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46 Unique Phys Ed Games Your Students Will Love

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Kids playing elementary PE games like head, shoulders, knees, and cones and rock, paper, scissors, bean bag, balance

There’s nothing kids need more to break up a day spent sitting still and listening than a fun PE class to let off some steam. In the old days, going to gym class probably included playing kickball or dodgeball after running a few laps. Since then, there have been countless reinventions of and variations on old classics as well as completely new games. Although there is no shortage of options, we love that the supplies required remain relatively minimal. You can transport to another galaxy using just a pool noodle or two or create a life-size game of Connect 4 using just Hula-Hoops. You’ll want to make sure to have some staples on hand like balls, beanbags, and parachutes. There are even PE games for kindergartners based on beloved children’s TV shows and party games. Regardless of your students’ athletic abilities, there is something for everyone on our list of elementary PE games!

1. Tic-Tac-Toe Relay

Students stand in the background. In the foreground are several hula hoops laid out on the floor (elementary PE games)

Elementary PE games that not only get students moving but also get them thinking are our favorites. Grab some Hula-Hoops and a few scarves or beanbags and get ready to watch the fun!

Learn more: Tic-Tac-Toe Relay at S&S Blog

2. Blob Tag

A large group of elementary school aged children are holding hands and running outside (elementary PE games)

Pick two students to start as the Blob, then as they tag other kids, they will become part of the Blob. Be sure to demonstrate safe tagging, stressing the importance of soft touches.

Learn more: Blob Tag at Playworks

3. Cross the River

A graphic shows how to setup his game. (elementary PE games)

This fun game has multiple levels that students have to work through, including “get to the island,” “cross the river,” and “you lost a rock.”

Learn more: Cross the River at The PE Specialist

4. Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Cones

Three photos show students lined up on a line of cones in a gymnasium (elementary PE games)

Line up cones, then have students pair up and stand on either side of a cone. Finally, call out head, shoulders, knees, or cones. If cones is called, students have to race to be the first to pick up their cone before their opponent.

Learn more: Head, Shoulders, Knees & Cones at S&S Blog

5. Spider Ball

Four children facing the camera are chasing after a soccer ball flying through the air (elementary PE games)

Elementary PE games are often variations of dodgeball like this one. One or two players start with the ball and attempt to hit all of the runners as they run across the gym or field. If a player is hit, they can then join in and become a spider themselves.

Learn more: Spider Ball Game at Kid Activities

6. Crab Soccer

People are shown on all fours ready to kick a ball while imitating crabs (elementary PE games)

We love elementary PE games that require students to act like animals (and we think they will too). Similar to regular soccer, but students will need to play on all fours while maintaining a crab-like position.

Learn more: Crab Soccer at Playworks

7. Halloween Tag

A graphic shows neon stick people standing in hula hoops and some have witch hats on. Text reads Halloween Tag (elementary PE games)

This is the perfect PE game to play in October. It’s similar to tag, but there are witches, wizards, and blobs with no bones!

Learn more: Halloween Tag at The Physical Educator

8. Crazy Caterpillars

We love that this game is not only fun but also works on students’ hand-eye coordination. Students will have fun pushing their balls around the gym with pool noodles while building their caterpillars.

9. Monster Ball

A diagram shows how to setup a gynmasium for Monster ball. The left side shows the blue team and the right side shows the red. There is a large ball in a square in between the teams.

You’ll need a large exercise ball or something similar to act as the monster ball in the middle. Make a square around the monster ball, divide the class into teams on either side of the square, then task the teams with throwing small balls at the monster ball to move it into the other team’s area.

Learn more: Monster Ball at The PE Specialist

10. Striker Ball

Large cones and students are spread around a gymnasium.

Striker ball is an enjoyable game that will keep your students entertained while working on reaction time and strategic planning. We love that there is limited setup required before playing.

Learn more: Striker Ball at S&S Blog

11. Parachute Tug-of-War

Students stand around a brightly colored parachute.

What list of elementary PE games would be complete without some parachute fun? So simple yet so fun, all you will need is a large parachute and enough students to create two teams. Have students stand on opposite sides of the parachute, then let them compete to see which side comes out on top.

Learn more: Parachute Tug-of-War at Mom Junction

12. Fleas Off the Parachute

Students stand around a large parachute with small balls bouncing on the top of it.

Another fun parachute game where one team needs to try to keep the balls (fleas) on the parachute and the other tries to get them off.

Learn more: Fleas Off the Parachute at Mom Junction

13. Crazy Ball

A collage of pictures shows a little boy holding a frisbee, a few large dodge balls, and a group of children running.

The setup for this fun game is similar to kickball, with three bases and a home base. Crazy ball really is so crazy as it combines elements of football, Frisbee, and kickball!

Learn more: Crazy Ball at Health Beet

14. Bridge Tag

A stick figure is shown on all fours.

This game starts as simple tag but evolves into something more fun once the tagging begins. Once tagged, kids must form a bridge with their body and they can’t be freed until someone crawls through.

Learn more: Bridge Tag at Great Camp Games

15. Star Wars Tag

A drawing of Star Wars shows a battle with different colored lightsabers.

Elementary PE games that allow you to be your favorite movie character are just way too much fun! You will need two different-colored pool noodles to stand in for lightsabers. The tagger will have one color pool noodle that they use to tag students while the healer will have the other color that they will use to free their friends.

Learn more: Star Wars Tag at Great Camp Games

16. Rob the Nest

Create an obstacle course that leads to a nest of eggs (balls) and then divide the students into teams. They will have to race relay-style through the obstacles to retrieve eggs and bring them back to their team.

17. Four Corners

Four corners are designated by different colored papers. Students stand on different corners. different colored pa

We love this classic game since it engages students physically while also working on color recognition for younger students. Have your students stand on a corner, then close their eyes and call out a color. Students standing on that color earn a point.

Learn more: Four Corners at The Many Little Joys

18. Movement Dice

physical education games and sports

This is a perfect warm-up that requires only a die and a sheet with corresponding exercises.

Learn more: Roll the Dice Movement Break at Teaching Littles

19. Rock, Paper, Scissors Tag

A graphic shows cartoon children jumping and the text reads our version of rock, paper, scissors tag (elementary PE games)

A fun spin on tag, children will tag one another and then play a quick game of Rock, Paper, Scissors to determine who has to sit and who gets to continue playing.

Learn more: Rock, Paper, Scissors Tag at Grade Onederful

20. Cornhole Cardio

Students stand about 10 yards back from cornhold boards. There are cones scattered throughout the gymnasium.

This one is so fun but can be a little bit confusing, so be sure to leave plenty of time for instruction. Kids will be divided into teams before proceeding through a fun house that includes cornhole, running laps, and stacking cups.

Learn more: Cardio Cornhole at S&S Blog

21. Connect 4 Relay

This relay takes the game Connect 4 to a whole new level. Players must connect four dots either horizontally, vertically, or diagonally.

22. Zookeepers

Students will love imitating their favorite animals while playing this fun variation of Four Corners where the taggers are the zookeepers.

23. Racket Whack-It

A diagram shows how to setup the game Rack It, Whack It.

Students stand with rackets in hand while balls are thrown at them—they must either dodge the balls or swat them away.

Learn more: Racket Whack-It via PEgames.org

24. Crazy Moves

A diagram shows 5 mats laid out with x's on them to represent the students.

Set mats out around the gym, then yell out a number. Students must race to the mat before it is already filled with the correct number of bodies.

Learn more: Crazy Moves at PEgames.org

25. Wheelbarrow Race

A cartoon image shows two kids on their hands while two other kids hold their legs. A third child is yelling Go in the background.

Sometimes the best elementary PE games are the simplest. An oldie but a goodie, wheelbarrow races require no equipment and are guaranteed to be a hit with your students.

Learn more: Wheelbarrow Race at wikiHow

26. Live-Action Pac-Man

Fans of retro video games like Pac-Man will get a kick out of this live-action version where students get to act out the characters.

27. Spaceship Tag

Give each of your students a Hula-Hoop (spaceship), then have them run around trying not to bump into anyone else’s spaceship or get tagged by the teacher (alien). Once your students get really good at it, you can add different levels of complexity.

28. Rock, Paper, Scissors Beanbag Balance

Two children stand playing rock, paper, scissors, with bean bags on their heads (elementary PE games)

We love this spin on Rock, Paper, Scissors because it works on balance and coordination. Students walk around the gym until they find an opponent, then the winner collects a beanbag, which they must balance on their head!

Learn more: Rock, Paper, Scissors Beanbag Balance at PE Universe

29. Throwing, Catching, and Rolling

Wedge mats are laid out in front of kiddie swimming pools which are filled with industrial sized paper towel rolls. Children are scattered around holding whiffle balls.

This is a fun activity but it will require a lot of preparation, including asking the school maintenance staff to collect industrial-sized paper towel rolls. We love this activity because it reminds us of the old-school arcade game Skee-Ball!

Learn more: Winter Activity at S&S Blog

30. Jenga Fitness

A diagram explains the rules to playing Jenga fitness.

Although Jenga is fun enough on its own, combining it with fun physical challenges is sure to be a winner with young students.

Learn more: Jenga Fitness at S&S Blog

31. Volcanoes and Ice Cream Cones

A diagram shows children running around flipping cones either upside down or right side up (elementary PE games)

Divide the class into two teams, then assign one team as volcanoes and the other as ice cream cones. Next, spread cones around the gym, half upside down and half right side up. Finally, have the teams race to flip as many cones as possible to either volcanoes or ice cream cones.

Learn more: Warm-Up Games at Prime Coaching Sport

This fun variation on dodgeball will have your students getting exercise while having a ton of fun! Begin with three balls on a basketball court. If you are hit by a ball, you are out. If you take a step while holding a ball, you are out. There are other rules surrounding getting out and also how to get back in, which can be found in this video.

33. Musical Hula-Hoops

PE games for kindergartners that are similar to party games are some of our favorites! Think musical chairs but with Hula-Hoops! Lay enough Hula-Hoops around the edge of the gym minus five students since they will be in the muscle pot. Once the music starts, students walk around the gym. When the music stops, whoever doesn’t find a Hula-Hoop becomes the new muscle pot!

34. 10-Second Tag

This game is perfect to play at the beginning of the year since it helps with learning names and allows the teacher to get to know the first student in line.

35. The Border

This game is so fun and requires no equipment whatsoever. Divide the gym into two sides. One side can move freely while the other side must avoid letting their feet touch the floor by rolling around, crawling, etc.

36. Freedom Catch

This is a simple throwing, catching, and tag game that will certainly be a hit with your PE class. Captors attempt to tag players so they can send them to jail. You can be freed if someone on your team runs to a freedom cone while throwing a ball to the jailed person. If the ball is caught by the jailed person, they can rejoin the game.

37. Oscar’s Trashcan

As far as PE games for kindergartners goes, this one is a guaranteed winner since it is based on the show Sesame Street . You’ll need two large areas that can be sectioned off to use as trash cans and also a lot of medium-size balls. There are two teams who must compete to fill their opponent’s trash can while emptying their own. Once over, the trash will be counted and the team with the least amount of trash in their trash can wins!

38. 4-Way Frisbee

Divide your class into four separate teams, who will compete for points by catching a Frisbee inside one of the designated goal areas. Defenders are also able to go into the goal areas. There are a number of other rules that can be applied so you can modify the game in a way that’s best for your class.

39. Badminton King’s/Queen’s Court

This one is simple but fun since it is played rapid-fire with kids waiting their turn to take on the King or Queen of the court. Two players start and as soon as a point is earned, the loser swaps places with another player. The goal is to be the player that stays on the court the longest, consistently knocking out new opponents.

40. Jumping and Landing Stations

Kids love stations and they definitely love jumping, so why not combine those things into one super-fun gym class? They’ll have a blast challenging themselves with all the different obstacles presented in this video.

41. Ninja Warrior Obstacle Course

Regardless of whether you’ve ever seen an episode of American Ninja Warrior , you are probably familiar with the concept and so are your students. Plus, you’ll probably have just as much fun as your students setting up the obstacles and testing them out!

42. Balloon Tennis

Since kids love playing keepy-uppy with a balloon, they will love taking it a step further with balloon tag!

43. Indoor Putting Green

If your school can afford to invest in these unique putting green sets, you can introduce the game of golf to kids as young as kindergarten. Who knows, you might just have a future Masters winner in your class!

44. Scooter Activities

Let’s be honest, we all have fond memories of using scooters in gym class. Regardless of whether you do a scooter sleigh or scooter hockey, we think there is something for everyone in this fun video.

45. Pick It Up

This is the perfect PE game to play if you are stuck in a small space with a good-size group. Teams win by making all of their beanbag shots and then collecting all of their dots and stacking them into a nice neat pile.

46. Dodgeball Variations

Since not all kids love having balls thrown at them, why not try a dodgeball alternative that uses gym equipment as targets rather than fellow students? For example, have each student stand in front of a Hula-Hoop with a bowling ball inside of it. Students need to protect their hoop while attempting to knock over their opponents’ pins.

What are your favorite elementary PE games to play with your class? Come and share in our We Are Teachers HELPLINE group  on Facebook.

Plus, check out  our favorite recess games for the classroom ..

PE class provides students with a much-needed outlet to run around. Spice things up with one of these fun and innovative elementary PE games!

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Examples of old school recess games including kids playing hula tag and helicopter jump rope game.

38 Old-School Recess Games Your Students Should Be Playing Now

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Physical education games, games designed for learning..

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Net & Wall

Striking & fielding, chasing & fleeing, health & fitness, cooperation, ghostbusters, giants, elves, & wizards, builders & bulldozers, healthy hanukkah, on the lines, off the lines, star wars tag, whacky baseball, treasure grab, lobster ball, pirates of the caribbean, emotions mixup, danish longball, rodeo roundup, team swarm tag, musical hoops, jake the hungry snake, frogs & fish, snowman blitz, beanbag bocce, reindeer round-up, halloween tag, prairie dog pickoff, race to the bases, rps tug-o-war, chicken noodle tag, everyone’s it frozen tag, beaches, bridges, & boats, castlemania, guard the pin, space invaders, chuck the chicken, elf express, game categories, a thematic approach to physical education..

By categorizing games based on the similarities that exist between their components (e.g. skills, tactics, playing area), we can take a thematic approach to teaching PE. In a thematic approach, students get to explore tactical problems that exist across a variety of games (e.g. getting open in invasion games). This approach promotes the transfer of learning between multiple games and supports the development of competent, confident movers.

Physical education games categories icons, featuring invasion, net and wall, striking and fielding, target, FMS, chasing and fleeing, health and fitness, and cooperation games.

Game Category


Invasion games are games in which two teams compete to outscore their opponents within a certain amount of time. Teams score by invading their opponents side of the field and sending the object (e.g. ball, puck) into a goal or getting the object pass a goal line. Players in invasion games constantly transition between offence and defence based on whether or not their team is in possession of the object.

Teaching games for understanding invasion games.

Net and wall games are games in which players/teams compete to outscore their opponent(s). They do so by sending the object (e.g. ball, shuttlecock) to a space in their opponents’ court so that it cannot be played or returned within the boundaries of the game. Net and wall games are typically played on a net-divided court or in a common space using a shared wall.

Teaching games for understanding net and wall games.

Striking and fielding games are games in which teams attempt to outscore their opponents by scoring more runs/ points within a set amount of innings. To score a run, players typically need to run around a certain amount of bases or run between two set bases. Within an inning, teams alternate between being at bat (offence) and fielding the ball (defence).

Teaching games for understanding striking and fielding games.

Target games are games in which players compete to outscore their opponents by placing a projectile (e.g. ball, dart, arrow) closer to a target than their opponent is able to. Some target games are “unopposed” (i.e. a player’s opponent cannot interfere with their play and success depends solely on a player’s accuracy) while others are “opposed” (i.e. a player may interfere with their opponent’s play).

