper Review (Regis Students Only)

If you are on this tab, you have probably been asked to format a dissertation or Scholarly Practice Project paper using APA format. Use the below information to help you format the different pieces of your paper.  Please check with your academic department to see if they have an official dissertation/SPP format template for your program.

A note on Table of Contents: Most APA papers do not require a Table of Contents (TOC). If you are writing a Dissertation or Scholarly Practice Project, you may be asked to include one. Please note: the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association does not have an official stance on formatting a Table of Contents page .

Below, you will find some general information and examples of Table of Contents (TOC), Abstracts and Keywords, and the Signature page that you may find helpful.

  • Scribbr Creating an APA-style Table of Contents This tutorial from Scribbr is extremely helpful in formatting your APA Table of Contents.

Scribbr APA Table of Contents

Use the below examples as a reference point for forming your Table of Contents. These should be used as a baseline for formatting-- yours will be more specific to your headings and subject-matter.

  • DNP SPP TOC Example 1
  • DNP SPP TOC Example 2
  • EdD Dissertation TOC Example 1
  • EdD Dissertation TOC Example 2

Your signature page is one of the most important pieces of your final product. It proves that you completed the dissertation!  Below is an example of what your signature page should look like (names blanked out for privacy).

If you have any questions about the signature page or how to get it signed, please contact your program director.

citing sources dissertation

ABSTRACT : An abstract is required for your Dissertation or Scholarly Practice Project and must be included before submitting your final copy to Proquest.  An abstract is a brief, comprehensive overview of your paper. Generally, it should not exceed 250 words.

KEYWORDS : You should also include keywords. Keywords are descriptive terms that encompass the themes of your paper. Think about what terms you used when searching for your topic in the databases. This is what researchers will use to find your paper!

  • APA Style Abstract and Keywords Handout For more information on creating an Abstract and Keywords, please use this handout from the APA Style site.
  • Professional Paper sample with Abstract Example See page one of this document for an example of an Abstract and Keywords, with annotations on where to find more information in APA Manual. From the APA Style site.
  • << Previous: Formatting the Paper
  • Next: Student vs. Professional >>
  • Last Updated: Jun 18, 2024 10:51 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.regiscollege.edu/APA7

Harvard University Graduate School of Design

  • Harvard Library
  • Research Guides
  • Harvard Graduate School of Design - Frances Loeb Library

Write and Cite

  • Theses and Dissertations
  • Academic Integrity
  • Using Sources and AI
  • Academic Writing
  • From Research to Writing
  • GSD Writing Services
  • Grants and Fellowships
  • Reading, Notetaking, and Time Management

What is a thesis?

What is a dissertation, getting started, staying on track.

A thesis is a long-term project that you work on over the course of a semester or a year. Theses have a very wide variety of styles and content, so we encourage you to look at prior examples and work closely with faculty to develop yours. 

Before you begin, make sure that you are familiar with the dissertation genre—what it is for and what it looks like.

Generally speaking, a dissertation’s purpose is to prove that you have the expertise necessary to fulfill your doctoral-degree requirements by showing depth of knowledge and independent thinking.

The form of a dissertation may vary by discipline. Be sure to follow the specific guidelines of your department.

  • PhD This site directs candidates to the GSAS website about dissertations , with links to checklists,  planning, formatting, acknowledgments, submission, and publishing options. There is also a link to guidelines for the prospectus . Consult with your committee chair about specific requirements and standards for your dissertation.
  • DDES This document covers planning, patent filing, submission guidelines, publishing options, formatting guidelines, sample pages, citation guidelines, and a list of common errors to avoid. There is also a link to guidelines for the prospectus .
  • Scholarly Pursuits (GSAS) This searchable booklet from Harvard GSAS is a comprehensive guide to writing dissertations, dissertation-fellowship applications, academic journal articles, and academic job documents.

Finding an original topic can be a daunting and overwhelming task. These key concepts can help you focus and save time.

Finding a topic for your thesis or dissertation should start with a research question that excites or at least interests you. A rigorous, engaging, and original project will require continuous curiosity about your topic, about your own thoughts on the topic, and about what other scholars have said on your topic. Avoid getting boxed in by thinking you know what you want to say from the beginning; let your research and your writing evolve as you explore and fine-tune your focus through constant questioning and exploration.

Get a sense of the broader picture before you narrow your focus and attempt to frame an argument. Read, skim, and otherwise familiarize yourself with what other scholars have done in areas related to your proposed topic. Briefly explore topics tangentially related to yours to broaden your perspective and increase your chance of finding a unique angle to pursue.

Critical Reading

Critical reading is the opposite of passive reading. Instead of merely reading for information to absorb, critical reading also involves careful, sustained thinking about what you are reading. This process may include analyzing the author’s motives and assumptions, asking what might be left out of the discussion, considering what you agree with or disagree with in the author’s statements and why you agree or disagree, and exploring connections or contradictions between scholarly arguments. Here is a resource to help hone your critical-reading skills:

http://writing.umn.edu/sws/assets/pdf/quicktips/criticalread.pdf

Conversation

Your thesis or dissertation will incorporate some ideas from other scholars whose work you researched. By reading critically and following your curiosity, you will develop your own ideas and claims, and these contributions are the core of your project. You will also acknowledge the work of scholars who came before you, and you must accurately and fairly attribute this work and define your place within the larger discussion. Make sure that you know how to quote, summarize, paraphrase ,  integrate , and cite secondary sources to avoid plagiarism and to show the depth and breadth of your knowledge.

