Bojongsoang village, Bandung Regency, West Jawa, Indonesia, June 2019

Rotten river: life on one of the world’s most polluted waterways – photo essay

Indonesia’s Citarum is relied upon by millions, but decades of pollution have choked it with chemicals and rubbish

  • Words and pictures by Andrea Carrubba in Dayeuhkolot

The smell is the first thing that hits you on the banks of the Citarum River in West Java, Indonesia . The odour is dense: rubbish rotting in hot sun mixed in with an acrid tone of chemical waste.

Some 9 million people live in close contact with the river, where levels of faecal coliform bacteria are more than 5,000 times mandatory limits, according to the findings of the Asian Development Bank in 2013.

Lead levels are more than 1,000 times the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard and levels of other heavy metals such as aluminium, iron and manganese are above the international average.

Villagers from Bojongsoang are among the many who rely on the river for their survival.

Those living along the river have nowhere to dispose of rubbish, so they either burn it or throw it into the river.

Iim Halimah in her home by the river.

Iim Halimah, 47, has three children. Her husband, Jajang Suherman, died of tuberculosis four years ago, aged 46, after years of dermatitis – a common condition along the Citarum. Halimah suffers from chronic bronchitis, a condition worsened by the pollution and malnutrition. She says the doctor has told her for years not to use the river water, but she has no alternative.

There are more than 2,000 companies in the area – mostly textile factories built near the river because they need large quantities of water. In recent years they have discharged enormous amounts of chemical waste directly into the river.

Sukamaju village, Majalaya District, Bandung Regency, West Java, Indonesia

The village of Sukamaju on the Citarum River. Factories belch out smoke in the distance

Mountains of river sediment are piled on the banks of the Citarum. Thousands live on these wastelands. Unemployed young people, families displaced by the frequent floods, or so-called ‘scavengers’, the very poor waste collectors who survive by selling recyclable rubbish.

In the industrial area of Majalya, West Java, a textile factory discharges waste directly into the river.

In the industrial area of Majalya, a textile factory discharges waste directly into the river, while children play among the toxic rubbish

Many people suffer from dermatitis, contact rashes, intestinal problems; but also from delays in child development, renal failure, chronic bronchitis and a significant incidence of tumours.

Oha, 70, is covered with dermatitis. He lives a few metres from the Citarum River and for 36 years collected the grass nearby to feed his goats. He is using a cortisone cream and has been under treatment for three years. He has been visited 25 times by eight doctors but, unable to move away from the river, he cannot heal.

The luckiest river dwellers access wastewater from the local industries, who draw water directly from aquifers up to 150m deep and, after partially purifying it, make it available to the neighbouring villages.

But most have to rely on contaminated water directly from the Citarum, to wash themselves and their clothes, and for drinking and cooking.

People and their animals also ingest contaminants through their food, mostly rice, which is irrigated with water from factories and villages or from the Citarum and its tributaries.

Ciwalengke village

People living along the Citarum have to wash and cook with contaminated water. The water from the well can range from yellow to black in colour, and the farmers irrigate their fields with water foaming with detergents

Despite the filth, fishing is still widely practised along the river. The catch, contaminated with heavy metals and microplastics, is sold and eaten as much in areas adjacent to the river as on the tables of Jakarta. The number of fish species in the Citarum has decreased by 60% since 2008.

The Indonesian government, after pressure from international organisations such as Greenpeace about the state of the river, has established a seven-year cleaning programme for the Citarum, with the goal of making its water drinkable by 2025.

A fish trap on the river bank. The fishermen have to build floating fences and fish among the rubbish.

The fishermen have to build floating fences and fish among the rubbish

The programme is also supported by the International Monetary Fund and the Asian Development Bank, which in 2009 committed $500m (£387m) to finance the river’s rehabilitation. The cleaning operation consists of combating soil erosion and agricultural runoff by reforesting surrounding mountains; extracting the toxic sediment from the river with large excavators; prohibiting factories from discharging wastewater until after filtration and purification, and setting up environmental education projects.

An environmental activist from Badega Lingkungan, is patrolling a canal

An environmental activist patrols a canal in the industrial area looking for hidden discharges into the river

According to local activists, despite the bans, many factories continue to discharge waste via concealed pipes. Even if discovered, bribes to the right people ensure they remain.

However, recent environmental awareness initiatives by the government and some campaign groups mean a new wind might be blowing in Indonesia.

‘Scavenger’ Mr Iwan, 34, collects recyclable material along the Citarum.

‘Scavenger’ Mr Iwan, 34, collects recyclable material along the Citarum

But for now at least, every day along the Citarum people are still being poisoned by the dioxins and hydrocarbons in the air from coal-fired textile factories and by the water of a river that was once considered a paradise.

Rubbish chokes the Citarum in Cipatik, West Java, Indonesia

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English Compositions

Short Essay on River Pollution [100, 200, 400 Words] With PDF

Rivers are one of the most important resources on the earth. They help in sustaining lives on the planet. Without rivers, all of us will die. That’s why river pollution is a big issue on our planet. In this lesson, you will learn how to write an essay on river pollution. 

Feature image of Short Essay on River Pollution

Short Essay on River Pollution in 100 Words

Rivers give us life. They give us fresh water for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and farming as well as provide us with food in the form of fish. Today, most of our rivers are severely polluted. In many places, waste and industrial by-products from factories, industries, refineries as well as domestic sewage directly end up in rivers.

Chemicals from fertilisers and pesticides also leach and pollute the water. In villages, people still wash and bathe in rivers and use the same water for drinking and cooking. This can lead to dangerous diseases like typhoid and cholera. A high concentration of chemicals can also kill fishes and other aquatic creatures. Keeping rivers clean is very important and we must act responsibly.

Short Essay on River Pollution in 200 Words

Freshwater is essential for the survival of not just human beings but also of most animals and other living creatures. One of the most important sources of fresh water is rivers. Rivers provide us with clean water and even food in the form of fish. Unfortunately, today, most of our rivers are severely polluted. 

Industries and large corporations dispose of their waste in rivers. In many places, untreated domestic sewage also ends up getting dumped in rivers. Chemicals from fertilisers, insecticides, and pesticides leach from the fields and run off to nearby rivers and streams. In villages, people still wash themselves, their clothes, dishes, and animals in river water. Because of all these activities, the rivers that once contained clean and fresh water are now contaminated with nitrates, phosphates, zinc, lead, and other toxic chemicals. 

Rivers give us life and a vast population of people are still directly dependent on rivers for water. Consuming contaminated water can lead to dangerous diseases like typhoid and cholera. A high concentration of chemicals in water can also kill fish and disrupt river ecosystems. Thus, it is very important to keep the rivers clean. Municipalities should set up sewage treatment plants and industrial waste must not be directly dumped into rivers. It is our duty as well to save our rivers and keep them clean. 

Short Essay on River Pollution in 400 Words

Freshwater is essential for the survival of human beings, animals, and a vast majority of living beings on this planet. Freshwater is found in glaciers, rivers, lakes, and ponds. Out of these, rivers are the most accessible to people and thus, it is no wonder that most of the ancient civilizations like those in Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, and India, developed around major rivers. Rivers also have a lot of religious and cultural significance in many different cultures. And yet, today, our rivers have become severely polluted and contaminated. 

River pollution is any change in the physical, chemical, or biological properties of river water that has a detrimental effect on the river ecosystem as well as the living beings dependent on the river. Many industries, factories, and refineries dump their waste and industrial by-products in the nearby rivers. Domestic waste like sewage is also carried to rivers through the drainage systems. When it rains, chemicals from fertilisers, insecticides, and pesticides leach from the fields and run off to rivers and streams. In many villages, slums, and suburban areas, people still wash their clothes, dishes, and animals in the river water. They bathe and clean themselves in rivers. 

The rivers that once contained clean and refreshing water are now contaminated with nitrates, phosphates, plastics, zinc, lead, copper, and mercury. These pollutants have the capability to kill fishes and other creatures that live in the water. They can disrupt aquatic ecosystems.

Water from rivers is also used as drinking and cooking water by people. Although there are water treatment plants in cities, in most villages and towns, people use untreated water which negatively impacts their health and well-being. Polluted water can cause typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, and various other diseases. Those who consume fish and other creatures living in these polluted rivers can also get food poisoning as the fishes contain toxins harmful to human beings. 

Keeping the rivers clean is very important. Municipalities in cities, as well as small towns and villages, should keep a check on the condition of rivers and install sewage treatment plants for domestic waste. Plastic and other waste materials should be disposed of properly so that they don’t end up in rivers.

Governments should regulate industrial waste management standards and make sure no toxic or untreated waste makes its way to rivers. There should also be awareness programs to make people aware of the consequences of river pollution and to teach them how to act more responsible. Rivers give us life. It is our duty to keep them clean. 

In the session above, you have learned how to write essays on river pollution. I have tried to discuss the topic in a simple language that every student can understand. Hopefully, you now have a holistic idea of the context and you will be able to write such essays yourself. To read more such lessons, keep browsing our website. 

Join us on Telegram to get the latest updates on our upcoming sessions. Thank you, see you again, soon. 

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polluted river essay

River Water Pollution and Solutions

By Emma Cheriegate, Staff Researcher & Writer at Save the Water™ | November 27, 2021

Water’s nickname is the “ universal solvent ” due to its capacity to dissolve more material than any other liquid on our planet. This ability makes water easily polluted, which poses a significant risk to our ecosystems and our drinking water. In the United States alone, almost half of our rivers and streams are not safe enough for swimming, fishing, or drinking . But you can learn about river pollution and help with solutions. 