Teaching games for understanding target games.

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physical education games and sports

Guide to Physical Education and Sport

by CoachMePlus | Academy

physical education games and sports

The Role of Physical Education

physical education games and sports

P.E. exposes most youth age groups to manipulative, non-manipulative, and locomotor skills. The sequential development of P.E. students is founded on strong pedagogical principles, such as progressions and age-appropriate activities. In addition to independent movement and coordination, later developmental programs include collaboration between students, team activities, and the addition of competitive elements to the curriculum. Eventually, a child develops into a young adult, and priorities change from fundamentals with coordination to lifelong wellness. How many responsibilities exist beyond general exposure to coordination is still unknown, but childhood obesity is evidence that more activity beyond sports is needed. Curriculum development is driven by both research and experience, and instructors are expected to update their approaches to child development internally and with broader organizations outside their school district.  Organizing exercises is easy when utilizing  workout designing and sharing software  

Fundamental Coordination Development

The most vital component of physical education is teaching the student to control their body in time and space. Most of early childhood is grasping simple coordination that serves as a foundation for later stages, specifically sports and fitness. Nearly all of the resources with a curriculum should make coordination development a priority, especially in the area of locomotion. Childhood physical development should also focus on manipulating objects and learning basic activities such as catching, throwing, and other forms of movement skills. As students develop the ability to coordinate their body with simple tasks, the demands are increased through interaction with other students and challenges. In physical education, the progression of a student is gradual, starting with very basic movements in near isolation to more sophisticated coordination with games and sports. As competence is attained with the basics, new priorities such as fitness and performance are introduced.

  A common uncertainty about physical education’s role in athletic development is the timing of the inclusion of formal training with sport. Eventually, an athlete needs to play the game, and practices that dedicate more time will be an advantage. The tradeoff of immediate development with specialization occurs early, while the long-term benefit of slower and wider development may be seen much later. The ideal pace with specialization and specific training is when an athlete can reach their potential in one or more sports without negatively affecting their long-term growth or health.

“Most of the empirical evidence is leading experts to believe that specializing too early and for too long leaves most athletes at risk of injury and burnout.”CLICK TO TWEET  

physical education games and sports

Movement Skill Appraisals and Assessment

Connection to games and recreation.

physical education games and sports

Fitness and Health Promotion Responsibilities

As a student advances to adulthood, the transition from simple recreation to the responsibility of health and fitness begins. Current PE curriculums are now focused on lifelong wellness, as most student-athletes in high school won’t participate in organized sports later in life. Adult leagues and recreational sports attract former athletes, while most fitness and wellness activities are not competitive in nature. Therefore, a focus on lifelong exercise and nutrition is now the new standard with most scholastic curriculums. As a child matures, the focus on sports formally decreases, so the expectations of youth sports should be adjusted as a student gets to high school age. Even in middle school, children start to participate in wellness programs and recreational activities instead of sporting games, so adjustments should be considered with performance programs.

As the curriculum evolves into fitness to ward off childhood obesity, the worry is that the sporting culture will decline. Currently, no evidence or research indicates that a wellness-focused high school curriculum reduces sport participation or success, so a modern health curriculum is not the culprit in school sport performance failure. Other responsibilities of physical education often include community-type programs such as first aid and CPR, as well as a water safety assessment.

Technology use  in the classroom is increasing year after year, including in physical education. The adoption of heart rate monitors and other  physiological monitoring  devices like wearable trackers and pedometers is growing. How physical education evolves in the next decade will be highly dependent on the information collected today. Research on childhood success in the classroom now includes many of the P.E. activities from over a decade ago, and some outcomes look promising. Improvements in emotional and behavior function due to exercise and movement are supported in the research, and many programs are cost-effective since they use existing PE programs to fulfill needs within school districts.

Teaching Physical Literacy and Competence

The primary goal of physical education is to teach essential skills to students and support their health. While athletes may benefit from early coordination and motor skill development, eventually physical education ceases to affect performance as an athlete ages. During later development years, athletes need to be instructed and cultivated with sport-specific training. Those in physical education can benefit from sports performance models, as many of the pedagogical teachings are very parallel to each other. Just as sports performance coaches  benefit from actionable and enlightening data , so does the modern physical education teacher. The use of assessments and student evaluations is growing, and the right combination of teaching methodology and testing will be the future of physical education.

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9 Activity Ideas for STEM in Physical Education

  • Lauren Chiangpradit
  • November 16, 2023
  • Reviewed by Sean Barton
  • Reviewed by Haley MacLean

Table of Contents

The Synergy of Movement and Learning

Physical education stem activities for elementary school, stem activities for middle school pe students, advanced stem challenges for high school learners, tech, tools, and supplemental resources for stem in physical education.

Integrating STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) into Physical Education (PE) classes offers an innovative approach to education. In an era where sports statistics, science, and technology increasingly influence athletics, PE classes are uniquely positioned to blend physical activity with STEM learning and 21st century skills. This article explores how PE educators and facilitators can use STEM learning in their coursework. It also provides a range of supplemental curriculum activity ideas to get students at different education and skill levels engaged.

Research indicates that physical activity can significantly bolster cognitive abilities. When students participate in movement-based learning, they benefit physically and experience enhanced concentration, memory, and creativity. This cognitive boost is crucial for comprehending and applying STEM concepts, which often demand high levels of problem-solving and critical thinking. Active learning, where students engage in physical activities while learning STEM concepts, results in more profound understanding and retention of information. Integrating physical and mental challenges not only makes learning more enjoyable, but is more effective, as students apply theoretical concepts in practical settings, leading to better comprehension and recall.

Integrating STEM into elementary physical education presents a fantastic opportunity to lay the foundation for lifelong learning and curiosity in young students. Through these innovative activities, elementary school children can explore and understand key STEM concepts while engaging in fun and physical play. Each activity is designed to be not only educational but highly interactive and suitable for their developmental stage. Here are some engaging activities that blend physical education with STEM learning for elementary students:

  • Jump and Measure: Students perform a variety of jumps – like the long jump and high jump – and measure their distances or heights. This activity introduces basic concepts of measurement and physics, encouraging students to understand how force and motion play a role in their physical activities.
  • Geometry with Body Movements: In this activity, children use their bodies to create geometric shapes, either individually or in groups. It’s an engaging way for students to learn about basic geometry, spatial awareness, and symmetry. Teachers can challenge students to form complex shapes, enhancing their understanding and teamwork skills.
  • STEM Soccer : In a lesson devoted to measuring throw-ins, students collect data in centimeters and convert their data to meters dividing by 100. Students then evaluate measurement systems to decide the best measurement size. This disguised learning,  interactive lesson is a great way for physical education teachers to add STEM into their PE classes.
  • Weather and Exercise: Students observe and record weather patterns over a week and discuss how different weather conditions affect physical activities. This integrates meteorology into PE, allowing students to see the real-world application of science in their everyday activities.
  • Heart Rate Exploration: After engaging in various exercises, students measure their heart rates to learn about the cardiovascular system and the science behind exercise. This activity not only educates them about their bodies, but about the importance of physical fitness in maintaining health.
  • Playground Physics: Utilizing playground equipment, this activity allows students to explore concepts like gravity, force, and motion. They can experience firsthand how these physical laws impact their play and movements, turning the playground into a living laboratory.

As students enter middle school, their capacity for more complex and abstract thinking grows significantly. This developmental stage is an ideal time to introduce more intricate STEM concepts through physical education, enhancing their learning experience with practical applications. The following STEM activities are tailored for middle school students, offering a blend of intellectual challenge and physical engagement. These activities are designed to pique students’ curiosity in STEM fields through the familiar and enjoyable medium of sports and physical exercises. By participating in these activities, students not only deepen their understanding of STEM concepts, but learn valuable lessons in teamwork, problem-solving, and the practical application of classroom knowledge to real-world scenarios. Here’s a look at some stimulating and educational STEM activities for middle school PE:

  • Sports Statistics Analysis: Students gather and analyze sports statistics from games or physical activities. This teaches them about data collection, interpretation, and the importance of statistics in understanding and improving athletic performance.
  • STEM Football: During a lesson in STEM Football, students collect and graph data of a controlled experiment by using a line graph. Students then explain the relationship between kinetic energy and mass by writing a claim evidence supported by evidence-based reasoning from class data. This lesson highlights the strong classroom connection between physical education and STEM learning, and how it can help create tangible examples for students.
  • Energy and Movement: This activity focuses on the concept of kinetic and potential energy in the context of sports. Students explore how energy is transferred and transformed during different physical activities, such as running, jumping, or throwing a ball.
  • Biomechanics of Sports: Here, students delve into the study of human movement and mechanics in various sports. They learn about the science behind athletic performance, injury prevention , and how athletes optimize their movements for maximum efficiency and safety.
  • Mathletics Relay: A relay race where each leg involves solving a math problem before passing the baton. This combines physical fitness with mathematical skills, emphasizing quick thinking and teamwork.
  • Technology in Sports Training: Students explore how technology is increasingly used in sports training and performance analysis. They might look at wearable tech, video analysis software, or other tools that help athletes improve their skills and coaches to make informed decisions.

High school students, with their advanced cognitive skills and heightened interests, are well-positioned to tackle complex STEM challenges through physical education. This section of the curriculum is designed to offer high school learners in-depth, hands-on experiences that combine higher-level STEM concepts with physical activities and sports. These advanced activities are not just about physical exertion; they require students to engage in critical thinking, problem-solving, and creative innovation. They provide an opportunity for students to see the real-world applications of the STEM knowledge they acquire in their classrooms, bridging the gap between theoretical learning and practical implementation. By participating in these activities, high school students can gain a deeper understanding of various STEM fields, such as physics, engineering, biotechnology, and environmental science, observing how these disciplines intersect with sports and physical fitness. Here are some challenging and intellectually stimulating STEM activities designed for high school learners:

  • Physics of Sports Equipment Design: Students research and discuss the physics principles involved in the design of sports equipment. This can include topics like material science, aerodynamics, and ergonomics, providing insights into how equipment is optimized for performance and safety.
  • Engineering a Miniature Golf Course: Students design and construct a miniature golf course, applying concepts of geometry, physics, and design. This project not only involves creativity, but a practical application of STEM principles by creating functional and enjoyable mini-golf holes.
  • Sports Analytics Project: Students undertake a project to analyze a sports game using statistical methods and tools. This activity introduces them to data science in sports, teaching them how to interpret and use data to understand game strategies and player performance.
  • Biotechnology in Athletics: This topic explores how biotechnology is used in sports, from equipment design to performance enhancement techniques. Students might study material innovations, genetic research in athletics, or the ethical implications of biotechnology in sports.
  • Environmental Science in Outdoor Sports: Students analyze how environmental factors impact outdoor sports activities. They can study topics like climate change, pollution, and natural terrain, understanding the interplay between sports and the environment.
  • Virtual Reality Sports Training: Students explore how VR technology is being used for skill development, strategy training, and injury rehabilitation in various sports by discussing the emerging role of virtual reality in sports.

Bringing STEM into PE classes effectively requires the right resources, including technology tools, educational kits, and comprehensive guides. Resources like the STEM Sports® kits provide ready-to-use activities that seamlessly blend physical education with STEM learning. These kits offer an invaluable resource for teachers looking to enrich their curriculum and engage K-8 students through a cross-curricular learning approach. For additional resources, tools, and innovative ideas, please visit STEM Sports® .

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Fun and Effective PE Activities

Female coach helping a student stretch

Physical education (also known as PE) is a vital part of a holistic education. In addition to helping promote physical fitness, PE can also support students’ mental health by reducing stress, and boosting their overall mood and self-esteem. With the temptation for kids (and adults) to always be on their mobile devices, it’s never been more important to get kids up and moving. The key, however, is to make sure that they’re having fun while developing these healthy habits. Keep reading to discover fun PE activities that teachers can use during gym class, recess, or throughout the day to keep students active.

  • Elementary School PE Activities
  • Middle & High School PE Activities

PE Activities for Elementary School

These PE activities, designed specifically for elementary students, are great to incorporate into your regular gym class or into your day (especially if you have a group of particularly wiggly kids).

Set up fitness stations.

PE stations are an effective way to improve students’ cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength, while keeping class engaged and lively. Each fitness station can be dedicated to a specific activity, exercise, or skill practice, and easily tailored to each students’ abilities. Students will spend a set amount of time at each station before rotating to the next one, allowing them to practice a variety of physical activities.

physical education games and sports

Fitness Circuit Station cards – 36 PE gym activities: Elementary & middle school by Prime Coaching Sport Not Grade Specific

physical education games and sports

PE Fitness Stations: 44 Maximum Movement Zones by Cap’n Pete’s Power PE Grades: PreK-9

physical education games and sports

Physical Education Stations – Fitness and Exercise Activities by Pink Oatmeal Grades: PreK-4

Incorporate dancing.

Dancing is an excellent way to get students moving and grooving. Plus, it’s a surefire way to boost the overall mood of your class. So, crank up the music and let students dance freely, teach them a choreographed routine, or have them follow along to a video tutorial.

physical education games and sports

Freeze Dance and Creative Movement by The Bulletin Board Lady-Tracy King Grade PreK-6

physical education games and sports

Brain Break – Freeze Dance by Lindsay Jervis Grades: PreK-5

physical education games and sports

How to Teach Line Dances in Physical Education | Dance Steps Cheat Sheet for PE by The PE Specialist Grades: K-8

Try new exercises with fitness bingo.

Playing a round or two of exercise bingo encourages students to try new activities and adds a little bit of exciting game play to fitness lessons. Have students complete a variety of exercises, and mark off the corresponding squares on their bingo card. The first person to complete a line horizontally, vertically, or diagonally yells “Bingo!” to win the game. You can create your own cards or use one of the below.

physical education games and sports

Physical Activity Printable Mini-Book and Bingo Game | Exercise by Make Way For Tech Grades: K-1

physical education games and sports

Exercise / Fitness Bingo Life Skills Special Education Activity by Tall Trees Special Education Grades: 6-12

PE Activities and Ideas for Middle & High School

Encourage your high school students to have some fun while working on their physical health, with a variety of PE activities designed to keep them active, motivated, and excited about leading a healthy lifestyle.

Practice yoga for mental (and physical!) health.

PE class is the perfect time to introduce students to the benefits of yoga and mindfulness. Teach them basic yoga poses and breathing exercises to improve flexibility, balance, and mental focus. Incorporating a little bit of mindfulness into PE classes — or throughout the school day — can do wonders to help high schoolers manage stress and cope with anxiety.

physical education games and sports

Zen Zone Booklet: Meditation, Yoga, & Breathing Techniques for Students by The SuperHERO Teacher Grade: 4-12

Organize some friendly sports competitions.

High school students often enjoy the more competitive elements of gym class. Playing sports provides an opportunity for them to showcase their skills while fostering teamwork and cooperation with their fellow classmates. Here are a few units that can help you teach about different sports — and organize some friendly competitions — during the year.

physical education games and sports

Volleyball PE Unit for Middle or High School by Mrs S’s Health and PE Resources Grades: 6-12

physical education games and sports

Soccer Unit for Physical Education by Ms G’s Teaching Ideas Grades: 7-12

Have students track their own fitness.

Empowering students to track their own fitness progress can be a valuable tool for fostering a sense of ownership and accountability over their health and well-being. By utilizing various methods such as fitness journals or simple tracking charts, students can develop the skills to manage their physical well-being throughout their lives.

physical education games and sports

Weekly Physical Activity Log PE Worksheet – Track Fitness & Health Habits by Sarah Casey PE Grades: 5-9

physical education games and sports

Fitness Assessment Tests and Tracking Sheets for PE or Personal Fitness by Elliott’s Active Academy Grades: 9-12

Inspire students to lead active and healthy lifestyles both inside and outside the classroom with more physical education and health resources on TPT.