A thesis is a long-term, large project that involves both research and writing; it is easy to lose focus, motivation, and momentum. Here are suggestions for achieving the result you want in the time you have.

The dissertation is probably the largest project you have undertaken, and a lot of the work is self-directed. The project can feel daunting or even overwhelming unless you break it down into manageable pieces and create a timeline for completing each smaller task. Be realistic but also challenge yourself, and be forgiving of yourself if you miss a self-imposed deadline here and there.

Your program will also have specific deadlines for different requirements, including establishing a committee, submitting a prospectus, completing the dissertation, defending the dissertation, and submitting your work. Consult your department’s website for these dates and incorporate them into the timeline for your work.

Accountability

Sometimes self-imposed deadlines do not feel urgent unless there is accountability to someone beyond yourself. To increase your motivation to complete tasks on schedule, set dates with your committee chair to submit pre-determined pieces of a chapter. You can also arrange with a fellow doctoral student to check on each other’s progress. Research and writing can be lonely, so it is also nice to share that journey with someone and support each other through the process.

Common Pitfalls

The most common challenges for students writing a dissertation are writer’s block, information-overload, and the compulsion to keep researching forever.

There are many strategies for avoiding writer’s block, such as freewriting, outlining, taking a walk, starting in the middle, and creating an ideal work environment for your particular learning style. Pay attention to what helps you and try different things until you find what works.

Efficient researching techniques are essential to avoiding information-overload. Here are a couple of resources about strategies for finding sources and quickly obtaining essential information from them.

https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/subject_specific_writing/writing_in_literature/writing_in_literature_detailed_discussion/reading_criticism.html

https://students.dartmouth.edu/academic-skills/learning-resources/learning-strategies/reading-techniques

Finally, remember that there is always more to learn and your dissertation cannot incorporate everything. Follow your curiosity but also set limits on the scope of your work. It helps to create a folder entitled “future projects” for topics and sources that interest you but that do not fit neatly into the dissertation. Also remember that future scholars will build off of your work, so leave something for them to do.

Browsing through theses and dissertations of the past can help to get a sense of your options and gain inspiration but be careful to use current guidelines and refer to your committee instead of relying on these examples for form or formatting.

DASH Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard.

HOLLIS Harvard Library’s catalog provides access to ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global .

MIT Architecture has a list of their graduates’ dissertations and theses.

Rhode Island School of Design has a list of their graduates’ dissertations and theses.

University of South Florida has a list of their graduates’ dissertations and theses.

Harvard GSD has a list of projects, including theses and professors’ research.

  • << Previous: Reading, Notetaking, and Time Management
  • Next: Publishing >>
  • Last Updated: Jul 8, 2024 7:31 PM
  • URL: https://guides.library.harvard.edu/gsd/write

Harvard University Digital Accessibility Policy

_Business Research Library Guide for Undergraduate Students: Citing Your Sources

  • Welcome and Introduction
  • Copley Library's DEIA Guide This link opens in a new window
  • Set up USD Library Links in Google Scholar
  • Business Databases from Copley Library
  • Journals, Newspapers, and Magazines
  • Search Tips & Strategies
  • Evaluating Information

Citing Your Sources

Cite Your Sources!

When writing a paper or creating a project, you need to cite everything that you did not write or create yourself. This includes articles, books, maps, videos, statistics. Citing your sources means that you follow a specific format to show what source you used.

Below are some examples in APA format:

Citing an article: Kim, D., & Ra, Y. (2015). What impacts success in college? Findings from the perceptions of Korean students.  College Student Journal , 49(1), 161-168.

Citing a book: Santrock, J., & Halonen, J. (2010).  Your guide to college success: Strategies for achieving your goals  (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Citation Tool

citing sources dissertation

Need writing help?

  • Writing Center (Undergraduates)

Click on the image to access their website

citing sources dissertation

"USD's Writing Center is an inclusive community serving undergraduate and graduate students from all disciplines. In free, 45-minute to one-hour, one-on-one consultations, our experienced consultants provide critical reflection and constructive feedback during the multiple stages of the writing process, from planning to composing to revision. In this process, it is our goal to help students develop strategies for improving their writing, for gaining confidence in their writing and for developing educational independence."

Contact Information for the Writing Center: 

[email protected] (619) 260-4581

Citation Manuals - APA and MLA

  • APA Manual of Style (7th Ed.)
  • MLA Handbook
  • Chicago Manual of Style (17th Ed.)