We get most of our water from rivers . As worldwide populations increase, so does pollution. Primary water pollution sources are farming, industrial factories, and towns/cities.

From the Nile in Africa to the Amazon in South America, rivers worldwide face these same pollution issues. So how is each community responding, and what can we learn from one another? To understand this, we must first look at the similarities and differences in causes of river water pollution.

What Causes River Pollution?

Riverine pollution refers to the pollution of river water from human activity.  Rivers naturally transport organic and inorganic pollutants. Some examples of river pollution causes include:

  • Nutrients (such as phosphorus and nitrate)
  • Chemicals (such as heavy metals)
  • Groundwater pollutants (from pesticide use in agriculture)
  • Oil spills or wastewater seeping into the ground

Each region experiences one or more of these forms of pollution. In Brazil , the main contributors to Amazon River pollution are mining, deforestation, and dam construction. The United States’ Ohio River receives high levels of nitrate concentration from steel factories. The world’s longest river, the Nile River, stretches 4,132 miles , and its basin affects 11 different countries, including Ethiopia. The Nile’s largest threats are contamination from human waste and new dam construction in Ethiopia. 

Increased water pollution starts geopolitical conflicts . Rivers often pass through multiple boundary lines that separate counties, states, and countries. These regions often have contrasting laws and regulations on water pollution, which makes a collective solution difficult. This difficulty can also allow one group to contribute more pollution to water that flows down into another group’s region. 

Furthermore, a state or country such as Ethiopia might decide to construct a dam , preventing water from reaching another area such as Egypt. This causes resource disparity, as some regions will naturally receive more water than others. In sum, many communities suffer both environmental and economic consequences of water pollution.

Diverse Solutions to River Pollution

Many people are trying to stop river pollution. People dump trash and plastic into the Nile River . To counteract this, activist groups conduct clean-ups and training to raise awareness and decrease plastic use. Also, the activists galvanize corporations to construct boats to clean up. The United Nations supports one of these initiatives. 

People are also pushing back to protect the Amazon River. Similar to the people dependent on the Nile, groups advocate for sustainable management and accountability for the Amazon River. In 2018, the World Wide Fund for Nature published a comprehensive report to tackle the pollution caused by mining . The publication makes recommendations to governments, buyers, and gold and mercury retailers for better, safer practices.

In contrast, the United States emphasizes legislation. These environmental regulations aim to control and limit the amount of toxic river pollution. In addition to regulatory action, some researchers suggest wetland restoration to reduce excess nutrients such as nitrate and phosphorus. 

How You Can Help Reduce River Pollution

Solving river pollution can feel overwhelming. Thankfully, you can help :

  • Dispose of hazardous materials safely by contacting your county’s waste management department in the United States, as they usually accept some hazardous waste.
  • Don’t pour cleaners, paints, or grease down your drain.
  • Stop using fertilizers and pesticides. These chemicals pollute rivers.
  • Attend clean-ups. Organizations often plan clean-up events, so find one near you!
  • Donate to Save the Water TM .
  • Don’t flush pills down the drain.

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Essay on Growing Pollution in Rivers

Growing Pollution in River

Pollution refers to the addition of impurities and other harmful substances in nature that can have bad effect on the environment. It is a major topic of concern nowadays. Pollution is increasing day-by-day in nation. There are various types of Pollution; Air Pollution, Soil Pollution, Water Pollution, Noise Pollution, etc. Various factors are responsible for increasing Pollution.

10 Lines Essay for Growing Pollution in Rivers

1) The discharge of toxic substances into rivers leads to a rise in river pollution.

2) River pollution has increased rapidly in the past few years.

3) It is caused due to factory discharge, sewer, waste dumping, etc.

4) River pollution can lead to various diseases.

5) Due to growing river pollution, marine lives are also harmed.

6) Proper treatment of wastes before discharging into rivers can control river pollution.

7) About 18 million pounds of garbage is thrown into the rivers every year.

8) “Namami Devi Narmade” and “Namami Gange” are the programs forwarded by the government to clean rivers of India.

9) In the world, Asia has the most polluted rivers.

10) Excessive river pollution will disturb the ecosystem.

Long Essay on Growing Pollution in Rivers in English

Here, I’m presenting long essay on Growing Pollution in Rivers in very easy language for your better understanding.

1000 Words Essay – River Pollution: Meaning, Causes, Impact, Solution, and River Pollution Projects

Introduction

About 71% of Earth is covered with water. In India, we are blessed to have about 14 major and 55 minor rivers along with many other rivers and lakes. Rivers are the main sources of water supply. More than half population of country is dependent on rivers for drinking water and other purposes. In India, rivers are considered holy. People worship them and also perform various rituals on its bank, resulting in the growing river water pollution. As the rivers get polluted people has to depend on other expensive sources for fresh drinking water.

What is River Pollution/River Pollution Definition

The discharge of harmful substances like chemicals, plastics, contaminants, etc. to the water bodies especially in rivers are termed as River Pollution. However, the toxic substances and the wastes responsible for pollution are termed as pollutants. In other words, we can say that the emission of toxic substance in the rivers results in River Pollution.

Cause of Growing River Pollution

There are several factors which led to increase in River Pollution. Some human activities as well as natural causes are also responsible for polluting water bodies to a great extent. Some reasons are mentioned below:

  • Factory discharge: Many large factories and industries are contributing in increasing river pollution. Various toxic chemicals and waste materials are discharged directly into the water bodies without proper treatment.
  • Garbage dumping: large amount of garbage including plastics are dumped into the rivers for their disposal.
  • Sewage disposal: In many areas the dirty water and sewage of houses are open in the rivers, which then mix with clean water and results in polluting whole water bodies.
  • Agriculture: The runoff waste like fertilizers or pesticides which are used in farming are also responsible for river pollution.
  • Acid rain: Acid rain contains chemicals like sulphuric or nitric acid which are harmful for the rivers and aquatic animals.
  • Indian rituals: Some Indian rituals include throwing flowers and other things in the water which takes long time in disposal.
  • Natural causes: Sometimes nature is also responsible for polluting water bodies like volcanoes, floods or soil slit.

River Pollution Impact on the Living World

The growing pollution in rivers had an adverse effect on the biodiversity. The main regions which are more likely to influenced are aquatic species and humans.

As we know that the large population of India does not have the facility of pure drinking water. They use river water for drinking. Due to growing river pollution, they are prone to various water borne diseases. According to a survey, every year about 200,000 people lose their life due to consuming contaminated water.

However, there is a huge loss of aquatic species in the country. Release of toxic chemicals into water bodies is very harmful for the aquatic life. The increasing water pollution led to the extinction of various aquatic animals.

How River Pollution can be Controlled/Solutions to River Pollution

Controlling river pollution is in our hands. It is the responsibility of every human in the world to keep rivers and other water bodies clean. Here are some steps which could be helpful in minimizing river pollution to a great extent.

  • Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP): ETPs are the machines which are responsible for treating the wastes of industry before disposing to the rivers. The installations of ETPs in every industry would be helpful in controlling the pollution.
  • Sewage Treatment Plant (STP): STPs are responsible for the treatment of sewage. Sewage water contains pathogens and other harmful viruses. Therefore, need to be treated.
  • Control on the Indian rituals like cremation ceremony, where the ashes are dumped into the rivers. However, people take bath in the rivers which are considered holy.
  • Farmers should adopt organic farming instead of excess use of fertilizers and pesticides.
  • Proper drainage system should be arranged so that the dirty water could not mix with the polluted water.

River Pollution Projects/Plans

Different plans and projects have been put forward by the Government of India:

  • National River Conservation Plan (NRCP) launched in 1995, by the National River Conservation Authority, which aimed to control river pollution.
  • “Namami Gange Programme” launched in June 2014 by the Government of India to clean river Ganga. This programme had a budget of 20,000 Cr. and the programme is working well towards its goal.
  • “Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance” had been established on behalf of National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP). Its main focus is to ensure safe drinking water for people mostly in the rural areas.
  • Another programme by the name “Jal Jeevan Mission” had been launched in the urban areas. It promises water taps in every urban house with safe and pure water by 2024. 
  • “Namami Devi Narmade” is another campaign promoted by the Government of Madhya Pradesh to clean river Narmada.

Growing River Pollution in India

The population of India is increasing rapidly and so the need of water. In India, about 80% of water is polluted due to waste disposal. It is predicted that about 40% of population doesn’t get safe drinking water. They use dirty water for every purpose.

Drinking and using contaminated water is harmful for health. According to a survey, about 1.5 million Indian children die every year due to various water borne diseases.

The rivers of India are turning impure. A report in 2013 predicted that the pollution of river in India is doubled in the past few years. However, various measures are taken by the Government to keep the Indian rivers clean.

Growing river pollution is a serious subject of consideration in the world. About 2 million tons of waste from industries, sewage, etc is discharged everyday into the water bodies.  

Knowing the importance of fresh water, World Water Day is celebrated on 22 March every year. The World Water Day is celebrated since 1993 across the world. It aims to spread awareness among the public to save water. If the river water will continue to get polluted like this, then the day is not far when the world will suffer shortage of water. 

FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions

Ans. Various diseases like Cholera, Diarrhea, Typhoid, Hepatitis A, Dysentery, etc. are caused due to drinking polluted water.

Ans . Citarum River in Indonesia is known as the most polluted river in the world. 

Ans. Yamuna is the most polluted river in India.

Ans. The Chambal River of India is considered as the cleanest river of India. 

Ans. The Thames River in London is the cleanest river in the world.