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Sport and Competition

Fusing science and tradition for peak sports performance, unveiling the synergy of neuroscience and traditional practices in sports..

Posted March 7, 2024 | Reviewed by Michelle Quirk

  • Advanced neuroscience provides deep insights into the mental resilience and performance of athletes.
  • A holistic approach can dramatically improve both the physical and mental aspects of athletic performance.
  • The integration of cutting-edge science with ancient wisdom offers a novel pathway for athlete development.


The realm of sports, transcending mere physical exertion, is a battlefield where mental resilience and psychological endurance are equally paramount. In this complex interplay of mind and body, sports psychologists emerge as pivotal figures, working behind the scenes to fortify athletes’ mental well-being and enhance their performance.

Understanding the Role of Sports Psychologists

Sports psychologists specialize in addressing the psychological aspects associated with athletic performance. They delve deep into the psyche of athletes to identify mental barriers that may impede peak performance , such as fear of failure, performance anxiety , or lack of self-confidence . By employing cognitive-behavioral techniques, they work to reframe negative thought patterns and enhance an athlete’s mental resilience. Sports psychologists also facilitate team dynamics and communication, recognizing that a cohesive team environment significantly contributes to individual and collective success. Their toolkit includes techniques for stress management , visualization , goal-setting , and developing coping strategies for dealing with both the pressures of competition and the disappointment of defeat.

Moreover, they provide invaluable support in enhancing an athlete’s concentration and focus during competition, employing mindfulness and relaxation techniques to help athletes stay present and perform under pressure. Furthermore, they play a crucial role in rehabilitation, assisting athletes in recovering from injuries by addressing the psychological impact and preparing them mentally for their return to sport. Through these comprehensive approaches, sports psychologists not only aid athletes in optimizing their performance but also contribute to their overall well-being and mental health, laying a foundation for sustained success in their sporting careers.

The Impact of Sports Psychologists

The contribution of sports psychologists to an athlete’s performance can be profound. Studies have shown that athletes who work with sports psychologists exhibit improved concentration, greater resilience, and a more positive attitude toward training and competition. This psychological edge often translates into better performance outcomes, with athletes achieving personal bests, overcoming slumps, and exhibiting greater consistency in their performance. Moreover, sports psychologists contribute to the holistic well-being of athletes, helping them balance the demands of their sport with their personal life, thereby promoting long-term mental health and career longevity. Their involvement extends beyond the individual, influencing team environments by fostering a culture of mental toughness and mutual support, crucial for teams aiming for high-stakes achievements.

They also play a significant role in crisis management, equipping athletes with the tools to navigate public scrutiny, media pressure, and the expectations that come with being in the spotlight. By facilitating open communication between coaches and athletes, sports psychologists ensure that mental health considerations are integrated into training regimens and competitive strategies. Additionally, their work in setting realistic goals and expectations helps athletes maintain a healthy perspective on success and failure, preventing the all-too-common pitfalls of burnout and disillusionment. Through these multifaceted contributions, sports psychologists not only amplify athletes’ physical capabilities but also fortify their mental fortitude, paving the way for achievements that resonate far beyond the podium.

The Need for Sports Psychologists

The necessity for sports psychologists stems from the increasingly competitive nature of sports and the mounting pressures athletes face. The journey of an athlete is fraught with challenges, from the relentless pursuit of excellence and the stress of competition to the potential for injuries and the uncertainty of career longevity. These pressures can take a significant toll on an athlete’s mental health, leading to issues such as anxiety, burnout, and depression . Sports psychologists provide the necessary support to navigate these challenges, ensuring athletes remain mentally robust and resilient. In addition to addressing mental health concerns, sports psychologists play a crucial role in optimizing performance through mental skills training, which is as vital as physical training in an athlete’s regimen. They also foster a positive sporting culture that values mental well-being alongside physical prowess, thereby changing the narrative around mental health in sports communities.

Furthermore, by working closely with coaches, trainers, and other support staff, sports psychologists help create a supportive ecosystem that promotes healthy, sustainable athletic careers. Their expertise is particularly invaluable in times of transition, whether it’s moving up to a professional level, recovering from injury, or retiring from the sport, providing guidance and support to athletes navigating these significant changes. The integration of sports psychology into the fabric of athletic preparation and recovery underscores its indispensability in modern sports, marking a paradigm shift toward a more holistic approach to athlete development and well-being.

The Specific Need in Emerging Nations

According to Vijay Pereira, a distinguished professor at NEOMA Business School who will chair the inaugural Sport, Business and Society Conference in association with the Sport in Society Journal later this year, the call for sports psychologists is especially loud in emerging countries for several reasons.

First, the infrastructure for sports psychology is often lacking, with limited access to trained professionals and a general lack of awareness about the importance of mental health in sports. This gap means that athletes in these nations often go without the psychological support and resources that their counterparts in developed countries take for granted. Additionally, the cultural stigma surrounding mental health can deter athletes from seeking the help they need, further exacerbating the issue.

physical education games and sports

Second, athletes in emerging nations frequently face unique challenges that compound the pressures of competition. These can include limited resources and facilities, societal and familial pressures, and the burden of expectations as representatives of their countries on the international stage. The psychological toll of these additional stressors can be immense, making the support of sports psychologists not just beneficial but also essential. In these contexts, sports psychologists not only provide coping mechanisms but also work to build a supportive environment that acknowledges and addresses these unique pressures.

Moreover, for emerging nations, success in sports can have far-reaching impacts beyond the individual athlete. It can elevate a country’s standing on the global stage, inspire national pride, and encourage participation in physical activity among the population. Sports psychologists play a crucial role in unlocking this potential, helping athletes overcome barriers to peak performance and achieve success that resonates both personally and nationally. Their work also involves educating coaches, families, and communities about the psychological aspects of sports, fostering a culture that supports mental wellness alongside physical fitness.

Furthermore, the integration of sports psychology in emerging nations acts as a catalyst for broader social change, directly challenging stereotypes and promoting gender equality in sports. Sports psychologists play a crucial role in addressing the mental barriers that female athletes face, such as discrimination and limited opportunities. Their efforts contribute to creating a more inclusive and equitable sporting environment, not only benefiting athletes but also serving as a societal model for gender and mental health attitudes. This approach fosters a more progressive and inclusive sports culture, with sports psychologists in emerging countries at the forefront of enhancing athletic performance and driving social progress, ultimately fostering national unity through sports.

As the editor-in-chief of the Sport in Society Journal and co-chair of the Sport, Business and Society Conference, Boria Majumdar emphasizes the crucial role of comprehending the interplay between brain function and fundamental sports components such as training, coaching , fitness, diet , and key moments in competitions. Majumdar advocates a multidisciplinary approach, integrating insights from neuroscience, psychology, and physical training to create a comprehensive framework for athlete development. He argues that such an integrated approach not only enhances performance but also contributes to the long-term mental and physical well-being of athletes.

This perspective is shared by Kumaar Bagrodia, a neuroscientist at NeuroLeap, who has highlighted the field's ability to offer key insights through cutting -edge technology, facilitating a deep understanding of the subconscious brain and personal identity —factors critical for performance enhancement. He, along with Pereira, suggests that in nations like India, merging traditional practices from the ancient Vedas, such as Ayurveda and Yoga, with contemporary neuroscience presents a distinctive pathway for athlete development. This fusion, which includes diet, exercise, mindset, wisdom , and the Vedic way of life, coupled with the precision of neuroscience, yields more comprehensive outcomes. Such a blend of timeless wisdom and modern science paves a holistic route to achieving peak performance, marrying traditional indigenous practices with contemporary knowledge to bolster both the physical and mental facets of athletic prowess.

And, so, the integration of sports psychology into the athletic framework of emerging nations is not merely an enhancement of sports performance but a necessity for the well-being of athletes and the realization of their full potential. As emerging countries continue to make their mark on the global sports arena, the support of sports psychologists becomes increasingly critical. By addressing the psychological needs of athletes, these nations can foster a more resilient, focused, and mentally healthy generation of sportspeople, capable of achieving greatness both on and off the field. The journey toward recognizing and fulfilling the need for sports psychologists in emerging nations is paramount, promising not only improved athletic performance but also a more holistic approach to sports, where the mental and physical are given equal priority.

Benjamin Laker

Benjamin Laker is a professor of leadership at Henley Business School, University of Reading. His research evaluates the societal impact of leadership, often influencing government policies and law.

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Physical Education and Physical Activity

Schools are in a unique position to help students attain the nationally recommended 60 minutes or more of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity daily. 1 Regular physical activity in childhood and adolescence is important for promoting lifelong health and well-being and preventing various health conditions. 1–3

To learn more about benefits of physical activity, physical activity behaviors of young people, and recommendations, visit Physical Activity Facts . For more information on the Physical Activity Guidelines , 2 nd edition, visit Physical Activity Guidelines for School-Aged Children and Adolescents . Find out what CDC is doing nationwide to help more adults, children, and adolescents become physically active.

Active School Environment Circle - The 5 components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

Figure 1. The 5 components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program PDF [PDF – 247 KB] | JPEG | PNG

Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program Framework

Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program Framework [PDF – 3 MB]

This document provides school health professionals, school administrators, physical education teachers, other school staff, and parents with detailed information on the components of a CSPAP framework. It identifies key professional development opportunities and resources to help schools implement the framework.


Benefits of School-Based Physical Activity

A CSPAP can increase physical activity opportunities before, during, and after school. This graphic explains how 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity can benefit a  student’s health and directly impact teachers and the community.

Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP): A Guide for Schools

Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program: A Guide for Schools [PDF – 6 MB]

CDC, in collaboration with SHAPE America, developed a step-by-step guide for schools and school districts to develop, implement, and evaluate comprehensive school physical activity programs. The guide can be read and used by an existing school health council or wellness committee, or by a new group or committee made up of physical education coordinators and teachers, classroom teachers, school administrators, recess supervisors, before- and after-school program supervisors, parents, and community members. It can be used to develop a new comprehensive school physical activity program or assess and improve an existing one.

Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program: A Guide for Schools [EPUB – 5 MB]

The eBook can be viewed on your iOS (iPad, iPhone, or iPod Touch) or Android device with an eReader. An eReader is an app that can display eBooks on your mobile device or tablet.

If you do not have an eReader app installed on your iOS (iPad, iPhone, or iPod Touch) device, search the App Store for an eReader, like iBooks. If you do not have an eReader app installed on your Android device, search the Google Play Store for an eReader. After an eReader app is installed on your device, you can download the eBook and open it on your device.

The purpose of this module  is to familiarize you with the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program and the process for developing, implementing, and evaluating one. After this module , you should be able to take the next steps to begin the process of developing a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program .

The course objectives are for you to:

  • Understand the importance and benefits of youth physical activity.
  • Recognize the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program.
  • Learn the process for developing, implementing, and evaluating a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program .
  • US Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2 nd edition. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2018.
  • Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Whole School, Whole Child, Whole Community: A Collaborative Approach to Learning and Health. 2014. Retrieved from  http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/siteASCD/publications/wholechild/wscc-a-collaborative-approach.pdf [PDF – 2.24 MB] .
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activity. MMWR. 2011;60(No. RR-5):28–33.

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New Developments in Physical Education and Sport

1. introduction.

Continuous updates of knowledge among professionals in physical education (PE) and sport are essential for the goal of developing quality professional work. In our current globalized and changing world, continuous and permanent learning is fundamental for organizing and complementing initial training and previous experience.

To ensure competence in the field of PE and sport, it is important to have a proactive attitude towards the extensive knowledge arising from continuous research and to integrate it with one’s prior knowledge and work experience. This is the path to career improvement and satisfaction. Certainly, research is an unfinished and diverse construct: it is a permanent learning process in terms of interpretations, explanations, and contributions.

Globalization, research, and education must respond to continuous changes in the different spheres of social, economic, and scientific activity. Information and communication technologies provide excellent mechanisms to facilitate the study, exchange, and dissemination of principal research findings regarding knowledge and knowledge socialization events. For this reason, and to develop competence or learning, it is also necessary to select the most appropriate information as well as quality publications that are produced with methodological rigor. Integrating knowledge in a way that can be suitably applied in the modern setting will help us to flourish as highly competent professionals in PE and sports, a field that is increasingly taken up by the population.

The Current Special Issue

This Special Issue was proposed in order to compile some of the latest research advances in the PE field and to evaluate the relationship of different variables with physical activity behaviors outside the classroom. Improving teaching processes and understanding the different psychological variables that affect learning are of continuous concern among the different agents involved in teaching. This is highlighted by the wide range of articles in the educational context (primary, secondary, and higher education) that focus on such issues as innovative teaching methodologies, pedagogical models, motivation, satisfaction and frustration of basic psychological needs, perfectionism, self-esteem, motivational climate, and emotional intelligence.

This issue also includes research on different aspects for promoting moderate and vigorous physical activity in students, both inside and outside of the educational center, and for creating healthy and permanent physical exercise habits in the future. Similarly, research focused on activities in nature, recreational pursuits, and sports tourism have been published, with samples comprising students and healthy adults.

Numerous and varied articles on the practice of physical activity and sports by special populations are featured in this Special Issue. On the one hand, we explore studies carried out in different sports contexts, such as those conducted on football players, young professional athletes, handball referees, and professional endurance athletes. On the other hand, we include studies on special populations such as elderly people; these articles show the importance of leading an active life or are focused on the most avant-garde technological advances in physical activity, such as a pro-device for monitoring physical activity and movement.

The progress made in adapting measurement instruments is also assessed in this Special Issue, especially the implications of their use for future research; four articles that focus on different characteristics of instruments’ psychometric properties have been published. Furthermore, in recognition that physical and sports education of high quality must be offered to society and must increasingly be based on empirical scientific evidence, this Special Issue also includes articles that report systematic review and meta-analysis, as well as studies that use experimental and quasi-experimental methodologies.

The topics covered by the articles are diverse, as are the methodologies used, and we are pleased that new developments in PE and sport have aroused interest in the scientific community. Our aim is to contribute to advances of the scientific debate and to provide a quality update for different professionals in this field.

2. The Studies Included

We received a total of 42 submissions, of which 28 were ultimately accepted. The submission process was open from October 2019 to September 2020. As readers will see, most of the accepted publications used cross-sectional methodologies, although qualitative, experimental, quasi-experimental, and meta-analytical studies were also included, along with psychometric instrument validations and systematic reviews. The majority of the studies were conducted in Spain, although some studies were conducted in populations from Taiwan, Poland, Luxembourg, Germany, Turkey, Lithuania, Croatia, Mexico, and Portugal.

Presented in chronological order of publication, this Special Issue includes the papers described below.

Trigueros, Aguilar-Parra, López-Liria, and Rocamora [ 1 ] used structural equation modeling to analyze the influence of several psychological control variables on emotional intelligence in a large sample of 1602 secondary school students. They also examined the meta-cognitive strategies employed by students with regard to emotional intelligence and the thwarting of basic psychological needs. Their results showed that psychological control positively predicted each of the sub-factors related to the thwarting of psychological needs, whereas the thwarting of psychological needs negatively predicted emotional intelligence, and emotional intelligence positively predicted meta-cognitive thinking. As the authors note, this research supports the tenets of self-determination theory, viewed from the darker side, while introducing new variables and demonstrating their applicability to Spanish culture.

Granero-Gallegos, Ruiz-Montero, Baena-Extremera, and Martínez-Molina [ 2 ] used multi-level regression models to analyze the effects of perceived teaching competence, motivation, and basic psychological needs on disruptive behaviors in secondary school PE students. Their results revealed that disruptive behaviors were more likely to occur among boys and that misbehavior decreased when a teacher was perceived as competent. Furthermore, students with greater self-determined motivation were more likely to exhibit fewer behaviors related to low engagement and irresponsibility, whereas amotivation increased various disruptive behaviors in the classroom.