Cover Art

  • APA Style website The official website for APA Style

Cover Art

Business Librarian

Profile Photo

  • << Previous: Evaluating Information
  • Last Updated: Jul 9, 2024 11:25 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.sandiego.edu/busresearch1
  • Share full article

Advertisement

Supported by

Contraception Is Free by Law. So Why Are a Quarter of Women Still Paying for It?

Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont has called on a government watchdog to investigate. Here’s what you need to know.

Close-up of the hands of people at a pharmacy counter discussing prescriptions.

By Alisha Haridasani Gupta

Last week, Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont, chair of the Senate health committee, called on a government watchdog to investigate why insurance companies are still charging women for birth control — a move that thrust access to contraceptives back into the spotlight .

In a letter to the Government Accountability Office , the senator noted that insurance companies were charging Americans for contraceptives that, under federal law, should be free — and that they were also denying appeals from consumers who were seeking to have their contraceptives covered. Some experts estimate that those practices could affect access to birth control for millions of women .

Since 2012, the Affordable Care Act has mandated that private insurance plans cover the “full range” of contraceptives for women approved by the Food and Drug Administration , including female sterilizations, emergency contraceptives and any new products cleared by the F.D.A. The mandate also covers services associated with contraceptives, like counseling, insertions or removals and follow-up care.

That means that consumers shouldn’t have any associated co-payments with in-network providers, even if they haven’t met their deductibles. Some plans might cover only generic versions of certain contraceptives, but patients are still entitled to coverage of a specific product that their providers deem medically necessary. Medicaid plans have a similar provision; the only exception to the mandate are plans sponsored by employers or colleges that have religious or moral objections.

Yet many insurers are still charging for contraceptives — some in the form of co-payments, others by denying coverage altogether.

A Quarter of Women Are Paying Unnecessarily for Contraceptives

In his letter, Senator Sanders cited a recent survey by KFF , a nonprofit health policy research organization, that found that roughly 25 percent of women with private insurance plans said they had paid at least some part of the cost of their birth control; 16 percent reported that their insurance plans had offered partial coverage, and 6 percent noted that their plans did not cover contraceptives at all. Additionally, a 2022 congressional investigation , which analyzed 68 health plans, found that the process to apply for exceptions and have contraceptives covered was “burdensome” for consumers and that insurance companies denied, on average, at least 40 percent of exception requests.

We are having trouble retrieving the article content.

Please enable JavaScript in your browser settings.

Thank you for your patience while we verify access. If you are in Reader mode please exit and  log into  your Times account, or  subscribe  for all of The Times.

Thank you for your patience while we verify access.

Already a subscriber?  Log in .

Want all of The Times?  Subscribe .

Trump seeks pause in documents case, citing Supreme Court immunity ruling

Donald Trump greets the crowd

Attorneys for Donald Trump on Friday asked the federal judge presiding over the former president's classified documents case to halt court proceedings and allow for consideration of how the Supreme Court’s presidential immunity ruling impacts the criminal charges.

"The Court should stay all other proceedings in the case" while Trump presents his arguments for why the bulk of the case should be dismissed because of the recent Supreme Court decision, Trump's attorneys told U.S. District Judge Aileen Cannon in their filing.

Trump filed his initial motion to dismiss the indictment on the grounds of presidential immunity in February, arguing the "charges stem directly from official acts by President Trump while in office."

"Specifically, President Trump is immune from prosecution on Counts 1 through 32 because the charges turn on his alleged decision to designate records as personal under the Presidential Records Act and to cause the records to be moved from the White House to Mar-a-Lago. As alleged in the Superseding Indictment, President Trump made this decision while he was still in office. The alleged decision was an official act, and as such is subject to presidential immunity," that filing said.

Trump was indicted on 40 counts. He has pleaded not guilty to all charges.

The Supreme Court this week handed Trump a major victory by ruling that presidents have immunity for official actions while in office. The 6-3 decision on ideological lines came in response to Trump's challenge to special counsel Jack Smith's election interference case against him in Washington, D.C.

“The President is not above the law,” Chief Justice John Roberts wrote in Monday's ruling . “But Congress may not criminalize the President’s conduct in carrying out the responsibilities of the Executive Branch under the Constitution.”

Trump's court filing on Friday referenced a line from the decision where Roberts wrote that “[q]uestions about whether the President may be held liable for particular actions, consistent with the separation of powers, must be addressed at the outset of a proceeding.”

Trump's attorneys argued that as a result of that language, Cannon — a Trump nominee who had already indefinitely delayed the trial while she considers other arguments — should put the case on hold until the immunity questions are resolved.

The filing by Trump's team also used Justice Clarence Thomas' concurring opinion to bolster another of its motions, which argues that Smith was not properly appointed special counsel. Thomas had written, "If this unprecedented prosecution is to proceed, it must be conducted by someone duly authorized to do so by the American people."

The concurrence is not legally binding on Cannon.

The Justice Department did not immediately respond to a request for comment on Friday's filing by Trump's attorneys.