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  • Published: 23 February 2017

Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change

  • Yingrong Wen 1 ,
  • Gerrit Schoups 1 &
  • Nick van de Giesen 1  

Scientific Reports volume  7 , Article number:  43289 ( 2017 ) Cite this article

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  • Environmental health
  • Environmental impact

Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time the global sanitation crisis through its impact on organic river pollution from the threats of (1) increasing wastewater discharge due to urbanization and intensification of livestock farming, and (2) reductions in river dilution capacity due to climate change and water extractions. Using in-stream Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we calculate historical (2000) and future (2050) BOD concentrations in global river networks. Despite significant self-cleaning capacities of rivers, the number of people affected by organic pollution (BOD >5 mg/l) is projected to increase from 1.1 billion in 2000 to 2.5 billion in 2050. With developing countries disproportionately affected, our results point to a growing need for affordable wastewater solutions.

Introduction

Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities (cities, farming, industry) affects humans and ecosystems worldwide through the global sanitation crisis. First, untreated urban sewage contains pathogens that cause a variety of diseases, including diarrhoea 1 , globally the leading cause of illness and death. As of 2015, up to 2.4 billion people, primarily in sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia, lack access to proper sanitation 2 . Second, accumulation of organic pollutants in rivers stimulates microbial growth, leading to oxygen depletion and disturbance of the entire river ecosystem 3 .

The level of organic pollution in a river, commonly expressed by the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 4 , is the result of two counteracting mechanisms: pollutant loading and natural cleaning ( Fig. 1 ). Wastewater discharge from cities and intensive livestock farms constitute the main organic pollutant loads into rivers 5 , 6 . With rapid urban population growth expected in the next decades, both sources of organic pollution will increase 7 . Although pollution is introduced at wastewater discharge points along the river, impacts extend to downstream populations and ecosystems, as pollutants are transported through the river network 8 . The extent of downstream impacts depends on self-cleaning capacities of rivers via dilution by natural runoff and natural degradation by micro-organisms, as illustrated for two major basins in Fig. 1 . Changes in river discharge due to climate change affect river dilution capacities, increasing the risk of river pollution in areas that experience reductions in climate wetness 9 , 10 . Increases in water extractions to support a growing global population may further decrease river dilution capacities.

figure 1

( a ) Variables and processes affecting organic pollution of rivers, expressed as in-stream Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD); ( b ) Calculated in-stream BOD concentration profiles from headwater to river mouth for the year 2000 along the main stem of the Rhine and Yamuna-Ganges rivers. Without natural degradation and wastewater treatment (purple profiles), BOD concentrations gradually increase along the densely populated Rhine, whereas for the Yamuna-Ganges river a rapid increase near the cities of Delhi and Agra is followed by dilution with freshwater from several large tributaries. Pollutant loading from livestock farming adds significant pollution in both basins (red profiles). When natural degradation is taken into account (yellow profiles), BOD concentrations decrease significantly in both rivers, illustrating the self-cleaning capacity of natural rivers 12 . Wastewater treatment (blue profiles) further reduces BOD concentrations, especially in the Rhine, but also near Delhi and Agra, which have higher rates of wastewater treatment than smaller cities further downstream 52 .

Quantitative assessments of human and climate effects on increasing in-stream BOD have been carried out at catchment and continental scales 11 . However, climate-related organic river pollution requires a global perspective to articulate the geographic linkage of urbanization, intensive livestock farming, and freshwater variability. Global-scale studies of river BOD so far have ignored wastewater from livestock farming and self-cleaning capacities of rivers by natural degradation 12 , 13 , as well as future climate-related changes in river dilution capacity 4 . Here, we calculate for the first time historical and future in-stream BOD concentrations in global river networks, accounting for BOD loading from urban areas and intensive livestock farming, wastewater treatment, downstream transport, dilution and natural degradation. Our model is described in Section S1, with detailed information on all spatially distributed model inputs in Section S2. Comparison of computed BOD concentrations to observations from global, continental, and national river BOD datasets in Section S3 provides confidence in the presented results. In what follows, we analyse global patterns of historical (year 2000) and future (year 2050) BOD concentrations and discuss wastewater management options to curb projected increases in organic river pollution.

Historical patterns of organic river pollution

Figure 2a shows global patterns of computed BOD concentration for the year 2000 resulting from corresponding spatial patterns in river discharge ( Fig. S2 ), urban population ( Fig. S3 ), intensive livestock farming ( Figs S4 and S5 ), wastewater treatment ( Figs S6 and S7 ), and natural degradation. The impacts of intensive livestock farming are significantly more widespread than those of urban populations (about 5 times more polluted grid cells; Fig. S13 ). Sizeable portions (about 23% of polluted grid cells) of these organic pollutants are naturally degraded. Further reductions in BOD concentrations by wastewater treatment are successful in removing river pollution in large parts of Europe (69%) and North America (68%), while in other regions (Indian sub-continent, mid-eastern China, South Korea, Brazil, Mexico, as well as smaller regions in Africa, south-eastern Asia) wastewater treatment remains insufficient to keep BOD concentrations below 5 mg/l ( Fig. 2a ).

figure 2

Global patterns of computed river BOD concentrations in the years 2000 and 2050 53 , 54 .

Figure 3 summarizes the number of people living near polluted rivers for major river basins around the world, with Asian basins (Ganges, Yangtze, Yellow & Huai, Indus) topping the list. Note that about half of the affected people live in smaller basins scattered throughout the world. The numbers in Fig. 3 also reveal the main pollution sources in each basin, i.e. urban (Yellow & Huai), livestock (Ganges), or a combination of both (Yangtze). Natural degradation and wastewater treatment are most successful in reducing pollution impacts in the Rhine, Mississippi, and Danube basins.

figure 3

Basins are listed from more to less polluted in the year 2000, with green and red arrows to the left indicating their change in ranking in the year 2050.

These results largely agree with the notion of an environmental Kuznets curve 14 , as shown in Fig. 4 . Relatively low levels of pollution occur in both poor and rich nations due to, respectively, absence and control of pollution sources. Relatively high levels of pollution are found in rapidly developing nations characterized by urbanizing populations and expanding economies that have not yet implemented comprehensive control and treatment of pollution sources 15 , 16 . There is however also large heterogeneity within countries. For example, China is one of the fastest growing economies in the world but its urban population and economic development are concentrated in the eastern part of the country. Likewise, organic river pollution is also concentrated in the east ( Fig. 2a ), despite a higher rate of 55% wastewater treatment in eastern China compared to 20% in western China 17 . While urban areas possess financial and technical resources for pollution control, control measures typically lag behind population increase.

figure 4

Environmental Kuznets curves for the relation between computed country-wide organic river pollution (with and without wastewater treatment) and per capita income in the year 2000.

Future patterns of organic river pollution

Figure 2b shows computed BOD concentrations for the year 2050 resulting from projected changes in urban population ( Fig. S9 ), intensive livestock farming ( Figs S10 and S11 ), and river discharge ( Fig. S8 ), the latter due to climate change and changes in water extractions to support a growing global population. A sensitivity analysis suggests that the effect of temperature change on natural degradation is secondary (see section S1 ) and it is thus not included. In all scenarios, wastewater treatment rates are kept constant at their current levels. As such, computed results give an indication of pollution impacts in the absence of additional investments beyond current treatment capacity to curb the global sanitation crisis.

Figure 2 shows that by 2050 the biggest deterioration is projected to occur in India, sub-Saharan Africa and Mexico, with many smaller regions all over the world also facing substantial challenges. Urbanization is the main factor in Africa, India, China, and parts of South America (refs 18 and 19 ; Figs S9 and S14a ). Intensification of livestock farming is mainly a factor in India, Africa and South America ( Fig. S14b ), while intensive livestock farming in Europe and China is expected to stay constant or decline in the coming decades, thereby reducing impacts on river basins in these regions. Finally, regions with a significant decrease in discharge, such as most parts of Europe, West Africa, western and southern Asia, and Latin America excluding the Amazon, experience a decrease in dilution capacity, which translates into increased pollution levels in several river basins ( Fig. S14c : Ganges, Yangtze, Indus, Parana, Nile, Danube, Niger). Other basins (Yellow & Huai, Mississippi) benefit from an increased dilution capacity due to a projected increase in mean discharge ( Fig. S8 ). However, increased discharge may also have negative effects not accounted for in our analysis. For example, cities may experience pollution surges as increases in urban stormwater overload the capacity of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants 20 .

In terms of number of people affected, except for the Rhine, all basins listed in Fig. 3 are projected to experience increasing impacts in 2050 compared to 2000, with the largest increases in Ganges, Indus, Nile, and Niger. Reasons for these increases differ by basin. Urban population growth for the Yellow and Huai, Yangtze, and Mississippi, decreases in river discharge for the Danube basin, and a combination of all three factors for the Ganges, Indus, Parana, Nile, and Niger basins. Globally, a total of 2.5 billion people (26% of global population) will be affected by living near polluted rivers (BOD >5 mg/l) in the year 2050, up from 1.1 billion people (19%) in the year 2000. Basins listed in Fig. 3 account for about half of affected people. This is a conservative estimate because several factors not accounted for in our analysis (industrial pollution, eutrophication, seasonal discharge cycles and smaller streams with limited dilution capacity) would further increase these numbers 4 , 6 .