Fuentesal-García, Baena-Extremera, and Sáez-Padilla [ 3 ] carried out two different research studies to analyze the psychometric properties of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale applied to different contexts, for initial or original use, such as physical activity in nature. This included a confirmatory factorial analysis. The authors concluded that this scale could not be applied as-is in the studied context and that certain items had to be eliminated and/or modified. From this work, they obtained a new specific instrument for this type of practice.

Hinojo, López, Fuentes, Trujillo, and Pozo [ 4 ] carried out experimental research on flipped learning as an innovative approach to physical education teaching and learning processes. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of flipped learning compared with the traditional methodology. Two study groups were established: control (traditional methodology) and experimental (flipped learning) groups at each educational stage (primary and secondary education). The results showed that the experimental group scored higher than the control group in academic indicators, motivation, autonomy, and interactions between different agents.

Abad, Collado-Mateo, Fernández-Espínola, Castillo, and Fuentes-Guerra [ 5 ] conducted a systematic review with a meta-analysis of the effects of technical and tactical intervention approaches on skill execution and decision-making, and they examined the influence of the teacher/coach management style. This study was performed following PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) using the Web of Science (WOS), PubMed (Medline), Scopus, and SportDiscus electronic databases. The meta-analysis results showed that tactical interventions achieved significant decision-making improvements, but they did not significantly improve skill execution compared with technical approaches. Tactical approaches are recommended for teaching games and sports in order to develop technique, understanding, tactical knowledge, and decision-making, all of which are required in gameplay.

García-Angulo, Palao, Giménez-Egido, García-Angulo, and Ortega-Toro [ 6 ] performed a quasi-experimental study on under-12 male football players to analyze the effect of reducing the number of players, the size of the goal, and the size of the playing space on the technical and tactical actions of young football players. The authors concluded that using modified rules generated a greater number of and more variability in technical–tactical actions, a greater number of actions with teammates in the pass line, greater continuity throughout the game, and more attacking and defensive actions close to the goal. This strategy also favored team play.

Trigueros et al. [ 7 ] took the version of the Scale of Basic Psychological Needs tailored to the physical exercise context and adapted it to and validated it in the Spanish PE context, with the important incorporation of novelty into the scale. In total, 2372 people took part in the research, and several analyses were performed. The results were reported for both the eight-factor structure and the higher-order double model, in which the eight subscales were joined into two constructs called frustration and satisfaction. The factorial structure of both models was invariant with respect to gender and age.

Sánchez-Oliva et al. [ 8 ] analyzed the relationships between perceived need support and need satisfaction with self-determined motivation and extracurricular physical activity intentions in the PE classroom, with sex and out-of-school sport participation included as moderators. Using multi-level analysis, the authors concluded that, at the classroom level, males benefited from need-supportive classes more than females in terms of increased autonomous motivation, whereas females benefited more than males in terms of decreased amotivation. Perceived need support at the class level moderated the negative association between need satisfaction and amotivation and between amotivation and intentions. The findings suggest that a need-supportive classroom environment may play an important role in students’ motivation and behavior.

Burgueño and Medina-Casaubón [ 9 ] performed a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 148 high school students (sport education group, n = 74; control group, n = 74) to assess the influence of sports education on sportsmanship orientations. The multivariate analysis showed significant multivariate effects at the level of each sportsmanship orientation between both groups, in favor of the sports education group. The authors concluded that sports education is an effective pedagogical model that should be considered by PE teachers for optimally promoting the moral and ethical education of high school students via the development of sportsmanship orientations in the context of school PE.

Tornero-Quiñones, Sáez-Padilla, Espina, Abad, and Sierra [ 10 ] carried out a study on 139 older people (between 65 and 87 years of age) to analyze the differences in autonomy between an active group (69 people) and a sedentary group (70 people) in terms of both basic daily activities and instrumental daily activities, as well as in functional capacity, fragility, and fall risk. By means of multivariate analysis, the authors found that the active group presented better values than the sedentary group, with statistically significant differences in all variables evaluated. Moreover, in the active group, functional capacity was a positive predictor variable of autonomy in instrumental daily activities, while fragility and fall risk were significant positive predictors of autonomy in basic daily activities. The importance of leading an active life after retirement is demonstrated once again.

García-Ceberino, Gamero, Feu, and Ibáñez [ 11 ] carried out quasi-experimental research to compare the declarative and procedural knowledge acquired by two groups of fifth-year students after implementing two intervention programs in school football: The Tactical Games Approach vs. the Direct Instruction Model. The results revealed no significant intergroup differences with regard to the methodology applied.

Muñoz-Villena, Gómez-López, and González-Hernández [ 12 ] analyzed psychological variables in 229 young male athletes from professional youth sport teams to evaluate the differences in anger expression and management according to self-esteem and perfectionism indicators. The results showed that high personal standards predicted lower anger trait indicators for athletes with low self-esteem. The results also revealed that high self-esteem acted as a protective factor in the predictive relationship between anger traits and personal standards. The study described the relationship between these variables and the young male footballers’ sense of belonging (under a high level of sports pressure). Their results highlight the need to foster athletes’ self-esteem in sports environments through prevention programs that include psychological and social resource training systems.

Thomas et al. [ 13 ] performed a randomized controlled trial in several European countries to assess whether an enriched sports activity program could increase physical fitness in a population of schoolchildren. The intervention group performed an additional warm-up protocol, which included cognitive-enhancing elements over 14 weeks, while the control group continued with the standard exercise activity. In the experimental group, the intragroup analysis (pre and post-test) showed a significant increase in the 1 kg and 3 kg ball throw, the standing broad jump, the 30 m sprint, and the Illinois agility test, while no significant differences were found in the quadruped test or the Léger shuttle run. In the control group, intragroup analysis (pre and post-test) showed no differences for any test except for the quadruped test and the Léger shuttle run.

Rodríguez-Medellín et al. [ 14 ] adapted and validated the Engagement and Disaffection Scale to the PE context in Mexico and assessed its reliability, factorial structure, and factorial invariance by gender on a sample of 1470 elementary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis, factorial invariance, internal consistency, correlations, and convergent and discriminant validity were performed. The authors concluded that the Mexican version of this scale is valid and useful for measuring these constructs in the PE context.

Noguera, Carmona, Rueda, Fernández, and Cimadevilla [ 15 ] carried out a quasi-experimental study with a recreational sample (48 healthy adults organized into two groups: 26 non-professional salsa dancers and 20 non-dancers) to evaluate whether dancing, as a physical activity that includes a lot of jumping and turning, affects spatial memory and executive functions. To do this, they used sensitive virtual reality-based tasks and the ANT-I task (Attentional Network Test-Interactions) to assess spatial memory and executive functions, respectively. Dancing integrates physical activity with music and involves the memory retrieval of complex step sequences and movements to create choreographies. The conclusion suggests that dancing can be a valid approach to slowing natural age-related cognitive decline. However, since dancing combines several factors, such as social contact, aerobic exercise, cognitive work with rhythms, and music, it is difficult to determine the weight of each of the variables analyzed.

Amado, León-del-Barco, Mendo-Lázaro, and Iglesias [ 16 ] performed a cross-sectional study with 944 school children to examine how body image satisfaction and gender can act as modulating variables on emotional intelligence in childhood. They analyzed differences in the intrapersonal, interpersonal, stress management, adaptability, and mood dimensions of emotional intelligence according to the degree of body image satisfaction and the children’s genders. The results revealed that children who were satisfied with their body image exhibited higher interpersonal intelligence, greater adaptability, and better mood; in addition, girls outperformed boys in stress management. The authors emphasized the need to promote campaigns designed by specialists to prevent body image dissatisfaction and to ensure that the benefits are able to reach the entire educational community (students, teachers, and parents). In this paper, several possibilities are described for meeting the demands of contemporary society.

Yang, Chuang, Lo, and Lee [ 17 ] propose a novel two-stage multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) model that incorporates the concept of sustainable development into sports tourism. For this purpose, the authors carried out the Bayesian best–worst method (Bayesian BWM) to screen for important criteria and used a laboratory evaluation technique to map out complex influential relationships. To demonstrate the model’s effectiveness, it was tested in central Taiwan. The results showed that the quality of urban security, government marketing, business sponsorship, and mass transit planning were the most important criteria. Together with local festivals, this was the most influential factor overall for the evaluation system.

Pérez-Pueyo, Hortigüela-Alcalá, Hernando-Garijo, and Granero-Gallegos [ 18 ] carried out a qualitative study to propose the attitudinal style as a pedagogical model in PE. First, they defined the characteristics and elements that make up the attitudinal style as a pedagogical model; second, the authors analyzed the perceptions of future teachers regarding the usefulness and transferability of the model in their classes. The results revealed that future PE teachers considered this model to be a transcendental methodological tool for understanding and addressing PE at school. Interpersonal relationships in the classroom, student autonomy, and group responsibility were highlighted as necessary aspects with high transferability to the school.

Oliva-Lozano, Martín-Fuentes, and Muyor [ 19 ] analyzed the validity and reliability of an inertial device for monitoring the range of pelvic motion during simulated intercourse and then compared the results with those of a gold standard system. Twenty-six adults took part and were monitored during simulated intercourse using an inertial device (WIMU) and a motion capture system (gold standard). The authors concluded that WIMU could be considered a valid and reliable device for monitoring the in–out cycle range of motion during sexual intercourse in the missionary and cowgirl positions.

Conejero, Prado, Fernández-Echeverría, Collado-Mateo, and Moreno [ 20 ] performed a systematic review with meta-analysis to evaluate the scientific literature on the effect of decision training interventions/programs from a cognitive perspective on the decision-making capabilities of volleyball players. This research was carried out following PRISMA guidelines, and studies were accessed through the WOS, Pubmed (Medline), Scopus, SportDiscus, and Google Scholar databases. From the results, the authors recommend using decisional interventions or training, both as part of normal active training and as a complement to it, in order to improve players’ decision-making capabilities.

Płoszaj, Firek, and Czechowski [ 21 ] emphasized the role of referees as educators and suggested that they be taken into account when researching the educational value of sports among the youngest participants. This study was conducted on a group of 25 handball referees to analyze the quality of their interactions (a positive climate, responsiveness, behavior management, proficiency, instructing, communicating) with young players during handball matches. The authors concluded that the referees should be trained to foster a positive climate on the sports field by creating emotional ties with players (physical proximity, social conversation) while expressing an enthusiastic attitude and the joy of contact.

Kokkonen, Gråstén, Quay, and Kokkonen [ 22 ] performed structural equational modeling based on the self-reports of 363 fourth to sixth graders to analyze how students’ perceptions of their psychological environment (i.e., the motivational climate in PE) contributed to their adoption of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) via their social competence and physical activity motivation. The results showed that both the motivational climate and co-operational aspect of social competence played significant roles in students’ physical activity motivation, physical activity intention, and MVPA. Thus, the analysis of creative PE highlights that teaching behaviors contribute to students’ MVPA through motivational climates, co-operation, physical activity motivation and physical activity intention.

Carrasco-Poyatos, González-Quílez, Martínez-González-Moro and Granero-Gallegos [ 23 ] proposed a protocol study for a cluster-randomized controlled trial to assess changes in the performance of high-level athletes after a heart rate variability (HRV)-guided training period or a traditional training period and to determine the differences in athletes’ performance after both training protocols (follow-up after 12 weeks for the cluster-randomized controlled protocol, control group, and HRV group). The variables measured were the maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2max ), the maximum speed (in m/s), the maximum heart rate, the respiratory exchange ratio, ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2), and their derived speed, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and VO 2 in an incremental treadmill test. To date, no other HRV-guided training research has been conducted on these types of professional athletes. It is expected that this HRV-guided training protocol will improve functional performance in high-level athletes, achieve better results than a traditional training method, and thus provide an effective strategy for coaches of high-level athletes.

Cattuzzo et al. [ 24 ] carried out a systematic review to examine studies that have assessed the performance of the supine-to-stand (STS) task in young people, adults, and the elderly. The databases accessed in the search were MEDLINE/Pubmed, Scielo, EMBASE, Scopus, ERIC/ProQuest, WOS, Science Direct, EBSCO, and Cochrane. After a qualitative analysis of the 37 studies included, the paper concluded that the STS task appears to be a universal tool for tracking functional motor competence and musculoskeletal fitness throughout life for clinical or research purposes.

Hutmacher, Eckelt, Bund, and Steffgen [ 25 ] performed a longitudinal study on 1681 students from elementary and high school in the context of PE. The measured variables were perceived need for support in PE, motivational regulation during PE, leisure time, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intention, and physical activity behavior. The main findings, based on mixed-effect models, revealed that the autonomy, competence, and relatedness support given by the PE teacher was positively related to autonomous motivation. In addition, longitudinal mediation analyses further supported the impact of autonomous motivation on physical activity, mediated by intention, attitude, and perceived behavioral control.

Ávalos-Ramos and Martínez-Ruiz [ 26 ] designed a qualitative study with 38 students who were in the first year of a bachelor’s degree in Physical Activity and Sport Sciences of a Spanish university and were enrolled in the Gymnastic and Artistic Skills course. The methodological design consisted of 13 practical learning sessions on the subject mentioned, in which a support strategy for autonomy in collaboration was implemented. The learning process was carried out in three phases (initial, progress, and final). The evolution of motivation, autonomy, collaboration, and achievements was highly valued throughout the process. The final assessment caused pressure and anxiety in the students, thus decreasing self-control, impairing action, and distorting the motivation experienced during the learning process.

Granero-Gallegos, González-Quílez, Plews, and Carrasco-Poyatos [ 27 ] performed a systematic review with meta-analysis to analyze the effect of HRV-guided training on VO 2max in endurance athletes. The methods were reported in accordance with the Campbell Collaboration policies and guidelines for systematic reviews. The register contained studies identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Complete, the Web of Science Core Collection, Global Health, Current Contents Connect, and the SciELO Citation Index. The results showed that HRV-guided training and control training enhanced the athletes’ VO 2max ( p < 0.0001), but the effect size (ES) for the HRV-guided training group was significantly higher. The amateur level and female subgroup produced better and significant results ( p < 0.0001) for VO 2max . HRV-guided training had a small (ES = 0.402) but positive effect on endurance athlete performance (VO 2max ), conditioned by the athlete’s level and sex.

Finally, Baños, Fuentesal, Conte, Ortiz-Camacho, and Zamarripa [ 28 ] carried out a probabilistic study on secondary school students in Mexico to analyze the mediating effect of satisfaction/enjoyment and boredom between the perception of autonomy support and academic performance in PE. The mediating effect was examined using the PROCESS V.3.5 macro. The main findings revealed that autonomy support was not a direct indicator of PE performance; instead, a forecast of positive PE performance only occurred if students felt satisfied with PE. Satisfaction with PE had a mediating effect between autonomy support and PE performance. However, boredom did not have a mediating effect between autonomy support and the student’s performance in the PE class.

3. Conclusions

In summary, these papers add to our understanding of the latest advances and developments in PE and sport. Through the 14 articles that analyze the educational context at different stages, from elementary school to university, the concerns of the different agents that intervene in the teaching–learning process are assessed. Two articles also focus on motivational aspects, executive functions, and spatial memory performance in relation to the practice of physical activity during leisure time. An analysis of physical activity in elderly people is also presented to address concerns such as functional capacity, frailty, and fall risk. Two articles focus on physical activity in nature and sports tourism, while another study validates the most advanced technological applications in sport and the analysis of human movements, such as the WIMU pro-device. Four papers analyze different aspects in the field of sport: football, athletes in professional youth teams, handball referees, and professional endurance athletes (runners). Finally, four systematic reviews (two with meta-analyses) explore different questions related to sports education, volleyball players, healthy individuals, and endurance athletes.

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism Rankings

Quick review.