In a court filing earlier this year, Smith's office called Trump's immunity motion " frivolous ." It said the indictment "does not charge Trump for any acts that he undertook as President, let alone an official presidential act. The Superseding Indictment alleges that even though Trump lost the authority to possess documents containing national defense information after his term as President ended, he nonetheless willfully retained such documents after his Presidency, including by conspiring with others to conceal his ongoing, unlawful possession from his own attorneys, federal investigators, and the grand jury. Every criminal charge in the Superseding Indictment is based upon conduct in which Trump engaged after he left office."

Trump's lawyers last week successfully used the Supreme Court ruling to delay his sentencing on 34 felony counts of falsifying business records in New York, since some of the evidence at trial had to do with his conduct while he was president. Judge Juan Merchan postponed the original July 11 sentencing until September while he considers Trump's arguments.

Daniel Barnes reports for NBC News, based in Washington.

citing sources dissertation

Dareh Gregorian is a politics reporter for NBC News.

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • View all journals
  • Explore content
  • About the journal
  • Publish with us
  • Sign up for alerts
  • Published: 08 July 2024

Pathogenicity and transmissibility of bovine H5N1 influenza virus

  • Amie J. Eisfeld 1   na1 ,
  • Asim Biswas 1   na1 ,
  • Lizheng Guan 1   na1 ,
  • Chunyang Gu 1   na1 ,
  • Tadashi Maemura 1   na1 ,
  • Sanja Trifkovic 1 ,
  • Tong Wang 1 ,
  • Lavanya Babujee 1 ,
  • Randall Dahn 1 ,
  • Peter J. Halfmann   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-1648-1625 1 ,
  • Tera Barnhardt 2 ,
  • Gabriele Neumann 1 ,
  • Yasuo Suzuki 3 ,
  • Alexis Thompson   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-4405-5313 4 ,
  • Amy K. Swinford 5 ,
  • Kiril M. Dimitrov   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-5525-4492 5 ,
  • Keith Poulsen 6 &
  • Yoshihiro Kawaoka   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-5061-8296 1 , 7 , 8 , 9  

Nature ( 2024 ) Cite this article

925 Accesses

1129 Altmetric

Metrics details

We are providing an unedited version of this manuscript to give early access to its findings. Before final publication, the manuscript will undergo further editing. Please note there may be errors present which affect the content, and all legal disclaimers apply.

  • Influenza virus
  • Viral pathogenesis
  • Viral transmission

Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) viruses occasionally infect, but typically do not transmit, in mammals. In the Spring of 2024, an unprecedented outbreak of HPAI H5N1 in bovine herds occurred in the US, with virus spread within and between herds, infections in poultry and cats, and spillover into humans, collectively indicating an increased public health risk 1-4 . Here, we characterized an HPAI H5N1 virus isolated from infected cow milk in mice and ferrets. Like other HPAI H5N1 viruses, the bovine H5N1 virus spread systemically, including to the mammary glands of both species; however, this tropism was also observed for an older HPAI H5N1 virus isolate. Importantly, bovine HPAI H5N1 virus bound to sialic acids expressed in human upper airways and inefficiently transmitted to exposed ferrets (one of four exposed ferrets seroconverted without virus detection). Bovine HPAI H5N1 virus thus possesses features that may facilitate infection and transmission in mammals.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Access Nature and 54 other Nature Portfolio journals

Get Nature+, our best-value online-access subscription

24,99 € / 30 days

cancel any time

Subscribe to this journal

Receive 51 print issues and online access

185,98 € per year

only 3,65 € per issue

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Similar content being viewed by others

citing sources dissertation

Characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx viruses in the ferret model

citing sources dissertation

Potential pandemic risk of circulating swine H1N2 influenza viruses

citing sources dissertation

Risk assessment of a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus from mink

Author information.

These authors contributed equally: Amie J. Eisfeld, Asim Biswas, Lizheng Guan, Chunyang Gu, Tadashi Maemura

Authors and Affiliations

Influenza Research Institute, Dept. of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA

Amie J. Eisfeld, Asim Biswas, Lizheng Guan, Chunyang Gu, Tadashi Maemura, Sanja Trifkovic, Tong Wang, Lavanya Babujee, Randall Dahn, Peter J. Halfmann, Gabriele Neumann & Yoshihiro Kawaoka

Heritage Vet Partners, Johnson, KS, USA

Tera Barnhardt

Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan

Yasuo Suzuki

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, Canyon, TX, USA

Alexis Thompson

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College Station, TX, USA

Amy K. Swinford & Kiril M. Dimitrov

Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA

Keith Poulsen

Department of Virology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Yoshihiro Kawaoka

The University of Tokyo Pandemic Preparedness, Infection and Advanced research center (UTOPIA), University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

The Research Center for Global Viral Diseases, National Center for Global Health and Medicine Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yoshihiro Kawaoka .

Supplementary information

Reporting summary, rights and permissions.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article.

Eisfeld, A.J., Biswas, A., Guan, L. et al. Pathogenicity and transmissibility of bovine H5N1 influenza virus. Nature (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-024-07766-6

Download citation

Received : 01 June 2024

Accepted : 28 June 2024

Published : 08 July 2024

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-024-07766-6

Share this article

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines . If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.