Portfolio of wastewater solutions

Given that projected impacts are largest in developing regions, where wastewater treatment is still limited ( Fig. S6 ), there is an urgent and growing need for affordable wastewater solutions. In developed countries, organic river pollution from urban effluents has historically been reduced by a combination of environmental regulation and large-scale wastewater treatment 6 . Such investments are likely not within reach of many developing regions, thus requiring a more decentralized approach 21 , 22 , 23 . Current efforts in that direction include subsidizing adoption of improved sanitation 2 , decentralized low-energy methods of wastewater treatment 24 , 25 , and novel ways of reusing wastewater 8 .

As intensification and growth of livestock farming is driven by the global demand for meat and dairy, pollution impacts may also be tackled by economic policies such as pricing to more accurately reflect environmental and social costs. This is especially important in cases where international trade spatially separates meat consumption from the negative impacts of its production 26 . Such pricing policies, combined with a focus on raising environmental awareness of consumers, are useful tools for reducing global demand for meat and dairy.

Finally, additional pressure in several regions of projected reductions in river dilution capacity ties pollution control to basin-scale water management 16 , 27 and climate adaptation 20 , 28 , making dialogues with provincial and national governments as well as international cooperation important 29 . Any measures that increase freshwater availability may help here, such as reservoir releases and conjunctive use. Making water available for pollution control competes with several other water users and thus a proper balance needs to be found that considers all stakeholders.

In short, coordinated efforts are needed that combine innovative and affordable wastewater treatment with integrated water management, targeted economic policies, and consumer education. Spatially explicit evaluation of the full range of options holds great promise in addressing impacts of the global sanitation crisis, yet it remains largely unexplored.

Modelling strategy and equations

Any model must consider the trade-off between model complexity and data availability 30 . As such, a global model of organic river pollution cannot be expected to include all details and processes. Instead, our modelling strategy was to focus on the main drivers affecting spatial patterns of organic pollution in global river networks. Favourable comparison of the resulting model predictions to data ( Fig. S11 and Table S9 in the Supplement) confirms the validity of this approach. Assumptions and possible extensions of our model in light of available data are discussed in the next section. Here, we first provide more details on the conceptual and mathematical underpinnings of the model. Additional details on the methodology are available in the Supplement to this article.

Figure 5 shows a conceptual diagram of our approach for computing in-stream BOD concentrations as a function of urban organic pollution production, wastewater treatment, intensive livestock farming, upstream-downstream transport, dilution, and natural degradation. The approach follows Voβ et al . 11 , who applied a similar model to European river networks. Vörösmarty et al . 4 also included BOD in their global analysis but did not account for natural degradation, neither did they look at future changes. Our calculation is implemented on a 0.5-degree grid, and thus only major rivers are taken into account, with urban regions and intensive farming areas that are within 5 km of a major stream included as point sources.

figure 5

Conceptual diagram of computing in-stream BOD concentrations.

Estimating in-stream BOD concentrations along discretized river networks is based on a local mass balance that relates downstream concentration in a river segment or grid cell to concentrations in upstream segments: C i is BOD concentration in segment i (mg/l) after mixing, Q i is discharge in segment i (l/day), x j is length of river segment j (m), E W, i is local BOD load from urban wastewater and intensive livestock farming into segment i (mg/day), calculated as:

where P i is urban population in grid cell i, E hum is country-average BOD production from urban population (mg/person/day), f i, t is the fraction of urban domestic wastewater collected for treatment type t with treatment efficiency w i, t , P a, i is the population of livestock type a raised in intensive farming system in grid cell i (a = chicken, pig, water buffalo and cattle), E a is average BOD production from livestock type a (mg/stock/day), p i is the proportion of livestock farming wastewater collected for treatment. There were no data available for intensive livestock farming treatment levels, all livestock farming treatment levels are assumed as secondary, i.e. 85% treatment efficiency 31 . Our approach differs from previous work where BOD loads were based on estimated nitrogen (N) emissions and BOD:N ratios 4 .

Assuming stream and wastewater discharge are at steady state, and instantaneous full mixing of all flows, the total BOD load L BOD, i into downstream segment i can be calculated as:

where the sum is over all upstream river segments draining into grid cell i. The instantaneous mixing concentration of BOD is:

The travel time for BOD in each upstream segment is calculated as:

where v j is average flow velocity in river segment j (m/day).

The first-order degradation rate coefficient k is temperature T dependent according to 32 :

where typical values for θ range from 1.02 to 1.15, with a value of 1.047 used in many models 11 , 33 . The reported range for laboratory-measured k values is from 0.3 to 0.5 day −1 at a temperature of 20 °C, which is considered representative of field conditions 34 , 35 . A value of 0.35 day −1 was used in our model, somewhat higher (more conservative) than the value of 0.23 day −1 used in a previous study 11 .

Calculations for the year 2050 are based on mean projected urban population, intensive livestock farming and discharge, derived from an ensemble of two IPCC emission scenarios (A2 - fast growth, and B1 - slow growth), three coupled atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Models (GCMs), and one Global Hydrological Model (GHM), i.e. WaterGAP 36 . Projections suggest that air temperature will increase by about 1 °C in 2050, relative to the 1986–2005 period 37 . A sensitivity analysis showed that an increase in air temperature of 2 °C would lead to an increase in annual average river temperature of 1.3 °C 38 . A worldwide projected increase of average first-order decay rates due to global warming is up to 10% 39 , a small change, suggesting that the direct temperature effect of climate change on river BOD concentrations is small, especially compared to effects of changes in river discharge.

Assumptions and possible extensions of the model

Here, we discuss the rationale behind several model assumptions, and outline possible model extensions in light of available data. A first group of assumptions relates to sources of organic river pollution that are not explicitly included in the model:

industrial sources : a previous continental-scale study in Europe 31 concluded that organic loads from domestic and livestock farming sources are each at least ten times greater than contributions from industrial activities. As such, organic pollution from industry is considered a secondary driver and not included in the model. However, locally, industrial pollution may still be an important factor: areas where our model underestimates observed concentrations due to potential industrial activities are identified and discussed in the Supplement. In the absence of globally extensive datasets, efforts to add industrial sources to the model should focus on these areas first.

agricultural non-point sources : by their very nature, non-point sources, such as extensive livestock farming and manure applied to agricultural fields, contribute much lower BOD values than effluents from intensive livestock farming, albeit over larger areas. Previous work 13 in extensive livestock areas suggests that in-stream BOD levels exceed the range of natural water only during dry periods. Our model is limited to long-term average conditions (steady-state) and ignores such seasonal or shorter-term effects on organic pollution.

rural domestic sources : following other global river pollution studies 11 , 40 , 41 , we assumed that organic pollutants from rural areas do not enter rivers due to either collection of human waste in latrines and septic tanks, or retention and degradation in soil.

wastewater interception and diversion : local effects of urban pollution interception and diversion (e.g. to the ocean as in the San Francisco Bay Area) 42 , 43 are not included but could be added where available.

A second group of assumptions relates to parameterization of pollution and degradation processes:

BOD degradation rates : as mentioned earlier, a constant rate coefficient k of 0.35 day −1 is used. This value is similar to laboratory measured values and to a value of 0.23 day −1 used in another large-scale modelling study 11 . Previous work 34 , 35 has considered these values representative of rivers with discharge larger than 22.7 m 3 /s 32 (i.e. most of the rivers in our study). While k values may change spatially with river hydraulic conditions, these effects are currently not included in the model. A possible model extension is to include these effects via settling and bed effects equations in shallow streams 34 . We note that the direct effect of river flow velocity on degradation is included (Eq. 4). In addition, neither secondary effects of organic pollution such as eutrophication nor light degradation in in-stream reservoirs are included in our calculation 4 , as it depends on daily or seasonal variation and oxidizable nitrogen compounds in polluted waters 44 , 45 .

wastewater treatment fractions and efficiencies : assumed spatial distributions of treatment fractions reflect available data (by city or country for domestic sources, and by region for livestock farming; see section S1.2 and Table S1 in the Supplement). Similarly, domestic treatment efficiencies are only available by country. In the absence of systematic data on treatment efficiency in intensive livestock farming, we assumed a uniform efficiency of 85% (secondary level) based on the following considerations:(i) other studies 46 , 47 considered intensive livestock farming a manufacturing activity subject to secondary or tertiary treatment, at least in European countries 31 , (ii) in Asia, effluents from large livestock farms are either diluted and reused for irrigation, or processed through (an) aerobic treatment plants such as lagoons, resulting in organic removal rates that approach secondary treatment levels 48 , 49 , and (iii) a sensitivity analysis reveals that computed BOD concentrations are relatively insensitive to the assumed efficiency in Africa and South America because of the low fractions of livestock farming wastewater treatment in these regions (from 6% to 20%, Fig. S6 ).

Finally, as with other climate change studies, our projections are subject to uncertainties in future population (e.g. grid-scale projected changes in urban population assume uniform exponential growth rates across each country 50 ) and river discharge as simulated by a limited number of scenarios and generally imperfect global climate-hydrological models 51 . We note that projected river discharge applied in our model generally agrees with forecasting from IPCC (see Fig. S2 ). In addition, one aim of our study is to estimate consequences of river pollution in the absence of additional investments in wastewater treatment. Thus, our projected results rely on the assumption that wastewater treatment remains at current levels.

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How to cite this article: Wen, Y. et al . Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change. Sci. Rep. 7 , 43289; doi: 10.1038/srep43289 (2017).

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  • Copy URL https://www.pbs.org/newshour/world/in-worlds-poorest-slums-landfills-and-polluted-rivers-become-a-childs-playground

In world’s poorest slums, landfills and polluted rivers become a child’s playground

Worldwide, more than 340,000 children under age 5 died from diarrheal diseases in 2013 due to a lack of safe water, sanitation and basic hygiene. That’s 1,000 deaths a day, according to the UN’s statistics. What’s more, the No. 1 killer of children between the ages of one month to 5 years, pneumonia , can also be spread through a lack of hygiene.