* The Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism is among the institutions that don't provide data on acceptance rates. This might happen because the university has programs where applicants only need to meet admission requirements to enroll and don't necessarily compete with others.

We estimate the above acceptance rate based on admission statistics of closely ranked nearby universities with similar research profiles that do publish such data.

Acceptance rate & Admissions

Programs and degrees.

The table below displays academic fields with programs and courses that lead to Bachelor's, Master's, and Doctorate degrees offered by Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism.

Note that the table provides a general overview and might not cover all the specific majors available at the university. Always visit the university's website for the most up-to-date information on the programs offered.

Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism alumni

Alexander Ovechkin

Alexander Ovechkin

Alexander Mikhailovich Ovechkin is a Russian professional ice hockey left winger and captain of the Washington Capitals of the National Hockey League (NHL). Nicknamed "Ovi" (alternatively spelled "Ovie") and "the Great Eight" in reference to his jersey number, Ovechkin is widely regarded as one of the greatest goal scorers of all time. Second only to Wayne Gretzky for all-time goal scoring, Ovechkin also holds many records, including the most power play goals, most goals in away games, most overtime goals, and most goals with the same team in NHL history. He is the third NHL player, after Gordie Howe and Gretzky, to score 800 goals in the regular season.

Lev Yashin

Lev Ivanovich Yashin was a Soviet professional footballer, regarded by many as the greatest goalkeeper in the history of the sport. He was known for his athleticism, positioning, imposing presence in goal, and acrobatic reflex saves. He was also deputy chairman of the Football Federation of the Soviet Union.

Evgenia Medvedeva

Evgenia Medvedeva

Evgenia Armanovna Medvedeva, is a retired competitive Russian figure skater. She is the 2018 PyeongChang Olympic silver medalist (2018 ladies' singles, 2018 team event), a two-time world champion (2016, 2017), a two-time European champion (2016, 2017), a two-time Grand Prix Final champion (2015, 2016), a two-time Russian national champion (2016, 2017), silver medalist at the 2018 European Figure Skating Championships and bronze medalist at the 2019 World Championships. Earlier in her career, she won the 2015 World Junior Championships, the 2014 Junior Grand Prix Final, and the 2015 Russian Junior Championships.

Valeri Kharlamov

Valeri Kharlamov

Valeri Borisovich Kharlamov was a Russian ice hockey forward who played for CSKA Moscow in the Soviet League from 1967 until his death in 1981. Although small in stature, Kharlamov was a speedy, intelligent, skilled and dominant player, being named the Soviet Championship League most valuable player in 1972 and 1973. An offensive player, who was considered very creative on the ice, he also led the league in scoring in 1972. He was also a gifted skater who was able to make plays at top speed. Kharlamov was considered one of the best players of his era, as well as one of the greatest players of all time.

physical education games and sports

Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism faculties and divisions

General information, location and contacts, russian state university of physical culture, sport and tourism in social media.

More Than Just a Ball Game, Basketball Was Invented to Teach Moral Lessons

More Than Just a Ball Game, Basketball Was Invented to Teach Moral Lessons

When a young physical education teacher invented a new game in December 1891, he was looking for more than exercise. To James Naismith, basketball had loftier goals than that.

Pain Marked Life of Inventor

This philosophy of life compelled him to choose a life’s work that would help reduce the seemingly ever-present evil in the world and to prepare for the coming Kingdom of God. With that goal in mind in his career, James Naismith set out to meet the needs of the world in which he lived.

A model of Mr. Naismith’s original basketball hoop. What began as a recreational activity to teach life lessons, quickly became a beloved sport. (Cloudy Design/Shutterstock)

Theology Meets Physical Education

As a college student in his mid-20s, he turned down the recruiting of several athletics teams. To James Naismith, academics came first. Later, after making sure his schoolwork was in order, he participated on the rugby, fencing, and gymnastics teams. After finishing his undergraduate work, he became a graduate student at Presbyterian College, in 1887. While studying theology, he served the fledgling Montreal YMCA and McGill University as a physical education instructor. But Naismith never finished his seminary training. In 1890, he joined Luther Gulick and Amos Alonzo Stagg at the YMCA Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts. In Springfield, Naismith found a niche as a Christian who wanted to use sports as a focus for ministry.

And one way he did that was by inventing basketball.

Nowitzki, Gasol, Parker Give International Flavor to Basketball Hall of Fame Enshrinement

Creation of a Game

Day of invention.

In 1892, a group of women teachers from a nearby school asked Naismith if they could play, too. “I don’t see why not,” he said. In one game, Naismith, as referee, was shocked when he called a foul and one of the women protested forcefully. But he remembered that game clearly. One of the women, Maude Sherman, later became his wife.

A photograph of the exterior of Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in Springfield, Mass. (Alexander Sviridov/Shutterstock)

Beyond the Game

As basketball developed in the 20th century, however, it changed from what Naismith had in mind. It became less a self-directed activity and more a coach-directed game. In response to these trends, Naismith became rigid. He rejected most attempts to change the rules of play to adapt to the demands of a changing athletic culture. Naismith felt that the game as he invented it would develop each player on its own and needed no human intervention. The game itself would nurture the athlete.

Enshrined Forever in Sports

Although Naismith gained a medical degree several years after inventing basketball and went on to teach at the University of Kansas for 40 years, it is through his one creative act, the invention of basketball, that Naismith will be enshrined forever in the life of sport. He died November 28, 1939, in Lawrence, Kansas.

A hand-stitched basketball made from eight leather panels, early 1900s. (gualtiero boffi/Shuttesrtock)

  • More than 27 million Americans over age 6 play basketball at least once per year.
  • There are more than 1,400 basketball teams at four-year colleges. Of these, about 350 are NCAA Division 1 teams.
  • One percent of male high school players get into a Division 1 college. One percent of NCAA players get into the NBA.
  • No NBA team has gone undefeated for an entire season. But in 1995–96, the Chicago Bulls only lost 10 games.
  • Michael Jordan scored an average of 30 points per game. LeBron James scores an average of 27.
  • Nike sells 93% of all basketball shoes. Under Armor holds the number two spot, with 4% of sales.
  • The first slam dunk occurred 45 years after basketball’s invention. Since 1996, NBA players have performed more than 210,000 dunks.

Charles Atlas: Real-Life Man of Steel

Charles Atlas: Real-Life Man of Steel

The ‘Real McCoy’: Inventor Elijah McCoy

The ‘Real McCoy’: Inventor Elijah McCoy

Capturing the Real Life of the Soul: Sculptor Helen Farnsworth Mears

Capturing the Real Life of the Soul: Sculptor Helen Farnsworth Mears

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CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Most Repeated Questions: CBSE Most Frequently Asked Physical Education Questions in Last 10 Years

Cbse class 102physical education paper 2024: in this article, you will get the cbse most frequently asked questions class 12 physical education. these are the most important questions for class 12 physical education board exam 2024..

Atul Rawal

CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Important Questions: The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Class 12 Physical Education paper is planned for March 12, 2024 (Tuesday). The exam will be conducted in offline mode from 10:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. The pattern and type of question remain almost the same. This makes this paper a bit easier. Many students opt for this subject to improve their overall percentage, as the knowledge provided through it is comparatively earlier than other subjects. 

Most Repeated Questions in Physical Education Class 12 CBSE Board

Chapter 1: management of sporting event.

Q1. What is planning and what are the objectives of the planning or explain the objectives of the planning?

Q2. Briefly explain the functions of Directing and Controlling to organize sports event.

Q3. Explain any two functions of marketing committee, before and during the sports competition.

Q4 . Write down the role of the various committees post tournament

Q5. Define Intramurals.

Q6. Define Extramurals.

Q7. What is Health Run?

Q8. What is run for fun?

Q9. Define extramurals. Write its objectives and principles

Q10. Explain the meaning of specific sports programme? Write its contribution for society.

Q11. Briefty explain the objectives of intramural tournaments.

Q12. Write down the activities for the intramural tournament.

Chapter 2: Women and Children in Sports

Q1. Explain the symptoms & corrective measures of kyphosis?

Q2. Discuss about the female athlete triad.

Q3. Enlist any four corrective measures for Knock-knees.

Q4. What are the advantages of physical exercises for children and adults of 5to17 years of age

Q5. Suggest some physical activities for 1 to 2 years of children.

Enlist the physical activities for the children of 1 to2 years of age

Q6. Enlist or suggest physical activities for the children of 3 to 4 years of age.

Q7. Mention the symptoms causes & corrective measurs of knock knee.

Q8. Disscus the symptoms, causes & corrective neasuns of flat feet?

Q9. Descibe the symptoms, causes & corrective measuring of scoliosis?

Q10. Discuss the symptoms, causes & corrective measure of bow legs?

Q11. Express the reasons for woment to have less participation in sports?

Q12. Elucidate the steps to improve participation of women in sports & games.

Q13. What do you mean by female triad? Explain the causes of it?

Chapter 3: Yoga as Preventive Measure for Lifestyle Disease

Q1 State any four benefits of Kapalbhati. Benefit of kapalbhati

Q2. Describe the procedure and any two benefits of Pavanmuktasana. Procedure of Pavanmuktasana.

Q3. List down any four asanas used for prevention of Hypertension. Explain the procedure and contraindication of any one of them with help of a stick diagram.

Q4. Explain Procedure of Tadasana (as specimen)

Q5. Explain the procedure of Pawanmuktasana.

Q6. What do you understand by the Ardha Matsyendrasana?

Q7. Explain the procedure of Paschimottasana

Discuss any two benefits of Paschimottasana.

Q8. Write any two benefits of the Gomukhasana.

Chapter 4: Physical Education & Sports for (CWSN)

Q1. In relation to the pictures, answer the following questions:

physical education games and sports

(a) Logo shown in picture__________ refers to Special Olympic.

(b) Who was the founder of Special Olympics?

(c) According to figure 'B', the hand shapes of 'OK', 'Good' and 'Great' that overlap each other in a circle,, represent the original sign for

(d) How many countries participated in the first Paralympic Games in Rome (Italy) in 1960?

The motto of Paralympics is____________

Q2. Describe some organizations promoting adaptive sports.

Q3. Explain the concept of inclusion.

Q4. Explain any three strategiues to make physical actvities acces sible for children with special needs.

Q5. What is the difference between Classification and Divisioning In disability sports?

Q6. Describe 'Maximum Effort Rule' used in Special Olympics?

Q7. Suggest any five strategies to make physical activities accessible for children with special needs.

Chapter 5: Sports & Nutrition

Q1 Fill in the blanks

(i) Vitamin B is a group of 8 water-soluble vitamins which are important for cellular metabolism.

(ii) Scurvy disease is caused due to lack of Vitamin C.

(iii) Vitamin D is important for healthy bones and teeth.

(iv) Vitamin K is needed for blood-clotting.

Night blindness occurs due to the deficiency of Vitamin _____A_______

Q2. Explain balanced diet and its function in our body.

Q3. Write the functions of Vitamin D and Vitamin K and mention their sources.

Q4. List down two sources and two functions of protein.

Q5. Write importance of protein for our body.

Q6. Write difference between simple and complex carbohydrates.

Q7. Write briefly about minerals as an important nutritive component.

Q8. Explain the role of any two macro-nutrients in our body.

Q9. Exapkin fat soluble and water soluble vitamins and their sources. 

Q.10 What do you understand by non nutritine components of diet? Explain the imprortance of any two such components.

Q11. What is BMI? Calculate BMI of a child whose weight is 72 kg and height 1.68 mts.

Q12. Difference between macro and micro nutrients.

Q13. How food tolerance is treated? What are symptoms? Explain in brief.

Q14. Describe myths of dieting.

Chapter 6: Test and Measurement in Sports

Q1. Explain the procedure of six minute walk test.

Q2. Describe the method of sit and reach test.

Q3. Explain the procedure for administering any three test items of Rikli and Jones Test.

Q4. Rudra is working on a project to collect data for assessing Physical Fitness amongst Senior Citizens at his residential complex. He plans to administer test for assessing Lower body Flexibility; Upper Body Flexibility and Lower Body Strength. List the test(s) he should conduct and also explain in detail the procedure of its administration along with scoring system.

Q5. List down the test items of Rikli and Jones fitness test and explain the procedure of anyone.

Q6. Illustrate the procedure to measure speed, agility and balance of a Senior Citizen.

Q7. Explain the procedure for administering chair sit and reach test and chair stand test in detail.

Q8. What is BMI Calculate BMI of a child whose weight is 72 kg and height 1.68 mt.

Chapter 7: Physiology & Injuries in Sport

Q1. Elaborate the physiological factors determining endurance and strength.

Q2. Enlist the classification of sports injuries.

Q3. Elaborate the effects of exercise on size of the heart.

Q4. Explain the physiological factors determining Strength and Speed.

Q5. Create a flow chart for common Sports Injuries while enlisting the sub parts.

Q6. List any four changes happening in the muscular system due to exercising. 

Q7. Create a flowchart to explain classification of sports injuries. 

Q8. Discuss physiological factors determining speed.

Q9. What type of fracture is known as Greenstick Fracture?

Q10. On the basis of physiological parameters, mention any two gender differences.

Q11. Which type of sports injury is known as "Strain"?

Q12. What do you mean by soft tissue injuries?

Q13. What are the effects of exercise on Respiration System? Write in detail. 

Q14. What is the effect of exercise on cardio respiratory system and muscular system?

Q15. Explain any 2 physiological factors, help in determining endurance.

Q16. Explain any two types of soft tissue injuries with help of examples. 

Q17. Explain any three physiological factors determining strength. 

Q18. Briefly explain any two factors determining endurance. 

Q19. Elucidate any four types of fractures. 

Chapter 8: Biomechanics and Sports

  • a) The more force one exerts on the downward bounce, the higher the ball bounces into the air. Which law is this statement being referred to?
  • b) Among the above given pictures, Newton's 3rd law is depicted in _________
  • c) Newton's second law is also known as _________
  • d) The study of human body and various forces acting on it is ________

A high jumper can jump higher off a solid surface because it opposes his or her body with as much force as he or she is able to generate. This example refers to which law of motion?

Q2. Explain the various factors affecting projectile trajectory.

Q3. With suitable examples explain the application of Newton's law in sports.

Q4. What are the various types of friction? How is friction advantageous or disadvantageous in the field of games and sports? Explain with suitable examples.

Q5. Define Projectile.

Q6. Define friction in sports.

Q7. State Newton's laws of motion and explain their implication in Sports of your choice.

Q8. Define Projectile and explain any two factors affecting projectile with help of examples from sports.

Chapter 9: Psychology and Sports

Q1. Describe the types of personality. 

Q2. Explain the Jung's classification of personality.

Q3. Explain briefly the two types of Aggression.

Q4. Explain aggression in Sports. Discuss the role of aggression in context to its types.

Q5. Enlist the Big Five Theory Personalities and describe any three of them while comparing their characteristics.

Q6. Explain any three personality types of Big five theory.

Q7. Define aggression. Discuss any 2 types of aggression.

Q8. What are the personality traits according to the big five theory?

Q9. What do you understand by "Goal Setting"? 

Q10. How can we enhance the sports performance with the help of self-talk and self-esteem? Explain.

Q11. List down any four benefits of self talk by athletes in sports.

Chapter 10: Training in Sports 

Q1. Define Endurance.

Q2. Describe Fartlek training method.

Q3. Explain the types of coordinative abilities.

Q4. Explain any three types of coordinative abilities.

Q5. Explain Fartlek training method along with its advantages.

Q6. Explain the methods to improve flexibility with help of examples.

Q7. Define explosive strength with help of example. 

Q8. What is the meaning of the Isotonic method and it is used for developing which ability.

Q9. What are the salient features of the Fartlek training method?

Q10. Define flexibility and methods to develop flexibility.

Q11. List down any four advantages of fartlek training method.