Quick links

  • Explore articles by subject
  • Guide to authors
  • Editorial policies

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

citing sources dissertation

Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Research and Citation Resources

OWL logo

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

If you are having trouble locating a specific resource please visit the  search page  or the  Site Map . The Citation Chart  provides a detailed overview of MLA Style, APA Style, and Chicago Manual of Style source documentation by category.

Conducting Research

These OWL resources will help you conduct research using primary source methods, such as interviews and observations, and secondary source methods, such as books, journals, and the Internet. This area also includes materials on evaluating research sources.

Using Research

These OWL resources will help you use the research you have conducted in your documents. This area includes material on quoting and paraphrasing your research sources, as well as material on how to avoid plagiarism.

APA Style (7th Edition)

These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the Works Cited page, as well as MLA sample papers, slide presentations, and the MLA classroom poster

Chicago Manual of Style

This section contains information on the Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Style

These resources describe how to structure papers, cite sources, format references, and handle the complexities of tables and figures according to the latest Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) guidelines.

American Medical Association (AMA) Style

These resources provide guidance on how to cite sources using American Medical Association (AMA) Style, 10th Ed., including examples for print and electronic sources.

Research Overview

We live in an age overflowing with sources of information. With so many information sources at our fingertips, knowing where to start, sorting through it all and finding what we want can be overwhelming! This handout provides answers to the following research-related questions: Where do I begin? Where should I look for information? What types of sources are available?

Conducting Primary Research

Primary research involves collecting data about a given subject directly from the real world. This section includes information on what primary research is, how to get started, ethics involved with primary research and different types of research you can do. It includes details about interviews, surveys, observations, and analysis.

Evaluating Sources of Information

Evaluating sources of information is an important step in any research activity. This section provides information on evaluating bibliographic citations, aspects of evaluation, reading evaluation, print vs. online sources, and evaluating Internet sources.

Searching Online

This section covers finding information online. It includes information about search engines, Boolean operators, Web directories, and the invisible Web. It also includes an extensive, annotated links section.

Internet References

This page contains links and short descriptions of writing resources including dictionaries, style manuals, grammar handbooks, and editing resources. It also contains a list of online reference sites, indexes for writers, online libraries, books and e-texts, as well as links to newspapers, news services, journals, and online magazines.

Archival Research

This resource discusses conducting research in a variety of archives. It also discusses a number of considerations and best practices for conducting archival research.

This resources was developed in consultation with Purdue University Virginia Kelly Karnes Archives and Special Collections staff.

Scribbr Citation Generator

Accurate APA, MLA, Chicago, and Harvard citations, verified by experts, trusted by millions

citing sources dissertation

Scribbr for Chrome: Your shortcut to citations

Cite any page or article with a single click right from your browser. The extension does the hard work for you by automatically grabbing the title, author(s), publication date, and everything else needed to whip up the perfect citation.

⚙️ StylesAPA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard
📚 Source typesWebsites, books, articles
🔎 AutociteSearch by title, URL, DOI, or ISBN

APA Citation Generator team

Perfectly formatted references every time

Inaccurate citations can cost you points on your assignments, so our seasoned citation experts have invested countless hours in perfecting Scribbr’s citation generator algorithms. We’re proud to be recommended by teachers and universities worldwide.

Enjoy a citation generator without flashy ads

Staying focused is already difficult enough, so unlike other citation generators, Scribbr won’t slow you down with flashing banner ads and video pop-ups. That’s a promise!

Citation Generator features you'll love

Look up your source by its title, URL, ISBN, or DOI, and let Scribbr find and fill in all the relevant information automatically.

APA, MLA, Chicago, and Harvard

Generate flawless citations according to the official APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard style, or many other rules.

Export to Word

When your reference list is complete, export it to Word. We’ll apply the official formatting guidelines automatically.

Lists and folders

Create separate reference lists for each of your assignments to stay organized. You can also group related lists into folders.

Export to Bib(La)TeX

Are you using a LaTex editor like Overleaf? If so, you can easily export your references in Bib(La)TeX format with a single click.

Custom fonts

Change the typeface used for your reference list to match the rest of your document. Options include Times New Roman, Arial, and Calibri.

Industry-standard technology

Scribbr’s Citation Generator is built using the same citation software (CSL) as Mendeley and Zotero, but with an added layer for improved accuracy.

Annotations

Describe or evaluate your sources in annotations, and Scribbr will generate a perfectly formatted annotated bibliography .

Citation guides

Scribbr’s popular guides and videos will help you understand everything related to finding, evaluating, and citing sources.

Secure backup

Your work is saved automatically after every change and stored securely in your Scribbr account.

  • Introduction
  • Finding sources

Evaluating sources

  • Integrating sources

Citing sources

Tools and resources, a quick guide to working with sources.

Working with sources is an important skill that you’ll need throughout your academic career.

It includes knowing how to find relevant sources, assessing their authority and credibility, and understanding how to integrate sources into your work with proper referencing.

This quick guide will help you get started!