Although much improvement has been made in the past decade to aid children across the globe, there are still alarming numbers who do not have access to clean water, proper sanitation or even just a way to clean their hands — especially after coming in contact with waste and feces.

“A gram of feces can contain ten million viruses,” said Sanjay Wijesekera, Chief of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene, Programme Division at UNICEF. “Many diseases are transmitted by pathogens going from feces to food and fingers and so on, making children ill.”

A boy swims in the polluted waters of the river Sabarmati to dive for offerings thrown in by worshippers in the western Indian city of Ahmedabad in 2010. Photo by Amit Dave/Reuters

A boy swims in the polluted waters of the Sabarmati River to dive for offerings thrown in by worshippers in the western Indian city of Ahmedabad in 2010. Photo by Amit Dave/Reuters

One of the most basic hygiene problems that haunt developing communities is lack of adequate toilets. Around the world, about 2.5 billion people do not have proper toilets. Among them, 1 billion people defecate in the open — in fields, bushes and bodies of water — putting themselves and their community in danger of fecal-oral diseases, like hepatitis, cholera and dysentery.

Children are especially susceptible to these diseases when their home and “playgrounds” are overrun with rubbish and human waste. In countries throughout Asia, children can be seen swimming in polluted stagnant waters, digging through trash and playing amid toxic substances at landfills.

“When you have children running around barefeet, then coming in contact with excrete, it’s really easy to catch the worms and this of course impacts their development and growth,” said Dr. Aidan Cronin, Chief of the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) program at UNICEF Indonesia.

A child jumps on the waste products that are used to make poultry feed as she plays in a tannery at Hazaribagh in Dhaka in 2012. Luxury leather goods sold across the world are produced in a slum area of Bangladesh's capital where workers, including children, are exposed to hazardous chemicals and often injured in horrific accidents. Photo by Andrew Biraj/Reuters

A child jumps on the waste products that are used to make poultry feed as she plays in a tannery at Hazaribagh in Dhaka, Bangladesh, in 2012. Luxury leather goods sold across the world are produced in this slum area of Bangladesh’s capital where workers, including children, are exposed to hazardous chemicals and often injured in horrific accidents. Photo by Andrew Biraj/Reuters

Reuters photographers have been capturing scenes like this for the past decade. But even some of the oldest photos in this series picture grisly scenes that, sadly, are still the reality in urban slums today.

Not only do these conditions promote the spread of deadly childhood diseases, another major health problem that affects children’s lives is stunting, often caused by malnutrition but also by intestinal worms and internal inflammation from fecal-oral contamination.

Stunting has become a huge obstacle for many children’s physical and cognitive growth, ultimately affecting their development and ability to learn. In Indonesia alone, nearly 9 million children suffer from stunting, said Cronin.

A child eats breakfast in a garbage dump, where hundreds of people live and make a living by recycling waste and making charcoal, in the Tondo section of Manila December 9, 2007. Photo by Darren Whiteside/Reuters

A child eats breakfast in a garbage dump, where hundreds of people live and make a living by recycling waste and making charcoal, in the Tondo section of Manila, Dec. 9, 2007. Photo by Darren Whiteside/Reuters

In Indonesia, UNICEF have recently launched a campaign called “ Tinju Tinja ,” which means “punch the poo” in Indonesian, in support of the Government’s five-year plan to have a completely open defecation-free country. In an attempt to engage the urban youth, the campaign has one of the local rock stars, Melanie Subono, literally fighting the “poo monster” as the main image to spearhead the campaign.

“It all starts from acknowledging that [open defecation] is a serious problem,” Cronin said. “The more you engage with communities and work with them with their specific issues, the more sustainable sanitation is.”

Children sitting on a makeshift raft play in a river full of rubbish in a slum area of Jakarta in 2012. Photo by Enny Nuraheni/Reuters

Children sitting on a makeshift raft play in a river full of rubbish in a slum area of Jakarta, Indonesia, in 2012. Photo by Enny Nuraheni/Reuters

One way to help children is through education and schools, said Dr. Jody Heymann, Dean of the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health and founding director of the WORLD Policy Analysis Center. A lot of progress has been made to make primary schools free and available for children around the world. In Indonesia, UNICEF works through primary schools to teach kids the importance of sanitation and hygiene by putting in clean toilets, hand washing stations and soap so that the kids can form a habit of cleaning.

“I think when we see [these] images, we should be asking not only ‘why isn’t there a playground? What’s leading them to the dump?’” said Heymann. “But the bigger question of what’s keeping them from being in school, gaining education that would give them lifelong opportunity.”

A boy looks on as he collects recyclable materials at a garbage dump in New Delhi in 2006. Photo by Adnan Abidi/Reuters

A boy looks on as he collects recyclable materials at a garbage dump in New Delhi in 2006. Photo by Adnan Abidi/Reuters

A boy plays in a polluted river after school at Pluit dam in Jakarta, Indonesia, June 5, 2009. Photo by Beawiharta/Reuters

A boy plays in a polluted river after school at Pluit dam in Jakarta, Indonesia, June 5, 2009. Photo by Beawiharta/Reuters

Sana, a five-year-old girl, plays on a cloth sling hanging from a signalling pole as smoke from a garbage dump rises next to a railway track in Mumbai in 2012. Photo by Vivek Prakash/Reuters

Sana, a 5-year-old girl, plays on a cloth sling hanging from a signalling pole as smoke from a garbage dump rises next to a railway track in Mumbai, India, in 2012. Photo by Vivek Prakash/Reuters

A child living in a slum plays on a swing under a bridge on the bank of Bagmati River in Kathmandu October 17, 2011. Photo by Navesh Chitrakar/Reuters

A child living in a slum plays on a swing under a bridge on the bank of Bagmati River in Kathmandu, Nepal, Oct. 17, 2011. Photo by Navesh Chitrakar/Reuters

A child swims in a polluted reservoir in Pingba, southwest China's Guizhou province September 2, 2006. Photo by China Daily/Reuters

A child swims in a polluted reservoir in Pingba, in southwest China’s Guizhou province Sept. 2, 2006. Photo by China Daily/Reuters

A boy plays at a garbage dump where hundreds of people stay and make a living out of recycling waste and making charcoal in Tondo, Manila in 2007. Photo by Darren Whiteside/Reuters

A boy plays at a garbage dump where hundreds of people stay and make a living out of recycling waste and making charcoal in the Tondo section of Manila, in 2007. Photo by Darren Whiteside/Reuters

Children play in the fumes of a municipality fumigant sprayer in a slum area in the northeastern Indian city of Siliguri October 5, 2006. Photo by Rupak De Chowdhuri/Reuters

Children play in the fumes of a municipality fumigant sprayer in a slum area in the northeastern Indian city of Siliguri, Oct. 5, 2006. Photo by Rupak De Chowdhuri/Reuters

Waste collector Dinesh Mukherjee, 11, watches his friend jump over a puddle of toxic liquid at the Ghazipur landfill in New Delhi November 10, 2011. Photo by Parivartan Sharma/Reuters

Waste collector Dinesh Mukherjee, 11, watches his friend jump over a puddle of toxic liquid at the Ghazipur landfill in New Delhi Nov. 10, 2011. Photo by Parivartan Sharma/Reuters

A boy swims in the polluted water of the Yamuna River to dive for offerings thrown in by worshippers amidst a dust haze in New Delhi during World Environment Day in 2010. Photo by Reinhard Krause/Reuters

A boy swims in the polluted water of the Yamuna River to dive for offerings thrown in by worshippers amid a dust haze in New Delhi during World Environment Day in 2010. Photo by Reinhard Krause/Reuters

People paddle in the waters of Manila Bay amid garbage during Easter Sunday in Manila April 24, 2011. Photo by Cheryl Ravelo/Reuters

People paddle in the waters of Manila Bay amid garbage in the Philippines’ capital city on Easter Sunday, April 24, 2011. Photo by Cheryl Ravelo/Reuters

Boys collect coconuts thrown in as offerings by worshippers in the waters of the Sabarmati river after the immersion of idols of the Hindu elephant god Ganesh, the deity of prosperity, in the western Indian city of Ahmedabad in 2011. Photo by Amit Dave/Reuters

Boys collect coconuts thrown in as offerings by worshippers in the waters of the Sabarmati River after the immersion of idols of the Hindu elephant god Ganesh, the deity of prosperity, in the western Indian city of Ahmedabad in 2011. Photo by Amit Dave/Reuters

Children of rag-pickers stand amid a heap of garbage on the outskirts of New Delhi in 2006. Photo by Kamal Kishore/Reuters

Children of rag-pickers stand amid a heap of garbage on the outskirts of New Delhi in 2006. Photo by Kamal Kishore/Reuters

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polluted river essay

Home — Essay Samples — Environment — Water Pollution — Causes And Effects Of Water Pollution

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Causes and Effects of Water Pollution

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Published: Jul 17, 2018

Words: 1827 | Pages: 4 | 10 min read

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Deforestation, agriculture, industrialization.

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polluted river essay

Essay On Growing Pollution In Rivers

Table of Contents

Short Essay On Growing Pollution In Rivers

Rivers play a vital role in our lives, providing water for drinking, agriculture, and industry, and supporting diverse ecosystems. However, growing pollution in rivers is a major environmental issue that has severe consequences for human health, the ecosystem, and the economy.

