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Insulin, Medicines, & Other Diabetes Treatments

On this page:

What medicines might I take for diabetes?

What type of diabetes do i have, what are the different types of insulin, what are the different ways to take insulin, what oral medicines treat type 2 diabetes, what other injectable medicines treat diabetes, what should i know about side effects of diabetes medicines.

  • What questions should I ask about my diabetes medicines?

Do I have other treatment options for my diabetes?

Clinical trials for insulin, medicines, & other diabetes treatments.

Taking insulin  or other diabetes medicines is often part of treating diabetes. In addition to making healthy food and beverage choices, getting physical activity, getting enough sleep, and managing stress, medicines can help you manage the disease. Some other treatment options are also available.

The medicine you take depends on the type of diabetes you have and how well the medicine controls your blood glucose  levels, also called blood sugar levels. Other factors, such as any other health conditions you may have, medication costs, your insurance coverage and copays, access to care, and your lifestyle, may affect what diabetes medicine you take.

Type 1 diabetes

If you have type 1 diabetes , you must take insulin because your pancreas  does not make it. You will need to take insulin several times during the day, including when you eat and drink, to control your blood glucose level.

There are different ways to take insulin . You can use a needle and syringe , an insulin pen , or an insulin pump . An artificial pancreas —also called an automated insulin delivery system—may be another option for some people.

Type 2 diabetes

Some people with type 2 diabetes  can control their blood glucose level by making lifestyle changes. These lifestyle changes include consuming healthy meals and beverages, limiting calories if they have overweight  or obesity , and getting physical activity.

Many people with type 2 diabetes need to take diabetes medicines as well. These medicines may include diabetes pills or medicines you inject, such as insulin. Over time, you may need more than one diabetes medicine to control your blood glucose level. Even if you do not take insulin, you may need it at special times, such as if you are pregnant or if you are in the hospital for treatment.

Gestational diabetes

If you have gestational diabetes , you can manage your blood glucose level by following a healthy eating plan and doing a moderate-intensity physical activity, such as brisk walking for 150 minutes, each week. If consuming healthy food and beverages and getting regular physical activity aren’t enough to keep your blood glucose level in your target range, a doctor will work with you and may recommend you take insulin. Insulin is safe to take while you are pregnant.

No matter what type of diabetes you have, taking diabetes medicines every day can feel like a burden sometimes. New medications and improved delivery systems can help make it easier to manage your blood glucose levels. Talk with your doctor to find out which medications and delivery systems will work best for you and fit into your lifestyle.

Several types of insulin are available. Each type starts to work at a different speed, known as “onset,” and its effects last a different length of time, known as “duration.” Most types of insulin reach a peak, which is when they have the strongest effect. After the peak, the effects of the insulin wear off over the next few hours or so. Table 1 lists the different types of insulin, how fast they start to work, when they peak, and how long they last.

Table 1. Types of insulin and how they work 1,2

Another type of insulin, called premixed insulin, is a combination of insulins listed in Table 1. Premixed insulin starts to work in 15 to 60 minutes and can last from 10 to 16 hours. The peak time varies depending on which insulins are mixed.

Your doctor will work with you to review your medication options. Talk with your doctor about your activity level, what you eat and drink, how well you manage your blood glucose levels, your age and lifestyle, and how long your body takes to absorb insulin.

Follow your doctor’s advice on when and how to take your insulin. If you're worried about the cost, talk with your doctor. Some types of insulin cost more than others. You can also find resources to get financial help for diabetes care .

The way you take insulin may depend on your lifestyle, insurance plan, and preferences. Talk with your doctor about the options and which one is best for you. Most people with diabetes take insulin using a needle and syringe, insulin pen, or insulin pump. Inhalers and insulin jet injectors  are less common ways to take insulin. Artificial pancreas systems are now approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Talk with your doctor to see if an artificial pancreas is an option for you.

Needle and syringe

You can give yourself insulin shots using a needle and syringe . You draw up your dose of insulin from the vial—or bottle—through the needle into the syringe. Insulin works fastest when you inject it in your belly, but your doctor may recommend alternating the spot where you inject it. Injecting insulin in the same spot repeatedly could cause the tissue to harden, making it harder to take shots in that area over time. Other spots you can inject insulin include your thigh, buttocks, or upper arm, but it may take longer for the insulin to work from those areas. Some people with diabetes who take insulin need 2 to 4 shots a day to reach their blood glucose targets. Others can take a single shot. Injection aids can help you give yourself the shots.

Two syringes and a vial containing insulin.

An insulin pen looks like a writing pen but has a needle for its point. Some insulin pens come filled with insulin and are disposable. Others have room for an insulin cartridge that you insert and replace after use. Many people find insulin pens easier to use, but they cost more than needles and syringes. You may want to consider using an insulin pen if you find it hard to fill the syringe while holding the vial or cannot read the markings on the syringe. Different pen types have features that can help with your injections. Some reusable pens have a memory function, which can recall dose amounts and timing. Other types of “connected” insulin pens can be programmed to calculate insulin doses and provide downloadable data reports, which can help you and your doctor adjust your insulin doses.