Finding relevant sources

Sources commonly used in academic writing include academic journals, scholarly books, websites, newspapers, and encyclopedias. There are three main places to look for such sources:

  • Research databases: Databases can be general or subject-specific. To get started, check out this list of databases by academic discipline . Another good starting point is Google Scholar .
  • Your institution’s library: Use your library’s database to narrow down your search using keywords to find relevant articles, books, and newspapers matching your topic.
  • Other online resources: Consult popular online sources like websites, blogs, or Wikipedia to find background information. Be sure to carefully evaluate the credibility of those online sources.

When using academic databases or search engines, you can use Boolean operators to refine your results.

Generate APA, MLA, Chicago, and Harvard citations in seconds

Get started

In academic writing, your sources should be credible, up to date, and relevant to your research topic. Useful approaches to evaluating sources include the CRAAP test and lateral reading.

CRAAP is an abbreviation that reminds you of a set of questions to ask yourself when evaluating information.

  • Currency: Does the source reflect recent research?
  • Relevance: Is the source related to your research topic?
  • Authority: Is it a respected publication? Is the author an expert in their field?
  • Accuracy: Does the source support its arguments and conclusions with evidence?
  • Purpose: What is the author’s intention?

Lateral reading

Lateral reading means comparing your source to other sources. This allows you to:

  • Verify evidence
  • Contextualize information
  • Find potential weaknesses

If a source is using methods or drawing conclusions that are incompatible with other research in its field, it may not be reliable.

Integrating sources into your work

Once you have found information that you want to include in your paper, signal phrases can help you to introduce it. Here are a few examples:

FunctionExample sentenceSignal words and phrases
You present the author’s position neutrally, without any special emphasis. recent research, food services are responsible for one-third of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.According to, analyzes, asks, describes, discusses, explains, in the words of, notes, observes, points out, reports, writes
A position is taken in agreement with what came before.Recent research Einstein’s theory of general relativity by observing light from behind a black hole.Agrees, confirms, endorses, reinforces, promotes, supports
A position is taken for or against something, with the implication that the debate is ongoing.Allen Ginsberg artistic revision …Argues, contends, denies, insists, maintains

Following the signal phrase, you can choose to quote, paraphrase or summarize the source.

  • Quoting : This means including the exact words of another source in your paper. The quoted text must be enclosed in quotation marks or (for longer quotes) presented as a block quote . Quote a source when the meaning is difficult to convey in different words or when you want to analyze the language itself.
  • Paraphrasing : This means putting another person’s ideas into your own words. It allows you to integrate sources more smoothly into your text, maintaining a consistent voice. It also shows that you have understood the meaning of the source.
  • Summarizing : This means giving an overview of the essential points of a source. Summaries should be much shorter than the original text. You should describe the key points in your own words and not quote from the original text.

Whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize a source, you must include a citation crediting the original author.

Citing your sources is important because it:

  • Allows you to avoid plagiarism
  • Establishes the credentials of your sources
  • Backs up your arguments with evidence
  • Allows your reader to verify the legitimacy of your conclusions

The most common citation styles are APA, MLA, and Chicago style. Each citation style has specific rules for formatting citations.

Generate APA, MLA, Chicago,  and Harvard citations in seconds

Scribbr offers tons of tools and resources to make working with sources easier and faster. Take a look at our top picks:

  • Citation Generator: Automatically generate accurate references and in-text citations using Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator, MLA Citation Generator , Harvard Referencing Generator , and Chicago Citation Generator .
  • Plagiarism Checker : Detect plagiarism in your paper using the most accurate Turnitin-powered plagiarism software available to students.
  • AI Proofreader: Upload and improve unlimited documents and earn higher grades on your assignments. Try it for free!
  • Paraphrasing tool: Avoid accidental plagiarism and make your text sound better.
  • Grammar checker : Eliminate pesky spelling and grammar mistakes.
  • Summarizer: Read more in less time. Distill lengthy and complex texts down to their key points.
  • AI detector: Find out if your text was written with ChatGPT or any other AI writing tool. ChatGPT 2 & ChatGPT 3 supported.
  • Proofreading services : Have a human editor improve your writing.
  • Citation checker: Check your work for citation errors and missing citations.
  • Knowledge Base : Explore hundreds of articles, bite-sized videos, time-saving templates, and handy checklists that guide you through the process of research, writing, and citation.

Watch CBS News

Trump seeks to overturn criminal conviction, citing Supreme Court immunity decision

By Graham Kates

Updated on: July 2, 2024 / 3:11 PM EDT / CBS News

Editor's note: Justice Juan Merchan  agreed to delay sentencing until Sept. 18. The original story appears below:

Donald Trump is trying to leverage a Supreme Court decision holding that presidents are immune from federal prosecution for official actions to overturn his conviction in a New York State criminal case.

A letter to the judge presiding over the New York case was made public on Tuesday. It was filed Monday after the Supreme Court's landmark holding further slowed the former president's criminal cases . 

"[T]he Trump decision confirmed the defense position that [the district attorney] should not have been permitted to offer evidence at trial of President Trump's official acts," Trump attorneys Todd Blanche and Emil Bove wrote. 