The primary sources of pollution in rivers are industrial waste, agricultural runoff, sewage, and solid waste. Industries release toxic chemicals, heavy metals, and other hazardous waste into rivers, which can harm aquatic life and contaminate drinking water sources. Agricultural runoff, which includes fertilizers and pesticides, can also harm aquatic life and disrupt the balance of the ecosystem. Sewage, on the other hand, contains human waste and chemicals that can cause water-borne diseases and pose a serious health risk. Solid waste, including plastic and other forms of litter, can harm aquatic life, and cause blockages in the river system.

The consequences of growing pollution in rivers are far-reaching and include harm to human health, loss of aquatic life, and disruption of the ecosystem. Exposure to toxic chemicals and pathogens in polluted water can cause diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and typhoid fever. Moreover, the loss of aquatic life affects the food chain, leading to declines in populations of fish and other wildlife. The disruption of the ecosystem also affects the livelihoods of people who depend on fishing and other aquatic resources for their income.

In order to address the growing pollution in rivers, it is essential to take a comprehensive and integrated approach. This includes reducing the release of pollutants from industries and agriculture, treating sewage, and promoting solid waste management. Governments, communities, and individuals can also play a role in reducing pollution in rivers through initiatives such as waste reduction, responsible consumption, and participating in clean-up efforts.

In conclusion, growing pollution in rivers is a major environmental issue with serious consequences for human health, the ecosystem, and the economy. Addressing this issue requires a collective effort and a commitment to protecting our rivers for future generations.

Long Essay On Growing Pollution In Rivers

Rivers are an essential part of life and our environment, providing us with drinking water, food, and transportation routes. Unfortunately, the quality of river water is declining due to increasing pollution. In this article, we discuss the causes and effects of pollution in rivers and how we can work together to reduce it. Read on to find out more!

Introduction: Definition and Types of Water Pollution

Water pollution is defined as the presence of harmful substances in water. These substances can be bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, or parasites. They can also be inorganic substances such as heavy metals, chemicals, or toxic compounds. Water pollution can occur in freshwater or saltwater environments.

There are two types of water pollution: point source and nonpoint source. Point source pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged into water from a single point, such as a factory or sewage treatment plant. Nonpoint source pollution occurs when pollutants enter water from many sources, such as runoff from agricultural fields or city streets.

Water pollution can have serious effects on the environment and human health. It can cause problems such as algae blooms, fish kills, and beach closures. Water pollution can also lead to the spread of disease.

Causes of Water Pollution

Water pollution has many causes, ranging from agricultural runoff to untreated sewage.

One of the main causes of water pollution is agricultural runoff. When farmers fertilize their fields, the chemicals can run off into nearby waterways. This can cause problems for both people and animals who rely on those waters for drinking, swimming, or fishing.

Another major cause of water pollution is untreated sewage. If sewage isn’t properly treated before it’s released into rivers or lakes, it can contaminate the water and make people sick. This is a particular problem in developing countries where infrastructure isn’t always up to par.

Industrial waste is also a major contributor to water pollution. Factories often release harmful chemicals into rivers or lakes near their facilities. These chemicals can pollute the water and make it unsafe for people and animals alike.

Finally, littering can also lead to water pollution. When people litter on beaches or in lakes, the trash can eventually end up in the water and pollute it. This is not only harmful to the environment, but it’s also unsightly.

Effects of Water Pollution on Rivers

Water pollution is a major problem in rivers all over the world. It is caused by many different things, including sewage and industrial waste, chemicals from farms and factories, and even runoff from city streets. All of these pollutants can have serious effects on the environment and on human health.

One of the most significant effects of water pollution is the loss of biodiversity. When rivers are polluted, the plants and animals that live in them are often killed or driven away. This can lead to a decline in populations of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. In addition, it can cause problems for the people who depend on rivers for their livelihoods, such as fishermen and women.

Another effect of water pollution is the contamination of drinking water supplies. Rivers are often used as sources of water for cities and towns. If they are polluted, this water can contain harmful bacteria and viruses that can make people sick. In some cases, it can even be deadly.

Finally, water pollution can also cause problems for the economy. When businesses or farms pollute rivers, it can cost them money in fines or damages. In addition, it can make it harder for people to use the river for recreation or tourism. This can lead to a loss of revenue for local businesses and economies.

Solutions to Reduce Water Pollution in Rivers

Water pollution has become a major problem in rivers all over the world. There are many ways to reduce water pollution, but it is important to find the right solution for each river. Here are some solutions to reduce water pollution in rivers:

1. Improve Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater treatment is one of the most important ways to reduce water pollution. Improving wastewater treatment can help to remove pollutants from sewage before it is released into rivers. This can help to protect aquatic life and make rivers safer for recreation.

2. Reduce Stormwater Runoff

Stormwater runoff is a major source of water pollution in rivers. Stormwater can pick up pollutants from streets, parking lots, and other areas and carry them into rivers. Reducing stormwater runoff can help to reduce water pollution. One way to do this is by using rain gardens or green roofs, which can absorb rainfall and prevent it from running off into rivers.

3. Prevent Soil Erosion

Soil erosion is another major source of water pollution. When soil erodes, it can carry pollutants such as pesticides and fertilizers into rivers. This can harm aquatic life and make the water unsafe for people to drink or swim in. There are several ways to prevent soil erosion, including planting trees and vegetation, building retaining walls, and covering exposed soil with mulch or straw.

It is clear that river pollution is a growing problem and must be addressed urgently. As individuals, we can take steps to reduce our environmental impact by reducing plastic waste and other pollutants. Governments also need to step up their efforts in tackling this issue with stricter regulations on industry and better public awareness campaigns. Only then can the rivers of the world become clean again.

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Essay on River Pollution

Students are often asked to write an essay on River Pollution in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on River Pollution

Introduction.

River pollution is a major environmental issue. It happens when harmful substances like chemicals, waste materials, or pollutants, are dumped into rivers.

Causes of River Pollution

The main causes are industrial waste, sewage, agricultural runoff, and littering. These pollutants can harm aquatic life and disrupt ecosystems.

Effects of River Pollution

Pollution affects all aspects of the river and its ecosystem. It harms animals, plants, and humans who depend on clean water.

Prevention of River Pollution

We can prevent river pollution by reducing waste, recycling, and treating sewage. Laws can also be enacted to protect our rivers.

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  • Paragraph on River Pollution

250 Words Essay on River Pollution

River pollution has become a critical global issue, posing severe threats to ecosystems and human health. It is the contamination of rivers with harmful substances, often due to human activities, which disrupts the natural balance and biodiversity.

The primary cause of river pollution is industrialization. Industries often discharge untreated waste into rivers, leading to the accumulation of harmful chemicals. Similarly, agriculture contributes to river pollution through the excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides, which eventually leach into rivers.

River pollution affects both aquatic life and humans. The toxic substances can cause diseases and death among aquatic organisms, leading to a decline in biodiversity. For humans, polluted river water can cause severe health issues, including waterborne diseases and poisoning.

Preventing River Pollution

Preventing river pollution requires a multi-faceted approach. Strict regulations must be enforced to ensure industries treat their waste before disposal. Sustainable farming practices can also reduce the amount of agricultural runoff entering rivers.

In conclusion, river pollution is a grave issue that needs urgent attention. By understanding its causes and effects, we can take the necessary steps to prevent it and protect our rivers for future generations.

500 Words Essay on River Pollution

Rivers, the lifeblood of our planet, have been a vital part of human civilization since time immemorial. They provide water for drinking, irrigation, and transportation, and also support biodiversity. However, in recent years, river pollution has emerged as a grave concern. This essay delves into the causes, impacts, and potential solutions to river pollution.

River pollution is primarily caused by human activities. Industrialization is a significant culprit, with factories often discharging toxic waste directly into rivers. These wastes contain harmful chemicals and heavy metals, which not only contaminate the water but also harm aquatic life.

Another major cause is urbanization. Rapid, unplanned urban development leads to improper waste management, resulting in municipal waste, including non-biodegradable plastics, finding their way into rivers. Additionally, agricultural practices contribute to river pollution. Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides seeps into rivers through runoff, causing nutrient pollution.

Impacts of River Pollution

The impacts of river pollution are multifaceted and devastating. Aquatic life is the most affected, with many species becoming extinct due to toxic pollutants. The loss of biodiversity disrupts the ecological balance, leading to unforeseen consequences.

For humans, polluted rivers pose serious health risks. Consuming contaminated water can lead to diseases like cholera, typhoid, and hepatitis. Furthermore, it impacts livelihoods dependent on rivers, such as fishing and tourism.

Lastly, polluted rivers can lead to eutrophication, a phenomenon where excessive nutrients cause a dense growth of plant life, leading to oxygen depletion in the water. This can result in ‘dead zones’, where no aquatic life can survive.

Solutions to River Pollution

Addressing river pollution requires a multi-pronged approach. At the forefront should be stricter regulations and enforcement for industrial waste disposal. Industries should be encouraged to adopt cleaner production methods and invest in effective waste treatment before disposal.

Urban planning needs to focus on efficient waste management systems to prevent municipal waste from reaching rivers. Public awareness campaigns can play a crucial role in reducing littering and promoting recycling.

In agriculture, promoting organic farming and efficient irrigation systems can significantly reduce the amount of pollutants reaching rivers.

Lastly, regular monitoring and cleanup of rivers are essential. Governments, NGOs, and communities should collaborate in these efforts to restore the health of our rivers.