Q12. Define flexibility along with its types. Explain any two methods used to develop flexibility.

Q13. Define Flexibility and list down its types.

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  • physical activity

noun as in sport

Strongest matches

Strong matches

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Related words.

Words related to physical activity are not direct synonyms, but are associated with the word physical activity . Browse related words to learn more about word associations.

noun as in recreational activity; entertainment

Example Sentences

Drink plenty of water before, during, and following physical activity.

Kids are less likely to drink appropriate amounts of fluid in preparation of and participation in physical activity.

Victorian society largely believed that women could not endure robust physical activity.

You ‘need’ fresh air, water, sleep, physical activity and a nutritionally balanced diet.

Keep in mind, this general formula is for someone on the lower end of daily physical activity and workout volume.

It is just as true in her case as in man's, that proper brain activity stimulates physical activity.

If we can have intellectual development and physical activity combined, is it not a thing to be devoutly wished?

To give Felix Carbury what little praise might be his due, it is necessary to say that he did not lack physical activity.

In physical activity the Highland boy delighted, but working his mind bored and wearied him.

He sings at watering places, at palace hotels; which involves the physical activity which he abhors.

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On this page you'll find 22 synonyms, antonyms, and words related to physical activity, such as: athletics, fun, game, pastime, action, and amusement.

From Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition Copyright © 2013 by the Philip Lief Group.

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physical education games and sports

  • Parenting, childcare and children's services
  • Childcare and early years
  • Local authorities and early years
  • Holiday activities and food programme
  • Department for Education

Holiday activities and food programme 2024

Updated 11 March 2024

Applies to England

physical education games and sports

© Crown copyright 2024

This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected] .

Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned.

This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/holiday-activities-and-food-programme/holiday-activites-and-food-programme-2024


The holiday activities and food ( HAF ) programme provides healthy meals, enriching activities, and free childcare places to children from low-income families, benefiting their health, wellbeing and learning.

Since 2022, the HAF programme has provided 10.7 million HAF days to children and young people in this country. The expansion of the programme year-on-year has meant a total of 5.4 million HAF days provided between Christmas 2022, Easter and summer 2023.

The programme, though aimed at children in receipt of benefits related free school meals ( FSM ) is not exclusively for them and as set out in this guidance, we encourage local authorities to use up to 15% of their funding to provide free or subsidised holiday club places for children who are not in receipt of benefits related free school meals but who the local authority believe could benefit from HAF .

Programme Overview

This document provides information for local authorities delivering the holiday activities and food programme for the 2024 to 2025 financial year. The document should be read alongside the grant determination letter .

The funding for each local authority for the  HAF  programme is confirmed in the published holiday activities and food programme grant determination letter on an annual basis.

This funding is for the 153 upper tier local authorities to coordinate and provide free holiday provision, including healthy food and enriching activities. The programme will again be available to children in every local authority in England. The holiday periods that we expect local authorities to cover are set out in  the core offer  section.

Since 2018, the  HAF  programme has provided support to children in receipt of free school meals through holiday periods.

Following successful pilots between 2018 and 2020 on 27 October 2021, the government announced a 3 year funding settlement of over £200 million each year for the holiday activities and food ( HAF ) programme. The final year of this funding settlement is the 2024 to 2025 financial year.

Research has shown that the school holidays can be pressure points for some families. For some children that can lead to a holiday experience gap. Children from low income households are:

  • less likely to access organised out-of-school activities
  • more likely to experience ‘unhealthy holidays’ in terms of nutrition and physical health
  • more likely to experience social isolation

The  HAF  programme is a response to this issue. Evidence shows that free holiday clubs can have a positive impact on children and young people. They work best when they:

  • provide consistent and easily accessible enrichment activities
  • cover more than just breakfast or lunch
  • involve children and parents in food preparation
  • use local partnerships and connections, particularly with the  VCSO  sector

Who the programme is for

The  HAF  programme funding is primarily for school aged children from reception to year 11 (inclusive) who receive benefits related free school meals.

Benefits related  FSMs  are available to pupils if their parents are in receipt of one of the qualifying benefits and have a claim verified by their school or local authority.

For further information on eligibility, visit  apply for free school meals .

Local authorities are asked to ensure that the offer of free holiday club provision is available for all children in receipt of benefits related free school meals in their area. Though this does not mean we expect all to attend, as the provision is voluntary.

Other children and families

As in previous years, local authorities have discretion to use up to 15% of their funding to provide free or subsidised holiday club places for children who are not in receipt of benefits related FSM but who the local authority believe could benefit from HAF .

In deciding which children should benefit from the 15% flexible funding, local authorities should ensure that these places are aligned to their local priorities.

Local authorities are not required to seek written approval from the Department for Education ( DfE ) for the use of this 15% flexibility. They are expected to continue to monitor and report on this element of their expenditure and ensure it remains within the limit.

Universal infant free school meals

All children in reception, year 1 and year 2 in England’s state funded schools receive a free meal under the universal infant free school meals ( UIFSM ) policy.

Infant pupils who receive a free meal under  UIFSM  must also be eligible for benefits related  FSM  to be able to access a place on the  HAF  programme.

Checking eligibility

It is expected that all local authorities should have a robust system in place to ensure that the programme in their area is supporting the children and families that it is intended to support.

Examples of robust systems may include:

  • booking systems that include an automatic eligibility checking feature that establishes FSM status
  • voucher or code systems, where eligible children and their families are issued with unique code allowing them to book places on the programme
  • direct referral of children to the local authority or the direct booking on to the programme by a school
  • referral from another trusted public body, agency or from elsewhere within the local authority
  • direct cross checking with the Eligibility Checking System

This list is not exhaustive and is not intended to be prescriptive. Local authorities are responsible for ensuring their system is adequate and robust and ensuring that HAF funding is expended in accordance with the eligibility requirements and funding conditions of the programme.

Allowing parents and families to ‘self-declare’ their eligibility is not sufficiently robust if the local authority does not also have additional checks in place to ensure that the self-declaration is accurate.

Booking systems

We know that the majority of local authorities now have an online system or mechanism in place that allows parents and families to book places on to the HAF programme. There are many organisations who provide bespoke booking systems to local authorities.

This section of the guidance is intended to support local authorities when considering the procurement or development of a booking system.

It is expected that the booking system that a local authority operates should, as a minimum, include the following features:

  • it should be in a fully accessible format so that users with additional needs or disabilities are able to easily and effectively navigate and use the system
  • it should be available in alternative languages so that users whose first language is not English are able to easily and effectively navigate and use the system
  • it should include an offline option so that those who cannot or do not want to use an online booking system are still able to book, for example through a dedicated email or telephone number
  • an eligibility checking disclaimer, so that parents and families can provide their consent for the booking system and so the provider or the local authority can conduct eligibility checks to ensure the programme reaches its intended recipients

Features of a booking system may also include:

  • mechanisms to prevent ‘double-bookings’ or multiple or same day bookings, so a single child cannot take up places with different providers on the same day or time
  • reminders and prompts so that families receive notifications about their bookings, which can help to minimise non-attendance
  • availability as an app
  • real-time tracking of bookings, allowing the local authority and provider to focus their marketing and promotion

Targeting children with low school attendance rates

A number of local authorities have targeted and supported children who have, or are at risk of having, low school attendance rates. The HAF programme can offer these children stability, structure and support alongside fun, food and physical activity during the longer school holidays and could contribute to them feeling more able to return to school and attend more regularly.

At one school in Stoke on Trent, the leadership team worked with the local authority and The Hubb Foundation to target pupils with low attendance rates and offer them places on the summer HAF programme. After tracking attendance rates after the summer school holiday, they saw significant improvements to attendance rates of targeted pupils, including:

  • one year 5 pupil (FSM recipient and a Looked After Child) who improved their school attendance rate by 11% when compared with the previous year
  • 2 siblings, who were both recipients of FSM, were specifically targeted to attend HAF - one child reduced their unauthorised absence rate by 23.2% with the sibling improving their attendance rate by 28.7%

Aims of the programme

There are many benefits for children who attend the  HAF  programme. We want to encourage all  HAF  providers to ensure a high-quality experience that will result in children:

  • receiving healthy and nutritious meals
  • maintaining a healthy level of physical activity
  • being happy, having fun and meeting new friends
  • developing a greater understanding of food, nutrition and other health related issues
  • taking part in fun and engaging activities that support their development and well-being
  • feeling safe and secure
  • getting access to the right support services
  • returning to school feeling engaged and ready to learn

Families can also benefit, when  HAF  providers include their needs in planning and delivering their programme. This could be through:

  • providing opportunities to get involved in sessions, for example cookery classes
  • ensuring they are signposted towards other sources of information and support, such as health services or employment and education opportunities

The core offer

Overall, local authorities are expected to offer the equivalent of 6 weeks’ HAF provision to eligible children during the Easter, summer and Christmas school holidays.

The dates that HAF provision can take place during those holiday periods are not set out in this guidance and it is for local authorities to decide, taking into account the school holiday periods in their area.

Over Easter:

We expect that all participating children should benefit from face-to-face provision during the Easter school holidays, which should be for a minimum of 4 days.

Over summer:

  • for local authorities that have a summer holiday that spans 6 full calendar weeks, participating children should be offered face-to-face provision during the summer school holidays, which should be for a minimum of 16 days
  • for local authorities that have a summer holiday that is less than 6 full calendar weeks, participating children should be offered face-to-face provision, which should be for a minimum of 12 days
  • if only 3 weeks are offered at summer, then these local authorities are expected to offer an additional 4 days during another half-term holiday period (February, May or October)

Over Christmas:

We expect that all participating children should benefit from face-to-face provision during the Christmas school holidays, which should be for a minimum of 4 days.

Flexibility in the Christmas school holidays

We know that the HAF programme offers a wide range of support for families that goes well beyond the delivery of food and activities: it’s a point of contact for children and families during holiday periods that can be vital for them in accessing support and services. We also know that children benefit from being together, being sociable, engaging in activities with friends and having fun and that families may need support with childcare during the Christmas holiday period.  

We however understand that there are many factors that can impact upon the capacity of HAF providers over the Christmas school holidays. There are also many children and families across the country from cultures that do not celebrate Christmas and local authorities should endeavour to ensure that the needs of all eligible children and families from across their community are fully met. 

We want local authorities to have the freedom to act flexibly to ensure that the high-quality support and contact provided by the HAF programme is still delivered at Christmas. 

While our expectation remains that participating children should benefit from at least 4 days of face-to-face provision, we recognise that over the Christmas school holidays, this may not always be possible. Where this is the case, we recommend that participating children are offered at least 2 days of face-to-face provision complimented by at least 2 days of  HAF  support which can be provided in the form of high-quality food hampers and activity packs.

The provision of vouchers or cash payments to children and families using HAF funding is not permitted.

Where local authorities are unable to deliver 4 days of face-to-face provision, an alternative approach is 2 days of face-to-face provision. This could be similar to the HAF provision delivered at Easter and in the summer.

It could also be, for example, a Christmas festival or fayre where children and their families are invited along to take part in activities together, prepare a festive meal together and socialise. At these events, we expect that those attending should eat high quality, healthy food and take part in some fun activities.

It could also involve day trips or other experiences, providing that this includes a healthy meal as well as an element of physical activity, for example, a walk.

Alongside this, we would expect that children who attend the above face-to-face provision also receive the equivalent of a minimum of 2 further days of support in the form of high quality food hampers and activity packs. 

Length of  HAF  sessions

Our expectation is that, in HAF  funded holiday weeks, local authorities should endeavour to offer all eligible children the equivalent of at least 4 hours a day, 4 days a week though we recognise that this is not always practical or possible.

We strongly encourage HAF coordinators to work with their providers to consider opportunities to offer paid for places alongside HAF funded places and ensure the HAF programme, where possible, supports the provision of childcare during the holidays. In doing this, local authorities and providers can be flexible about the length of the sessions that they offer.

We know that local authorities and providers want the flexibility to offer longer or shorter sessions, and this is something we encourage, particularly when considering the needs of older children and children with special educational needs and disabilities ( SEND ) or additional needs.

To meet the needs of secondary aged children in the summer, a provider could offer 6 weeks of provision consisting of shorter sessions, which included food and activities for 2 to 3 hours and for 3 to 4 days per week.

This could be complemented with opportunities for children to undertake voluntary work, building new skills or trips and experiences.

In planning their  HAF  programme, local authorities are expected to make sure that eligible children can access a level of provision that meets their needs. They should bear in mind that the overall  HAF  offer to the child does not need to be from a single provider but can be delivered though a range of providers with a blend of offers available.

Other holiday periods

Funding for this programme is available for the Easter, summer, and Christmas school holidays only.

The only exception is for those local authorities with a shorter summer holiday period (less than 6 full calendar weeks). These authorities have the flexibility to limit their summer provision to 3 weeks and provide an additional week (a minimum of 4 days) in one of the longer half-term holiday periods.

Wraparound childcare

The national wraparound programme compliments HAF , with the ambition that by 2026, all parents and carers of primary school-aged children who need it will be able to access term time childcare in their local area from 8am to 6pm, so that parents can access employment and improve labour market participation.

Local authorities will work with primary schools and providers (including childminders) to set up or expand before and after school childcare in their area.

The wraparound programme aims to ensure that all parents or carers of primary school-aged children accessing wraparound and who are eligible for Universal Credit childcare or Tax-Free Childcare can use this financial support to help pay for wrapround. Local authorities should promote the use of Tax-Free Childcare and Universal Credit childcare and encourage providers to sign up to accept both.

Our expectation is that HAF coordinators in local authorities actively engage with the wraparound leads in the local authority in order to explore and support opportunities to make connections between the 2 programmes whether that be around:

  • school engagement
  • promoting the opportunity to private providers who may want to extend or expand in the term time and take advantage of the new programme
  • sharing intelligence about the wider holiday wraparound market

We strongly encourage HAF coordinators to work with their providers to consider opportunities to offer paid for places alongside HAF and ensure the HAF programme, where possible, supports the provision of childcare during the holidays.

Full details can be found in the national wraparound childcare programme handbook.

Provision for all

We strongly encourage local authorities to ensure the clubs and providers they fund are open to all children, not just to those who received a place funded by the  HAF  programme.

Local authorities should work with providers to help raise awareness of Tax-Free Childcare and Universal Credit support directly with the families who use their provision. Materials to help providers to raise awareness of support available can be found in the Childcare Choices: Parent communications toolkit .

Standards for holiday provision

We have developed a framework of standards to provide a benchmark of what we expect from those delivering the HAF programme.

One of the key roles of the local authority is to:

  • improve the quality of provision across the local area
  • ensure that providers deliver the HAF programme in compliance with high-level framework of standards

Framework of standards

This section sets out the standards we expect for  HAF  funded providers. We expect local authorities to make best use of the variety of local and national organisations who are available to support them and their providers in the delivery of these aspects of the  HAF  programme.

It is the local authority’s role to ensure standards are met across the programme and to support local providers who do not meet them to ensure they are adequately supported through training, support, and partnerships.

Not all providers have to deliver all aspects of the programme, but our clear expectation is that where possible, all participating children should benefit from all aspects of the programme. This might mean that local authorities adopt a blended approach to ensuring children can access different aspects of the programme through different providers.

Food provision

All providers must provide at least 1 meal a day (breakfast, lunch or an evening meal and all food provided at  HAF  clubs (including snacks) must meet  school food standards .

For some children, the opportunity to enjoy a hot meal at a  HAF  club is important and our aspiration is that providers should, where possible, try to offer hot meals to children attending  HAF  clubs. However, we acknowledge that this is not always possible and that alternatives to hot meals can sometimes be more suitable.

To ensure that all children receive a high quality and stigma free experience, if a provider is open to both  HAF -funded and non- HAF -funded places, it is vital that all of the children attending are provided with an identical food offer and that  HAF  funded children are treated equally.