"The verdicts in this case violate the presidential immunity doctrine and create grave risks of 'an Executive Branch that cannibalizes itself,'" the wrote, quoting from the Supreme Court's decision. "After further briefing on these issues beginning on July 10, 2024, it will be manifest that the trial result cannot stand."

Lawyers from Manhattan District Attorney Alvin Bragg's office responded in a letter of their own on Tuesday, telling the judge they disagreed with the Trump attorneys' argument but did not oppose delaying Trump's July 11 sentencing date. They asked for a deadline of July 24 to respond to the defense's motion.

Trump's criminal case in New York is the only one of four against him to go to trial. On May 30, a unanimous jury concluded Trump was guilty of 34 felony counts of falsifying business records in an effort to cover up reimbursements for a "hush money" payment to an adult film star. Trump signed off on falsifying the records while he was in the White House in 2017.

Monday's Supreme Court decision extended broad immunity from criminal prosecutions to former presidents for their official conduct. But the issue of whether Trump was engaged in official acts has already been litigated in his New York case.

Trump sought in 2023 to move the case from state to federal jurisdiction. His lawyers argued that the allegations involved official acts within the color of his presidential duties.

That argument was rejected by a federal judge who wrote that Trump failed to show that his conduct was "for or relating to any act performed by or for the President under color of the official acts of a president."

"The evidence overwhelmingly suggests that the matter was purely a personal item of the president — a cover-up of an embarrassing event," U.S. District Judge Alvin Hellerstein wrote. "Hush money paid to an adult film star is not related to a president's official acts. It does not reflect in any way the color of the president's official duties."

Trump initially appealed that decision, but later dropped it. 

His case went to trial in April, and soon after the jury's unanimous decision finding him guilty, Trump vowed to appeal the conviction.

  • Supreme Court of the United States
  • Donald Trump

Graham Kates is an investigative reporter covering criminal justice, privacy issues and information security for CBS News Digital. Contact Graham at [email protected] or [email protected]

More from CBS News

"Anchorman" actor pleads guilty in Jan. 6 Capitol attack

RNC panel approves Trump-influenced 2024 GOP platform

Biden tells congressional Democrats he is "firmly committed" to staying in 2024 race

Doris Kearns Goodwin on what history may tell Joe Biden

COMMENTS

  1. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style

    To cite an unpublished dissertation (one you got directly from the author or university in print form), add "Unpublished" to the bracketed description, and list the university at the end of the reference, outside the square brackets. APA format. Author last name, Initials. ( Year ).

  2. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

    Citing a published dissertation or thesis from a database. If a thesis or dissertation has been published and is found on a database, then follow the structure below. It's similar to the format for an unpublished dissertation/thesis, but with a few differences: Structure: Author's last name, F. M. (Year published).

  3. How to Cite Sources

    Scribbr offers citation generators for both APA and MLA style. Both are quick, easy to use, and 100% free, with no ads and no registration required. Just input a URL or DOI or add the source details manually, and the generator will automatically produce an in-text citation and reference entry in the correct format.

  4. Thesis/Dissertation

    Thesis, from a commercial database. Lope, M. D. (2014). Perceptions of global mindedness in the international baccalaureate middle years programme: The relationship to student academic performance and teacher characteristics (Order No. 3682837) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland].ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

  5. APA Citations for a Thesis or Dissertation

    How to Cite a Published Dissertation or Thesis in APA. To cite a published dissertation in APA 7th edition, you need to include: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Publication number, if available) [Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis, Institution]. Publisher.

  6. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    APA Stylistics: Basics. APA Stylistics: Avoiding Bias. Footnotes & Appendices. Numbers & Statistics. Additional Resources. APA Headings and Seriation. APA PowerPoint Slide Presentation. APA Sample Paper. Tables and Figures.

  7. Thesis/Dissertation

    Thesis, from a commercial database. Nicometo, D. N. (2015). Increasing international education to develop culturally competent social workers: Social media recommendations for social work abroad program 501(c)3 (Order No. 1597712).Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

  8. Citation Styles Guide

    Citation Styles Guide | Examples for All Major Styles. Published on June 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield.Revised on November 7, 2022. A citation style is a set of guidelines on how to cite sources in your academic writing.You always need a citation whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize a source to avoid plagiarism.How you present these citations depends on the style you follow.

  9. Published Dissertation or Thesis References

    A dissertation or thesis is considered published when it is available from a database such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global or PDQT Open, an institutional repository, or an archive. If the database assigns publication numbers to dissertations and theses, include the publication number in parentheses after the title of the ...

  10. Dissertations and Theses

    Format: Author last name, first initial. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis, University].Database. URL. Elements: Author: List the last name, followed by the first initial (and second initial).See Authors for more information.; Year: List the year between parentheses, followed by a period. Title of dissertation/thesis: In italics.

  11. Citing Dissertations and Theses

    Citing a Print Dissertation Found in a Library and not Available Through ProQuest Dissertations and Theses: Format: Author last name, Author initial. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis [Unpublished doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis], Name of Institution Awarding the Degree. Example: Heil, J. A. (2016).