River pollution is a pressing issue that threatens our environment, health, and livelihoods. While the problem is complex, it is not insurmountable. By combining regulatory measures, technological innovation, public awareness, and community participation, we can combat river pollution. The health of our rivers is a reflection of our relationship with nature, and it is high time we took decisive action to protect these vital ecosystems.

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River Pollution

Pollution in the connecticut river.

The Connecticut River, flowing through the four states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, and New Hampshire, is a lifeline for the region. Unfortunately, though the river is a vital natural resource, the quality of the river’s water has suffered greatly due to industrialization and pollution caused by human interference. Although there have been several initiatives to clean up the river over the past fifty years, the Connecticut River and the many ecosystems it supports are still in recovery. Without continuous and significant efforts, the river, flora, and fauna within its watershed are vulnerable to further damage.

The Connecticut River is the region’s longest river and runs a total of 410 miles stretching from its source near the Canadian border to the shores of Old Lyme, Connecticut. The river begins at Fourth Connecticut Lake, where it sits 2,670 feet above sea level, and flows between Vermont’s Green Mountains and New Hampshire’s White Mountains as it travels south toward its mouth at Long Island Sound. The Connecticut River watershed spans even further, covering 11,260 square miles. The river connects 148 tributaries, or streams, to include numerous lake and ponds, as well as 38 major rivers (“About the River | Connecticut River” n.d.). Among these tributaries are hundreds of dams, and thirteen on the main stem of the river, which ultimately affect the physical characteristics of the river. The river’s location in New England is responsible for a temperate climate and changing seasons. Because of this, the river receives heavy rains and snowfall at times, which subsidize the ever-changing water levels and depths – a contributing factor to man-made damage via pollution. The river watershed’s landscape ranges from dense forests and rural areas to more industrialized parts as it moves south. The more developed urban areas in southern Massachusetts and Connecticut share blame for former and current pollution levels in the river.

Environmental issues in the Connecticut River are becoming increasingly more worrisome despite recent efforts to reverse the damage from over the past one hundred years. The Connecticut River had once been described as the “best landscaped sewer”. Like many other natural resources, the river has fallen victim to industrialization. The deteriorating and aging infrastructure requires significant funding to reduce environmental effects, and the pollutants continue to pour into the river. The problems are highlighted in terms of achieving fishable and swimmable water quality and this is especially true in more densely populated areas with high industrial output such as Holyoke, Massachusetts and Hartford, Connecticut.

The pollution stems from raw sewage entering the water, whether via industry or agriculture. The Connecticut River website reiterates that “though some of the largest combined sewer overflows (CSOs) have been eliminated and associated contamination reduced by half in the past 15 years, bacteria levels during storm events remain unsafe for swimming and boating (“About the River | Connecticut River” n.d.). In a 2017 Hartford Courant piece, journalists discovered that outdated permits from 2001, set to expire in 2005, have allowed for pollution to continue (Hladky, 2017). The heavy rains cause sewage overflow, thus mixing with raw sewage, and this ultimately pours into the Connecticut River. In fact, more than 28.7 million pounds of nitrogen have been introduced into the waterway (“About the River | Connecticut River” n.d.). Unfortunately, it seems as though the poorer communities are footing the bill due to the located of these combined sewers. Connecticut environmental activists are fed up with the EPA’s inaction, and “warn that nitrogen-heavy pollution from sewage systems in Massachusetts runs down river into Long Island Sound and are a major reason why large sections of the Sound end up as summer "dead zones" where there's not enough oxygen for marine life to survive” (Hladky, 2017). Several groups and state officials agree that improved storm management and financial implementation may help to prevent further pollution.

Another issue the Connecticut River faces is the presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. “E. coli bacteria is an “indicator” in the water for human pathogens (bacteria, viruses, and other diseases) that might make people sick if they use the water for swimming or boating.” (Is the River Clean? – Connecticut River Conservancy. (n.d.). The Connecticut River Conservancy monitors bacteria through constant water quality testing, and explains that high levels of bacteria lead to significant health concerns. The E.coli bacteria is typically introduced into the river via sewage overflow; however, agricultural run-off from commercial farming and sometimes wildlife in tributaries further pollute the water. There is a general consensus among scientists and environmental groups that the primary factor is due to pollution from people. After comparative analyses of years of water quality testing, it should be noted that bacteria presence has lessened over the past forty years. The aforementioned issues, as well as mercury seepage, have been occurring for nearly a century; however, it wasn’t until the Clean Water Act in the 1970’s that the region demanded change. According to Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, the Federal Clean Water Act mandates that every two years states are required to complete water quality testing and submit this to the EPA ("Water Monitoring Program - CT DEEP", 2019). The individual states, communities, and organizations, such as the Connecticut River Conservancy, have made certain that these standards are upheld in order to protect the natural diversity and overall quality of the water.

The Connecticut River and its watershed is home to over two million residents throughout New England in four hundred cities, and is essential for some of the region’s most productive agriculture, manufacturing, and commerce. In light of recent clean-up efforts, the river now also supports ecotourism and various recreational use, to include swimming, boating, and fishing. Most notably, the river provides drinking water for millions of people in the region through its various tributaries. In addition to its importance to people, the river watershed is home to several wildlife species which include bald eagle, trout, bear, moose, and numerous threatened and endangered species. Overall, the Connecticut River’s economic, cultural, and natural qualities are not to be undervalued.

The Connecticut River has rebounded significantly in the past fifty years; however, there is much room for improvement. Because of human caused damage, habitats have been destroyed, recreational access is often limited, and contamination is inevitable. Fortunately, there have been great strides through collaborative efforts and partnerships in New England that are responding to the pollution issues. Groups such as the Connecticut River Conservancy, as well as funding from the EPA, are in place to create and implement innovative solutions for a healthier ecosystem and overall improved water quality. Through future initiatives and sustained advocacy, the Connecticut River and its watershed will continue to be an invaluable resource for all its inhabitants and neighbors.

About the River | Connecticut River. (n.d.). Retrieved March 1, 2019, from http://connecticutriver.us/site/content/about-river Hladky, G. (2017, April 17). EPA Continuing to Allow Springfield Pollution Into Connecticut River and Long Island Sound. Retrieved March 2, 2019, from https://www.courant.com/news/connecticut/hc-springfield-sewage-controversyrecovered-fri-apr-14-120911-2017--20170414-story.html Is the River Clean? – Connecticut River Conservancy. (n.d.). Retrieved February 28, 2019, from https://www.ctriver.org/our-work/is-the-river-clean/ Water Monitoring Program - CT DEEP. (2019, March). Retrieved from https://www.ct.gov/deep/cwp/view.asp?a=2719&q=325616 

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Essay On River

500 words essay on river.

Rivers are the backbone of human civilizations which provide freshwater that is the basic necessity for human life. We cannot live without water and rivers are the largest water bodies for freshwater. In fact, all civilizations in the past and present were born near river banks. In other words, they are veins of the earth that make life possible. Through an essay on rivers, we will take a look at their importance and how to save them.

essay on river

Importance of Rivers

We refer to rivers as the arteries of any country. No living organism can live without water and rivers are the most important source of water. Almost all the early civilizations sprang up on the river banks.

It is because, from ancient times, people realized the fertility of the river valleys. Thus, they began to settle down there and cultivate the fertile valleys. Moreover, rivers originate from mountains which carry down rock, sand and soil from them.

Then they enter plains and water keeps moving slowly from the mountainsides. As a result, they deposit fertile soil. When the river overflows, this fertile soil deposits on the banks of rivers. Thus, bringing fresh fertile soil constantly to the fields.

Most importantly, rivers help in agriculture. In fact, a lot of farmers depend on rivers for agricultural purposes. Rivers have the ability to turn deserts into productive farms. Further, we can use them for constructing dams as well.

Further, rivers also are important highways. That is to say, they offer the cheapest method of transport. Before road and railways, rivers were essential means of transportation and communication.

In addition, rivers bring minerals down from hills and mountains. We construct damns across the river for generating hydel power and also preserve the wildlife. Further, they also come in use for encouraging tourism and developing fisheries.

Save Rivers

As pollution is on the rise, it has become more important than ever to save rivers. We must take different measures to do so. First of all, we must use biodegradable cleaning products and not use chemical products for body washing.

Further, we must not waste water when we shower. After that, we must install the displacement device in the back of the toilet for consuming less water. It is also essential to turn the tap off while brushing or shaving.

Moreover, one must also switch off the lights and unplug devices when not in use. This way we save electricity which in turn saves water that goes into the production of electricity. Always remember to never throw trash in the river.

Insulating your pipes will save energy and also prevent water wastage. Similarly, watering the plants early morning or late evening will prevent the loss of water because of evaporation . Finally, try to use recycled water for a carwash to save water.

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Conclusion of the Essay on River

Rivers are essential as they are nature’s blessings for human beings. It provides us with so many things but nowadays, they are being polluted on a very large scale. We must all come together to prevent this from happening and saving our rivers for a better future.

FAQ of Essay on River

Question 1: What is the importance of rivers?

Answer 1: Rivers are important as they carry water and nutrients to areas all around the earth. Further, rivers play quite an important part of the water cycle, as they act as drainage channels for surface water. Most importantly, they provide excellent habitat and food for many of the earth’s organisms.

Question 2: How can we protect our rivers?

Answer 2: We can protect our rivers by segregating our household garbage into biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste. Moreover, volunteering with NGOs and community groups is also great option to save rivers from pollution.