If children on non- HAF -funded places are given the option to bring a packed lunch, then we expect the local authority and the provider to work together to ensure that children attending through  HAF  have the same choice. This could be fulfilled through the provider and the local authority making arrangements to provide packed lunches for  HAF  children. All packed lunches must meet the school food standards.

Alternatively, for providers who provide meals on-site, they could consider making the same healthy food available to all children, but with an additional charge for those non- HAF  funded places.

All food provided as part of the  HAF  programme must:

  • comply with regulations on food preparation
  • take into account allergies and dietary requirements (see the  allergy guidance for schools )
  • take into account any religious or cultural requirements for food

There is flexibility in the design of the food provision which should always be tailored to ensure that all food meets the dietary needs of the children and families who attend. The food served should also be appropriate for the nature of the session, for example, offering cold packed lunches for parks or outdoor venues or for day trips.

While there can be benefits to using a central food service to provide meals to  HAF  clubs, we expect local authorities to carefully consider whether using a central food service is the right approach for providing high quality, attractive and tailored meals for those attending the  HAF  programme.

Providing food on site can provide an opportunity to engage children and families in food preparation and nutrition. Providers have reported that when children are involved in designing menus and the preparation of food, they are more engaged and more willing to try new and healthier food.

We recommend that local authorities carefully consider the provision of the food element of the  HAF  programme, in particular, in making sure that providers and children are involved in the planning and preparation of food. Such a developmental approach can be key to effecting long term change in engagement with food and nutrition.

There are also environmental factors to consider when planning the food provision. Local authorities should consider whether clubs preparing food on their own premises would produce less food and packaging waste and result in fewer food miles than off-site, centralised provision.

Food providers

Local authorities should ensure that the providers they work with are, where applicable, registered as a food business. This provides reassurance to all of those involved that food safety standards are being met.

A food business is defined as anyone doing the following with food:

  • distributing

We expect that this will apply to the vast majority of HAF providers and local authorities will need to carefully consider any HAF providers who are claiming an exemption to registration as a food business. Further information is available on  food business registration .

Local authorities are responsible for enforcing food hygiene laws and can inspect any registered food business at any point in the food production and distribution process. We recommend that  HAF  coordinators within each local authority are in regular contact with their food safety inspectors to ensure that  HAF  providers are fully compliant.

Food information regulations: Natasha’s Law

From 1 October 2021, changes to the Food Information Regulations 2014 came into effect, adding new labelling requirements for food that is pre-packed for direct sale ( PPDS ).

Local authorities should read the  guidance on the Food Standards Agency website  and ensure that all food provision for the  HAF  programme meets these requirements.

Enrichment activities

All  HAF -funded provision must provide fun and enriching activities that allow children to:

  • develop new skills or knowledge
  • consolidate existing skills and knowledge
  • try out new experiences
  • have fun and socialise

This could include but is not limited to:

  • physical activities, for example, football, swimming, table tennis or cricket
  • creative activities, for example, putting on a play, junk modelling or drumming workshops
  • experiences, for example, a nature walk or visiting a city farm
  • free play, for example, fun and freedom to relax and enjoy themselves

We expect all  HAF  providers to provide a balanced programme. For providers whose primary focus is set around a specific activity or sport, we expect them to ensure that children attending their provision benefit from a holistic and varied experience.

Physical activities

Holiday clubs must provide activities that meet the  physical activity guidelines  on a daily basis.

In line with those guidelines, we expect:

  • all children and young people participating in the  HAF  programme should engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for an average of at least 60 minutes per day
  • children and young people participating in the  HAF  programme should engage in a variety of types and intensities of physical activity to develop movement skills, muscular fitness, and bone strength
  • children and young people should aim to minimise the amount of time spent being sedentary, and when physically possible should break up long periods of not moving with at least light physical activity

Meeting the physical activity requirement does not have to be in the form of a structured and focussed physical activity session, but might include active travel, free play and sports.

Increasing awareness of healthy eating, healthy lifestyles, and positive behaviours

We expect providers to incorporate helping children to understand more about the benefits of healthy eating and nutrition into their programme. These do not need to be formal learning activities. This could include:

  • getting children involved in food preparation and cooking
  • growing fruit and vegetables
  • taste tests
  • discussing food and healthy eating during mealtimes
  • including food and nutrition in other activities

Offering positive learning and development through  HAF  activities creates stigma free opportunities to support children and young people in learning about healthy lifestyles and exercise. This could cover, for example, the use of vapes, cigarettes, drugs, and how this can lead to issues including:

  • personal safety
  • exploitation
  • criminality

Signposting and referrals and supporting families

HAF  providers should be able to offer information, signposting or referrals to other services and support, that would benefit the children who attend their provision and their families. Other services and support could include:

  • Citizens Advice
  • school nurses, dentists, or other healthcare practitioners
  • family support services or children’s services
  • housing support officers
  • Jobcentre Plus
  • organisations providing financial education
  • early years and childcare, including help to pay for childcare (for example,  Tax-Free Childcare  )

There are many ways that providers can meet this element of the programme, for example, through trained and knowledgeable staff engaging with families during drop-off and pick-up times.

We know that many  HAF  providers have worked to provide weekly training and advice sessions for parents, carers or other family members. We encourage providers who want to do so to continue to offer those sessions.

These sessions could provide advice on how to source, prepare and cook nutritious and low-cost food. This could be combined with the increasing awareness and understanding of healthy eating aspect of the programme, for example, by inviting children and their families to prepare and eat a meal together at a  HAF  session.

There are alternative ways of delivering this, for example, by providing participating children with ingredients and recipes to take away and try at home with their families.

In Lambeth and Southwark, they worked with the Kitchen Social programme to incorporate the ‘take and make’ into their Summer of Food and Fun HAF programme. Participating children received a box of ingredients and recipe cards to take home so that families could cook and eat healthy meals together at home.

The boxes, which were designed with nutritionists:

  • met school food standards
  • were low cost
  • took under 30 minutes to make
  • were ‘low cook’, which aimed to ease financial constraints and build families confidence in cooking

The boxes also included healthy eating and physical activity challenges and information to support children learning and being active at home.

Policies and procedures

There are a wide variety of organisations and individuals involved in the delivery of the holiday, activities and food programme including:

  • private providers
  • youth clubs
  • community groups

All organisations delivering the  HAF  programme must be able to demonstrate that they have in place relevant and appropriate policies and procedures for:

  • safeguarding, including the recruitment of staff and volunteers
  • food safety
  • health and safety
  • relevant insurance policies
  • accessibility and inclusiveness

Quality assurance: ensuring providers meet the programme standards

Local authorities should have in place a system to monitor the  HAF  providers they fund so that they can be assured that they meet the expected standards for the programme and are providing a high quality and fun experience for children. Having a quality assurance process in place will provide reassurance to all involved.

Local authorities will also need to ensure that robust due diligence checks are carried out on each provider they fund through the  HAF  programme, prior to the provider commencing work.

Our expectation is that local authorities will carry out visits to every provider they fund in order to be satisfied that the provision is suitable, and that the provider has everything in place to deliver a high quality programme.

We recognise that each local authority will develop an individual approach and a proportionate system to monitor their  HAF  providers and that it may not be necessary or proportionate to visit every provider during every holiday period and there are many ways that local authorities can keep in regular contact with providers.

As a minimum, it is expected that an assurance visit should be made to all HAF funded providers at least once per year.

We expect all providers who are funded through the programme to meet our framework of standards and we expect that assurance visits are focussed on ensuring this is the case.

Below are a number of areas that local authorities may want to cover as part of their quality assurance visits, the list is intended as a guide and is not prescriptive.

  • that the provider is registered as a food business or if they are claiming an exemption, that the exemption applies
  • what plans the provider has in place to provide high quality and nutritious food
  • how will they ensure that the food served will meet the school food standards
  • if they have talked to children and families about the food they will serve
  • if they have a robust system in place to ensure the food they serve considers dietary, religious or cultural requirements
  • if they have a robust system in place to manage allergies
  • if they are open to both  HAF -funded and non- HAF -funded children, and how they ensure that all children get the same experience

Awareness and understanding of healthy eating

  • if the provider will run specific sessions on healthy eating
  • what activities or sessions the provider has planned that support children in making good decisions about food
  • how they plan to incorporate the theme of healthy eating and healthy lifestyles into their  HAF  provision

Signposting and referrals

  • how the provider engages with the families of the children who attend their provision
  • what the provider has in place to guide and advise children and their families to ensure they are aware of and, where appropriate, referred to other services and agencies

Enriching activities

  • what enrichment activities will be on offer
  • why the provider has chosen them
  • if the activities on offer are age appropriate

Accessibility and inclusiveness

  • if the provider has a bespoke offer for children with SEND that is clearly highlighted
  • how the provider will ensure that the needs of children with  SEND  are identified
  • how the provider will ensure that all staff are appropriately trained to deliver high quality, accessible and inclusive provision


  • if all staff have received safeguarding training
  • if all staff been checked and vetted by the Disclosure and Barring Service ( DBS ), where appropriate
  • what policies the provider has in place to ensure safeguarding incidents are dealt with robustly and rapidly

Health and safety policies and procedures

Check what health and safety procedures and policies the provider has in place.

Insurance policies and procedures

Check if the provider has up to date and appropriate insurance policies in place.

Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children is everyone’s responsibility. We want every  HAF  club to be a safe and happy place for children, and for parents, carers and families to feel confident that their child is well looked after and that robust safeguarding arrangements are in place.

Local authorities are statutorily responsible for safeguarding in relation to children in need, under statute 17 of the Children Act 1989, and looked after children under statute 20 of the Children Act 1989.

We encourage all local authorities to work closely with their local safeguarding children partnership to:

  • make them aware of the  HAF  programme and what it can offer
  • ensure that they can support the programme to put safeguarding arrangements in place

As set out in  working together to safeguard children , safeguarding is defined for the purposes of this guidance as:

  • protecting children from maltreatment
  • preventing impairment of children’s mental and physical health or development
  • ensuring that children grow up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care
  • taking action if you identify children to be at risk of harm

Local authorities should ensure that their local safeguarding partners understand the holiday, activities and food programme and those working on the delivery of the programme are familiar with the  working together to safeguard children  guidance.

There are a number of accredited organisations who can provide safeguarding and child protection training courses for those involved in working with children. We expect local authorities to be able to demonstrate that those involved in the delivery of the holiday, activities and food programme in their area are competent and have received adequate training and support.

We expect every local authority to produce and maintain a central register of all the providers they fund through their  HAF  programme and to put in place a system for inspecting each provider and ensuring all adhere to the standards set out in this guidance.

Holiday clubs in school settings

We know that schools are safe places and have safeguarding arrangements in place.

Where activities are provided by the governing body or proprietor of a school, under the direct supervision or management of their school staff the school’s child protection policy will apply.

Where the activities are provided separately in the school but by another body, the governing body or proprietor should seek assurance that the body concerned has appropriate safeguarding and child protection policies and procedure in place.

We recommend that anyone involved in the delivery of a holiday club in school settings is familiar with part 1 of  keeping children safe in education .

Holiday clubs in out of school settings

By out-of-school settings we mean organisations or individuals that provide tuition, training, instruction or activities to children in England without their parents’ or carers’ supervision, but are not:

  • education settings providing alternative provision.
  • 16 to 19 academies
  • providers caring for children that are registered with Ofsted or a childminder agency

These settings generally provide tuition, training, instruction or activities outside normal school hours (for example, evenings, weekends, school holidays), although some settings are run part-time during school hours to help meet the needs of those in home education.

The guidance for providers running out-of-school settings on  after-school clubs, community activities and tuition: safeguarding guidance for providers  covers advice on what policies and procedures providers should have in place for:

  • safeguarding and child protection
  • staff suitability

Volunteers and  DBS  checking

We know that in some settings, volunteers can play an important role in the delivery of holiday clubs.

Under no circumstances should a volunteer in respect of whom no checks have been obtained be left unsupervised or allowed to work in regulated activity.

For some of the voluntary staff involved in the delivery of the holiday, activities and food programme in holiday clubs, this work will be done regularly and considered to be regulated activity. This means they will be subject to an enhanced  DBS  check with barred list information.

There may be a very small number of volunteers who do not regularly carry out this role, and so it may not be considered as regulated activity. This means they may not be required to have an enhanced  DBS  check.

The guidance on  regulated activity in relation to children  contains definitions of what we mean by regular and regulated activity.

A guest speaker or presenter visits a holiday, activities and food programme club to deliver a talk on nature.

The guest is escorted by staff at the club (who are DBS checked) while on the premises and is not left unsupervised with children at any time. In these circumstances, we would not expect a DBS check to be carried out.

To provide reassurance to parents, families and carers, we strongly recommend that all volunteers who are involved in the delivery of the holiday, activities and food programme in holiday clubs should have an  enhanced  DBS  check  (which, where applicable, should include children’s barred list information).

We do not recommend holiday clubs using volunteers that are not  DBS  checked, but if this occurs, it is the responsibility of the local authority to ensure that volunteers are not at any point left alone and unsupervised with children in holiday clubs.

Other workers

All staff who are employed by holiday club providers funded through the holiday, activities and food programme should be subject to an enhanced  DBS  check with barred list information.

Part 3 of  keeping children safe in education  sets out a clear process for safe recruitment. We recommend local authorities and holiday cubs providers follow this best practice when recruiting volunteers.

Ofsted registration

Holiday clubs may need to legally register with Ofsted depending on the provision they offer, they may also be eligible to register with Ofsted on the voluntary register or they may be  exempt from registration  entirely. Both clubs and providers that would require registration with Ofsted, and those that are exempt, can participate in the  HAF  programme.

To support the raising of quality and to better meet the safeguarding needs of children and young people, certain providers can choose to  register with Ofsted  even if they do not have to.

One of the direct benefits to children and families of providers being Ofsted registered is that families may be eligible for tax free childcare or the childcare costs element of Universal Credit. Through this families may be able to  claim back up to 85% of their childcare costs  if they are attending and paying for extra childcare at Ofsted registered settings.

It is the responsibility of individual  HAF  providers to understand whether they are required by law to be Ofsted registered and to continue to review their status as and when the provision they are offering changes.

We expect local authorities to check with all their  HAF  providers that they are appropriately registered, particularly those providers who may have amended their childcare offer during the holidays because of the  HAF  programme.

Tailoring your provision

Local authorities and their providers will have flexibility about how they deliver provision to best serve the needs of children and families in their area. We encourage all local authorities to have a rich mix of provision catering for children with different interests and of different ages.

There should also be good geographical spread across the local authority but with increased supply in areas with higher levels of  FSM  families in order to maximise attendance levels.

Equality Act 2010

When assessing the requirements of children of children with SEND or additional needs, local authorities should ensure that the provision they fund through the HAF programme is fully compliant with the Equality Act 2010. This will include making sure that they, and the providers they work with, put in place any reasonable adjustments which are required to ensure that children with a disability are not subject to discrimination.

Working with children with  SEND  or additional needs

There is flexibility in how the programme can be delivered to children with  SEND  or additional needs who are in receipt of  FSM . Some of the key points for local authorities to consider when designing and implementing provision for children with  SEND  or additional needs include:

  • identifying the most vulnerable children, young people and families
  • making decisions and, where appropriate, delegating responsibility for decision making to different levels of the system to enable responsive support
  • speaking to families regularly to understand how their needs may have changed and may have continued to change
  • being flexible in supporting families
  • ensuring staff are trained, supported and provided with appropriate equipment in order to provide flexible and responsive care in line with government guidance
  • maintaining a positive level of trust in staff from a parent perspective
  • ensuring staff receive the right level of training from a provider perspective

Risk assessments are an important part of this provision and should be used as an enabler to provide support rather than a barrier.