  12. Research Guides: APA Citation Style 7th Edition: Dissertations

    Dissertations. Citing Dissertations (7th edition) Pamphlet or Brochure; Interviews, E-mail, Intranet, Religious Works, & Secondary Sources (7th edition) Footnotes This link opens in a new window; Formatting an Appendix; Evaluating Sources This link opens in a new window; Understanding Plagiarism; RefWorks This link opens in a new window

  13. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in MLA

    Dissertation - A document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university. The formatting for thesis and dissertation citations is largely the same. However, you should be sure to include the type of degree after the publication year as supplemental information. For instance, state if the source you are citing is an ...

  14. Dissertation & SPP Formatting

    ABSTRACT: An abstract is required for your Dissertation or Scholarly Practice Project and must be included before submitting your final copy to Proquest.An abstract is a brief, comprehensive overview of your paper. Generally, it should not exceed 250 words. KEYWORDS: You should also include keywords.Keywords are descriptive terms that encompass the themes of your paper.

  15. Research Guides: Write and Cite: Theses and Dissertations

    A thesis is a long-term project that you work on over the course of a semester or a year. Theses have a very wide variety of styles and content, so we encourage you to look at prior examples and work closely with faculty to develop yours. ... paraphrase, integrate, and cite secondary sources to avoid plagiarism and to show the depth and breadth ...

  16. Citing Sources in Your Dissertation: 14 Best Practices for Avoiding

    Writing a dissertation is a significant academic undertaking that requires meticulous attention to detail, particularly when it comes to citing sources. Plagiarism, the act of using someone else's work or ideas without proper acknowledgment, is a serious offense that can undermine the integrity of your academic work and result in severe ...

  17. Reference List: Other Print Sources

    Note: Provide the secondary source in the references list; in the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Deleuze and Guattari's work is cited in Nail and you did not read the original work, list the Nail reference in the References. In the text, use the following citation:

  18. Reference List: Electronic Sources

    Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited electronic sources. For a complete list of how to cite electronic sources, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual. ... Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding Degree ...

  19. Citing Your Sources

    This includes articles, books, maps, videos, statistics. Citing your sources means that you follow a specific format to show what source you used. Below are some examples in APA format: ... With an appendix on paper format and submission that has been vetted by dissertation officials from across the country and a bibliography with the most up ...

  20. Women Are Paying for Birth Control When They Shouldn't Have To

    Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont has called on a government watchdog to investigate. Here's what you need to know.

  21. Cite a Thesis / Dissertation

    Thesis Paper AI Proofreader Essay Checker PhD dissertation APA editing Academic editing College admissions essay Personal statement English proofreading Spanish, French, or German. ... Plagiarism Checker. Citation Tools. Citation Generator Check your Citations Cite with Chrome. AI Writing. AI Proofreader Paraphrasing Tool Grammar Checker ...

  22. July 4th gas prices expected to hit lowest level in 3 years

    Last year, this national average price of gas was $3.50, just a penny higher than this year's projected price. In 2022, the average cost of gas was more than $1.30 higher than it's expected to be ...

  23. Trump asks judge to halt documents case after Supreme Court immunity

    The motion from Trump and his lawyers was among filings they submitted to U.S. District Judge Aileen Cannon on Friday, which cite the Supreme Court's decision Monday that found former presidents ...

  24. Trump seeks pause in documents case, citing Supreme Court immunity ruling

    The former president has argued that removing classified documents from the White House and allegedly designating them as personal items were "official acts."

  25. Pathogenicity and transmissibility of bovine H5N1 influenza virus

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) viruses occasionally infect, but typically do not transmit, in mammals. In the Spring of 2024, an unprecedented outbreak of HPAI H5N1 in bovine ...

  26. Research and Citation Resources

    The Citation Chart provides a detailed overview of MLA Style, APA Style, and Chicago Manual of Style source documentation by category. Conducting Research These OWL resources will help you conduct research using primary source methods, such as interviews and observations, and secondary source methods, such as books, journals, and the Internet.

  27. Several top House Democrats say Biden should step aside during ...

    More than a handful of House Democratic ranking members told House Minority Leader Hakeem Jeffries in a Sunday call that President Joe Biden needs to step aside from the 2024 campaign, according ...

  28. Free Citation Generator

    Thesis Paper AI Proofreader Essay Checker PhD dissertation APA editing Academic editing College admissions essay Personal statement English proofreading Spanish, French, or German. ... Citing sources. Whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize a source, you must include a citation crediting the original author.

  29. Trump seeks to overturn criminal conviction, citing Supreme Court

    Donald Trump is trying to leverage a Supreme Court decision holding that presidents are immune from federal prosecution for official actions to overturn his conviction in a New York State criminal ...

  30. Reformist lawmaker Masoud Pezeshkian wins Iran's presidential vote

    Reformist candidate Masoud Pezeshkian has won Iran's presidential election, Iranian state news agency Press TV reported Saturday citing the country's election headquarters, beating his ...