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Features of the long-term transformation of the Krasnodar reservoir, near the mouth of the Kuban River, Russia

  • Published: 19 December 2021
  • Volume 31 , pages 1895–1904, ( 2021 )
  • Anatoly Pogorelov 1 ,
  • Andrey Laguta 2 ,
  • Evgeny Kiselev 1 &
  • Dmitry Lipilin 1 , 3 , 4  

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The article considers the long-term (1941–2018) transformation of the Krasnodar valley reservoir, the largest in the North Caucasus. The main functions of the Krasnodar reservoir are irrigation of rice systems and flood protection of land in the Krasnodar reservoir region and the Republic of Adygea. According to topographic maps, Landsat satellite images (1974–2018) and field observations (2016–2018), four stages of transformation of the flood-plain reservoir are identified. The selected stages are characterized by both natural causes (the transformation of the filling deltas into the extended deltas, etc.) and man-made causes (runoff diversions in the delta areas, etc.). The key factor of transformation is the formation of deltas of rivers flowing into the reservoir. Each of the selected stages, against the background of a gradual reduction in the area and volume of the reservoir, is characterized by the peculiarities of the formation of river deltas with the formation of genetically homogeneous sections of delta regions. During the period of operation of the reservoir, the delta of the main Kuban River moved up to 32.4 km and took away an area of 35.4 km 2 of the reservoir. During the formation of the deltas of the Kuban and Belaya rivers, a bridge was formed on the Krasnodar reservoir. The evolution of the delta regions led to the division of the reservoir into two autonomous reservoirs. The total area of the delta regions was 85.9 km 2 by 2018, i.e., 21% of the initial area of the reservoir. The transformation of the Krasnodar reservoir leads to a decrease in its regulated volume and gradual degradation.

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Alekseevsky N I, Berkovich K M, Chalov R S et al. , 2012. Spatial temporal variability of channel deformations on the rivers of Russia. Geography and Natural Resources , 3: 13–21. (in Russian)

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Anatoly Pogorelov, Evgeny Kiselev & Dmitry Lipilin

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Kuban State Agrarian University Named after I.T. Trubilin, Krasnodar, 350044, Russia

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Pogorelov Anatoly (1956–), PhD and Professor, specialized in the application of GIS in regional studies. E-mail: [email protected]

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Pogorelov, A., Laguta, A., Kiselev, E. et al. Features of the long-term transformation of the Krasnodar reservoir, near the mouth of the Kuban River, Russia. J. Geogr. Sci. 31 , 1895–1904 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-021-1928-7

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Published : 19 December 2021

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DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-021-1928-7

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Increasing Pollution in Rivers Essay

Increasing Pollution in Rivers Essay In English

Increasing Pollution in Rivers Essay In English - 1500 in words

India has been a land of rivers since ancient times, the rivers are laid in the land of India as if the veins in the body, the blood flowing in the veins and the water flowing in the rivers are both useful for life. Rivers had nurtured the world's oldest civilizations by keeping them in their lap, whose glory saga even today sings with great pride.

In spite of being the birth mother of hundreds of civilizations, the deity of sages, the basis of the life of animals and plants, the condition of the rivers in the present time is that human beings are shameless and ungrateful as well as being ignorant of the future. also indicates.

Short and Long Essay on Increasing Pollution in Rivers in English

Here I will give some information about river pollution to you people through essay, I have full hope that through these you will be able to understand the reasons for the pollution of rivers, their prevention and its effect.

Short essay on increasing pollution in rivers - 300 words

By river water pollution, we mean the waste from households, chemical effluents from industries, effluents of vehicles running in the river and their chemical spills etc., contaminating it by mixing it with water. There is a lack of oxygen in the polluted water of rivers, due to which it proves to be very fatal for aquatic life as well as biodiversity. Various industrial chemicals present in it also reduce the fertility of agricultural land through irrigation.

due to pollution of rivers

The following factors are responsible for river pollution at present-

  • The dirty water coming out of the houses goes to the drains with the help of small drains and these drains collect all the dirty water of the houses and dump them in the rivers.
  • The waste and chemical wastes from industries are also disposed of in these rivers.
  • Due to acid rain, environmental pollution, when the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) increases in the atmosphere, then it reacts with the water droplets present in the atmosphere to form acid and the surface with the rain drops. But it falls and pollutes the water of rivers and lakes etc. And so on
  • Measures to save rivers from getting polluted

Following measures should be taken to save rivers from getting polluted

  • Waste water from agriculture, households and industries should be collected and reused.
  • Acid rain can be reduced by controlling air pollution, which will also reduce river pollution.
  • Industries should be built at proper place and proper management should be done for their wastes.

Rivers have their own importance in the life of all living beings. Humans use its water for irrigation and electricity generation, animals and birds use its water for drinking and aquatic creatures use it as their habitat etc. But in the present time, due to the pollution of the water of the rivers, there has been a lot of change in the life of the living beings using it. For example, the decline in the fertility of the land due to irrigation and the increase in diseases due to its use etc. Keeping in view the usefulness of rivers, if no proper steps are taken, then their increasing pollution will fall on human civilization as electricity and will burn everything to ashes.

Big essay on increasing pollution in rivers - 600 words

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From ancient times till now, the importance of rivers for humans and other terrestrial and aquatic organisms has increased and along with the pollution of their waters also continued. Today the situation is that the rivers which were considered as the basis of life in ancient times are now gradually becoming the basis of diseases and all this is due to the increasing pollution in them.

If river pollution is to be defined, then we can say that mixing of domestic waste, industrial chemicals and aquatic vehicle wastes etc. in river water is called river water pollution.

types of river water pollution

River water pollution can be divided into the following three parts-

  • Physical water pollution- When the taste, smell and thermal properties of water change, then this type of pollution is called physical water pollution.
  • Chemical Water Pollution- When the waste and chemical substances of ships and industries etc. mix in the water, then this type of pollution is called chemical pollution.
  • Biological water pollution- When harmful micro-organisms are responsible for the contamination of water, then this type of pollution is called biological water pollution.

due to river pollution

River pollution occurs from the following two sources -

1 - Natural sources

  • During the rainy season, through different types of land, rain water brings with it many types of natural substances (such as minerals, salts, humus, leaves of plants and excreta of living beings etc.) Together they pollute it.
  • In acid rain, the acid raining along with the raindrops mixes with the water of the rivers and pollutes it.

2- Human sources

Under this, those factors of river pollution come which are generated by human activities. As-

  • Domestic effluents fall into the river through drains and pollute its water.
  • The waste materials from industries are also disposed of in the rivers itself.
  • The chemicals used in the fields get mixed in the rivers during the rainy season, due to which the river pollution increases.
  • The oil spilled from ships also pollutes the river.
  • Social and religious customs are also responsible for river pollution.

For example, after death the body is immersed in water, immersion of idols, bath etc.

  • Eutrophication, which means enriching water with nutrients. In this process, plants and algae grow in water and biomass is already present in it. Together, they absorb water-soluble oxygen, which threatens the aquatic ecosystem.

Prevention and measures of river water pollution

At present the whole world is in the grip of polluted water, there is an outcry all around, people and governments are trying to fight it together. Although it cannot be completely eliminated, but it can be curbed through some measures, which are as follows-

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  • Prohibiting the discharge of domestic waste and sewage into the drains and promoting its reuse through water conservation techniques.
  • Strict rules should be made for the industrial units responsible for river pollution and they should be strictly followed.
  • By reducing environmental pollution.
  • By attacking social and religious stereotypes.
  • by promoting organic farming, etc.

Effect of river pollution on the lives of aquatic organisms and people around

Due to the pollution present in the water of the rivers, fish become diseased, due to which most of the fish die. Same is the case with other fauna and flora found in the water as well. The increasing pollution of rivers is disturbing the balance of the aquatic ecology, affecting the employment and millions of consumers associated with it. If someone's employment is in danger, someone's health is in danger.

If you pay attention on the other side, it will be known that the farmer is also troubled by the river pollution, because due to the chemical pollutants present in the river water, the fertility of the soil is also affected. Due to which the production decreases and the problems of the farmers increase. Indirectly right river pollution has affected all living beings.

Steps taken by the government to check river pollution

From time to time, the Government of India has taken steps to clean the rivers, some of the important steps are as follows-

  • A National Water Quality Monitoring Network has been set up by the Ministry of Environment and Forests to control river pollution, under which 1435 monitoring centers have been set up for monitoring various rivers and water bodies across the country.
  • Namami Gange Project

This project was started in the year 2014 with an aim to reduce the pollution of river Ganga. The project is being implemented jointly by the Ministry of Ganga Rejuvenation, the Union Ministry of Water Resources and the Ministry of River Development.

  • Clean Ganga Project

The lack of clean Ganga project, action plan etc. implemented by the Narendra Modi government in 2014 failed.

All the above things highlight the importance of rivers in flora, fauna and human life and also explain the sword of pollution running on their honor. From which it becomes clear that whatever steps humans have taken for their development, they have directly or indirectly polluted the water of rivers. Slowly people are becoming aware of this, governments have also geared up to fight river pollution. But it seems that all these efforts are limited to paper, they have nothing to do with reality.

Frequently Asked Questions on Increasing Pollution in Rivers

Answer- New Delhi

Answer – By aerial remote sensing. (Aerial Remote Sensing)

Answer – September, 1974

Answer – Sitarum River, Indonesia

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Increasing Pollution in Rivers Essay In English

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    4. The fourth stage (2005-present): The river flows into the Kuban River; the beginning of the formation of the delta extension of the Kuban River in the open waters; fading during the phase of the Belaya River delta extension into the Krasnodar reservoir. The length of the dam is 32.4 km, and the height is 3.5-7.5 m (Kurbatova, 2014).

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