A good risk assessment which supports effective risk management and creative thinking will lead to different approaches to face-to-face support rather than support being withdrawn particularly for children, young people and families who are particularly vulnerable or at high risk.

There are many local and national organisations including special schools with expertise in working with children with  SEND  or additional needs and we recommend that local authorities engage with them.

Working with the secondary school age range

We know from previous years that providing a  HAF  programme that is appealing and has high engagement levels with the secondary school age range can be challenging. Provision for this age range will often look different to that aimed at the primary age range and local authorities should make specific plans for this.

There should be flexibility in the programme you offer to older children with careful consideration being given to a different model of food and activity provision.

This could include considering the location of provision, such as, pop up parks or urban areas. Some areas have reported a reduction in anti-social behaviour around those areas with a focussed  HAF  provision. Others have reported increases to the levels of assurance among parents and families that their children and young people are safe and secure when attending a  HAF  programme.

You might also consider the role that older children can have in supporting, designing and leading sessions for their peers or for younger children – to help them to socialise and develop leadership skills which can be crucial for those in year 9 to 11.

Based on previous years of the  HAF  programme, we know that there are several factors that local authorities should think about when designing a programme for the secondary age range, such as:

  • running focus groups with older children in your area to better understand their needs
  • the costs of running focussed provision - the costs of provision for this age range can be higher than for the primary age range
  • the food and activity offer
  • a different operating model, for example, offering afternoon or evening sessions - some areas have reported success running twilight sessions with an evening meal being the focus and others have operated a ‘street food’ style offer
  • the choice of venue is often critical in building an attractive offer for this age range - some areas have reported that school venues can be less popular but pop-up provision in parks and city centres can be highly effective
  • travel costs - local authorities should try and ensure provision is local and accessible and may wish to work with local transport providers to offer free or discounted travel to offer greater freedom and mobility during the holidays

There are many local and national organisations with expertise in delivery to the secondary age range and we recommend that local authorities engage with them. Working through trusted and established organisations is one way of achieving effective reach and delivery.

Environment and sustainability

DfE  is committed to sustainable development practices and believes it is important for local authorities to consider these and their impact on the environment. We strongly encourage local authorities to make their own judgements on how sustainable development can be reflected in their ethos, day-to-day operations and throughout the delivery of their  HAF  programmes.

Some practices that local authorities may wish to consider are:

  • minimising the use of single-use plastics
  • where possible using locally sourced food and ingredients
  • making use of food surplus organisations
  • ensuring there is a wide range of recycling and compost facilities for waste
  • growing fruit and vegetables and showing how they can be used and cooked
  • encouraging uniform banks and exchange schemes

This list is not exhaustive and local authorities are encouraged to reflect on their settings and consider ways that their programmes can be more environmentally friendly and sustainable.

As part of the HAF programme in Leeds in 2021, Zero Waste Leeds ran a school uniform exchange scheme. The aim of this was to make it easy to share good quality, used school uniform and preventing it from going to landfill.

With clothing production having a sizeable carbon impact, Zero Waste Leeds found that they could reduce their environmental footprint by sharing uniform so that it is worn for longer and demand is reduced for new uniforms. Schemes such as this can also assist those families who might need help with the cost of new uniforms.

Local coordination by authorities

Some local authorities may coordinate the  HAF  programme themselves, and others may choose to work with another organisation to coordinate the provision on their behalf.

It is a requirement that every local authority will appoint or have in place a  HAF  coordinator who takes responsibility within the local authority for the delivery of the programme. This will be alongside having sufficient staff who are dedicated to working on  HAF  all year round.

The level of resource in each local authority will be determined locally but should be proportionate to the level of funding received.

Local authorities have responsibility for the coordination and implementation of the  HAF  programme in their area, which involves several important aspects.

Mapping provision, demand, and creating a local plan

We expect each local authority to have carried out mapping of the available holiday provision in your area to ensure that sufficient levels of holiday provision exist. This mapping should be considered alongside data showing the location of  FSM  eligible children.

The local authority can then ensure that their provision is targeted at the right areas and continues to support those of greatest need. Local authorities should ensure that when mapping provision, they distinguish between the different age ranges and types of provision that are available and ensure all needs are met across their area.

This mapping will allow you to develop a local plan for provision including any commissioning activity, based on what you know about local supply and demand.

Steering group

All local authorities will have established a steering group whose role it is to support the delivery of the programme and ensure that the right partners continue to be engaged with and supportive of your programme.

We know that the  HAF  programme works best when it is a cross-cutting and collaborative effort and we recommend that your steering group should include representatives from a wide range of local bodies, including:

  • local public health officials
  • school leaders
  • youth services and young people
  • social services and safeguarding leads
  • charities and the voluntary sector
  • local police and other uniform services

Complementing your programme with other support

Partnership working has far-reaching benefits for  HAF  providers, ensuring resources go further and best practice is shared. Building and sustaining effective partnerships with a range of local organisations can support areas in successful delivery.

In many areas, local authorities have been successful in drawing in wider support to enhance their local programme. For example, this could be through direct commissioning, or by bringing in funding or support in kind from other sources such as:

  • philanthropists
  • supermarkets
  • sports organisations
  • local businesses

We would encourage you to actively consider any partnership arrangements and opportunities and to share case studies of any strong examples of partnership working you have developed in order for us to further support local authorities in this area.

Putting in place provision for children with  SEND  or additional needs

It is vital that every local authority ensures that sufficient, high-quality provision is available across your area for children with  SEND  or additional needs who are in receipt of  FSM .

This could be through making sure that your providers plan how they will accommodate children with  SEND  or additional needs or making sure that those with more complex needs are able to access suitable provision, for example, by working with special schools in your area.

Awarding funding to providers

We recognise and greatly value the important role that community and voluntary organisations will play in the  HAF  programme. We encourage all local authorities to work with a wide range of partners in the delivery of this programme.

Effective mapping, alongside building an understanding of the sorts of enriching activities that children of different ages want to engage in will support an effective commissioning strategy.

Ensuring providers meet the  HAF  programme standards and driving up the quality

A key element of the local authority’s role is supporting all providers to meet our programme standards, which are set out in full in the  framework of standards .

Local authorities should also have a system in place to monitor the provision they are funding and ensuring that they support providers to comply with or improve the quality of their provision, for example, through arranging bespoke training or qualifications.

Promoting your programme

Our  HAF  communications toolkit will be updated and made available to local authorities to help them to:

  • focus and target provision towards families who are eligible for free school meals
  • prompt parents and carers to explore activities and provisions available for children in their area and book a place for their child
  • provide off-the-shelf communication materials (including for social media) that can be easily utilised to effectively promote the scheme, which credit and note  DfE ’s central funding of the programme

Local authorities should ensure that when promoting and advertising their programme, great care is taken to ensure that the children and families who could benefit from the  HAF  programme do not feel stigmatised and that the language used is celebratory, aspirational and focuses on the positives.

Local authorities must make it clear in their communications that the  HAF  programme is government funded, and a logo is available and should be used for this purpose.

We will again use #HAF2024. We encourage all local authorities and their providers to use this across their social media channels.

Sharing best practice and cross boundary working

We encourage all local authorities to build local partnerships and networks to share learning and to participate in events and on platforms that share best practice on a local or national level.

We also encourage local authorities to work closely with neighbouring local authorities and to establish clear cross border working protocols. This will help to ensure that adequate provision and support is offered to children that live close to boundaries.

Support for local authorities

Since April 2021  DfE  has worked with the organisations Mott MacDonald and Hempsall’s, jointly known as Childcare Works, to provide support, advisory and performance monitoring services to assist local authorities with  HAF  provision.

Each local authority has been allocated a named Childcare Works  HAF  adviser who they can contact with queries and requests for support. As part of the package of support, group meetings, regular communications and training sessions will continue to be promoted and facilitated.

Childcare Works also have a helpdesk which is run by the coordination team and is open Monday to Friday, 9 am to 5 pm for queries. Local authorities have been given the helpdesk contact details directly. The  DfE  team is still in place, working with Childcare Works, and will continue to send out regular communications and oversee the grant arrangements.

Alongside the responsibilities set out in the coordination section of this guidance, we expect each  HAF  coordinator to engage with the support offer provided by  DfE . As a minimum, we expect  HAF  coordinators to:

  • attend the majority of cluster meetings to support knowledge sharing across local authorities
  • attend sessions with their appointed delivery adviser as requested
  • collaborate with their appointed delivery adviser on developing and implementing action plans where required
  • cooperate with  DfE ’s management information collection requirements and any requests for involvement in research

All other support, such as bitesize sessions, is optional but strongly encouraged to drive continuous improvement of this programme nationally and locally.

Local authorities will receive grant funding to deliver the holiday, activities and food programme in their area.

Our grant funding is calculated based on the numbers of children eligible for and in receipt of free school meals in each area.

We anticipate that the cost of provision within a local authority area may vary to take account of the variety of needs, for example provision which specialises in specialist activities, expert tuition or input supporting those with  SEND  may have a higher unit cost.

Administrative costs

2024 to 2025 will be the fourth year that local authorities have been running the  HAF  programme in their area. The initial costs associated with setting up and establishing the programme should now be minimal, but there are still administrative costs associated running the holiday activities and food programme. Local authorities will continue to be able to use up to 10% of their total allocation to cover such costs.

Purchasing equipment

Programme funding can also be used to purchase equipment for the programme, for example, to improve the catering or sports equipment at an individual club. Where this expenditure meets our capital expenditure criteria, the amount you spend on this should be limited to a maximum of 2% of your overall programme expenditure.

Capital expenditure is classed as:

  • individual assets worth over £2,500
  • grouped assets, that is assets of a similar nature that are purchased at the same time, which cost £2,500 or more overall
  • bulked assets, for example, a bulk purchase of equipment where the value of the individual item is below the set value, which cost £2,500 or more overall

Any equipment that does not meet these criteria will not be classed as capital expenditure or be subject to the 2% cap.

Awarding funding to providers and other delivery organisations

In awarding funding to other organisations, whether through the awarding of grants or through a larger scale tendering process, we encourage local authorities to adopt a flexible approach. This will help ensure their programme makes the most of the broad range of organisations available to them, in particular, those smaller community organisations who hold existing relationships with children and families.

Where local authorities work with community and voluntary organisations whether as a coordinator or as a delivery partner, we expect this to be done on a cost-recovery basis. This is so that these organisations are fully funded for the work they undertake.

There is no requirement for local authorities to limit funding to single holiday periods. We know that many local authorities have successfully adopted a model of recruiting and funding providers for multiple holiday periods.

Payments and reporting

Local authorities will be responsible for gathering management information from the providers and clubs they fund about the children and families they are supporting. Following each holiday period (Easter, summer, and Christmas) we will ask local authorities to report on their activity.

The requirements for local authorities are set out in the grant determination letter which we will use to monitor performance at a high level.

Local authorities can set other performances indicators to measure their own performance or that of partners.

Payment schedule for 2024 to 2025

In a change from previous years, the department will now pay the full 2024 to 2025 financial year allocation to local authorities in April 2024. This provides more flexibility to local authorities to manage their budget across the full financial year and reduces the administration associated with the previous payment process.

Recovering unspent funds

As in previous years, local authorities will have to produce a completed Certificate of Expenditure and Statement of Grant Usage for the 2024 to 2025 financial year and any unspent funding identified by the Department through these reports must be paid back by the local authority.

Reporting schedule for 2024 to 2025

As with previous years, after each holiday period, including the optional additional half term period for those local authorities with a summer holiday of 6 weeks or less, we will require a data return from each local authority that will set out what the cost of the programme has been for the financial year to date.

We will ask a number of core questions in every report. Local authorities should ensure that they and the providers and clubs they work with are able to accurately collect and verify this information.

This will include but is not limited to:

  • the overall number of unique children who participated in the programme
  • the overall number of unique children in receipt of  FSM  who participated in your programme
  • the number and proportion of children who are in the primary school age range, the secondary school age range, and any children outside of those age ranges who attended the programme
  • the number of children with  SEND  or additional needs who have participated in your programme

Where necessary,  DfE  may also ask local authorities to provide additional information on their plans for specific holiday periods.

All of the data and information collected by the holiday clubs and providers should all be collected in strict adherence to the  General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) .

Additional data collection

Our intention for  HAF  2024 to 2025 is to ask a small number of local authorities to collect additional data on the children that attend their  HAF  programme. This will allow  DfE  to cross match the data with our National Pupil Database, which contains a variety of information on pupil characteristics, education and family set-up.

This will help us to understand more about those who the  HAF  programme is reaching and also allow us to monitor any long-term impacts on children who attend the programme. Having more information in these areas will help us to ensure that the  HAF  programme is set-up in a way that is most beneficial to eligible families, as well as strengthening the evidence base for  HAF  more broadly.

If we select your local authority to participate in this additional data collection, we will notify you by 31 January 2025 (or earlier where possible) and will provide you and your providers with additional support (including data collection teach-ins), templates and guidance.

In annex C of the grant determination letter, we have set out  DfE ’s standard GDPR clauses and how personal data will be collected, processed and stored by local authorities. This annex applies only to local authorities who will participate in this additional data collection. The annex also contains a list of variables for data collection.

Annual report

In addition to the reporting requirements, we require each local authority to produce an annual report on their  HAF  programme which should include:

  • the overall funding you have spent on the  HAF  programme
  • the proportion of the funding that was spent on administration and a breakdown of how this was spent
  • how many unique children you have reached in each holiday period
  • the proportion of primary age and secondary age children who have participated in your programme
  • information on the families and carers they have engaged with through the food education, signposting and referrals aspect of their programme
  • which organisations are represented on their steering group
  • which organisations you have worked with in delivering the programme

You may also include:

  • feedback from participants, their families or carers
  • results of any surveys
  • case studies or particular highlights
  • how you have promoted the programme and celebrated it through the media and social media

The report for the 2024 to 2025  HAF  programme should be submitted to  DfE  by 30 June 2025. As with last year, we will allow local authorities flexibility in how they format and present their annual report, but we will make a template available to local authorities in early 2025.

The 2024 to 2025  HAF  programme report must be placed on the local authority’s  HAF  website.

Local authority  HAF  website

We know that the majority of local authorities now have a dedicated  HAF  website or a section on their local authority website dedicated to the  HAF  programme. We know that these are a valuable source of information for parents, families, schools and providers who are interesting in the programme.

Since April 2023, all local authorities have been required to have a  HAF  website or dedicated pages on their website for their  HAF  programme.

It should include:

  • your  annual report  for the  HAF  programme
  • an explanation of who is eligible for a place on the programme
  • up-to-date information on what  HAF  provision is available in your area for every holiday period, including links to booking systems or portals
  • information about the standards that providers are expected to adhere to in delivering the programme
  • information for parents and families on what other help is available to support them, for example, information about tax-free childcare
  • information for schools about programme and details about how they can get involved and support the programme

Certificate of expenditure

We will also require a certificate of expenditure (or statement of grant usage) which should be completed after the end of the 2024 to 2025 financial year and be submitted to  DfE  by 1 May 2025. We will provide you with a template and guidance for this document before the end of the reporting period.

This certificate of expenditure will report on the activities funded by  DfE  and confirm that the grant outputs that have been delivered as part of the  HAF  programme:

  • have been delivered to a satisfactory standard
  • the expected benefits have accrued or will accrue

These reports will support the regularity assurance statement for the National Audit Office and your statement will need to be signed off by your chief financial officer or chief internal auditor.

Once the statements have been returned to  DfE , we will carry out a sample check of up to 10% of the statements. The local authorities selected will be required to submit additional evidence to demonstrate that the information declared in the statement of expenditure is accurate.

Those local authorities selected for this sample check will be notified by 14 May 2025 and will be provided with further instructions on the process.

As part of the statement of expenditure assessment process, those local authorities who have an underspend on their programme will be contacted about the process of recovering any unspent funding.

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