An insulin pen

An insulin pump is a small machine that gives you steady doses of insulin throughout the day. You wear one type of pump outside your body on a belt or in a pocket or pouch. The insulin pump connects to a small plastic tube and a very small needle. You insert the plastic tube with a needle under your skin, then take out the needle. The plastic tube will stay inserted for several days while attached to the insulin pump. The machine pumps insulin through the tube into your body 24 hours a day and can be programmed to give you more or less insulin based on your needs. You can also give yourself doses of insulin through the pump at mealtimes.

Another type of pump has no tubes. This pump attaches directly to your skin with a self-adhesive pad and is controlled by a hand-held device. The plastic tube and pump device are changed every several days.

A woman holds an insulin pump with the tube connected to a patch on her stomach, where the needle is inserted.

Another way to take insulin is by breathing powdered insulin into your mouth from an inhaler device. The insulin goes into your lungs and moves quickly into your blood. You may want to use an insulin inhaler to avoid using needles. Inhaled insulin is only for adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Taking insulin with an inhaler is less common than using a needle and syringe.

Jet injector

A jet injector is a device that sends a fine spray of insulin into the skin at high pressure instead of using a needle to deliver the insulin. It is used less commonly than a needle and syringe or a pen.

Artificial pancreas

An artificial pancreas is a system of three devices that work together to mimic how a healthy pancreas controls blood glucose in the body. A continuous glucose monitor (CGM)  tracks blood glucose levels every few minutes using a small sensor inserted under the skin that is held in place with an adhesive pad. The CGM wirelessly sends the information to a program on a smartphone or an insulin infusion pump. The program calculates how much insulin you need. The insulin infusion pump will adjust how much insulin is given from minute to minute to help keep your blood glucose level in your target range. An artificial pancreas is mainly used to help people with type 1 diabetes.

You may need to take medicines to manage your type 2 diabetes, in addition to consuming healthy foods and beverages and being physically active. You can take many diabetes medicines by mouth. These medicines are called oral medicines.

Most people with type 2 diabetes start with metformin pills. Metformin also comes as a liquid. Metformin helps your liver make less glucose and helps your body use insulin better. This drug may help you lose a small amount of weight.

Other oral medicines act in different ways to lower blood glucose levels. Combining two or three kinds of diabetes medicines can lower blood glucose levels better than taking just one medicine.

Read about different kinds of diabetes medicines (PDF, 2.8 MB) from the FDA.

If you have type 1 diabetes, your doctor may recommend you take other medicines, in addition to insulin, to help control your blood glucose. Some of these medicines work to slow how fast food and beverages move through your stomach . These medicines also slow down how quickly and how high your blood glucose levels rise after eating. Other medicines work to block certain hormones  in your digestive system  that raise blood glucose levels after meals or help the kidneys to remove more glucose from your blood.

Besides insulin, other types of injected medicines (PDF, 2.8 MB) are available that will keep your blood glucose level from rising too high after you eat or drink. These medicines, known as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, 3 may make you feel less hungry and help you lose some weight. GLP-1 medicines are not substitutes for insulin.

Side effects are problems that result from taking a medicine. Some diabetes medicines can cause hypoglycemia , also called low blood glucose, if you don’t balance your medicines with food and activity.

Ask your doctor whether your diabetes medicine can cause hypoglycemia or other side effects, such as upset stomach and weight gain. Aim to take your diabetes medicines as your doctor instructs you, to help prevent side effects and diabetes problems.

If medicines and lifestyle changes are not enough to manage your diabetes, there are other treatments that might help you. These treatments include weight-loss (bariatric) surgery  for certain people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, or pancreatic islet transplantation  for some people with type 1 diabetes.

Weight-loss surgery

Weight-loss surgery  are operations that help you lose weight by making changes to your digestive system. Weight-loss surgery is also called bariatric or metabolic surgery.

This type of surgery may help some people who have obesity and type 2 diabetes lose a large amount of weight and bring their blood glucose levels back to a healthy range. How long the improved response lasts can vary by patient, type of weight-loss surgery, and the amount of weight the person lost. Other factors include how long a person had diabetes and whether the person used insulin. Some people with type 2 diabetes may no longer need to use diabetes medicines after weight-loss surgery . 4

Researchers are studying whether weight-loss surgery can help control blood glucose levels in people with type 1 diabetes who have obesity. 5

Pancreatic islet transplantation

Pancreatic islet transplantation is an experimental treatment for people with type 1 diabetes who have trouble controlling their blood glucose levels. Pancreatic islets  are clusters of cells in the pancreas that make the hormone insulin. In type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system attacks these cells. A pancreatic islet transplantation replaces destroyed islets with new islets from organ donors. The new islets make and release insulin. Because researchers are still studying pancreatic islet transplantation , the procedure is only available to people enrolled in research studies.

The NIDDK conducts and supports clinical trials in many diseases and conditions, including diabetes. The trials look to find new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease and improve quality of life.

What are clinical trials for insulin, medicines, and other diabetes treatments?

Clinical trials—and other types of clinical studies —are part of medical research and involve people like you. When you volunteer to take part in a clinical study, you help health care professionals and researchers learn more about disease and improve health care for people in the future.

Find out if clinical trials are right for you .

Researchers are studying many aspects of diabetes medicines, including

  • new types of insulin
  • the most effective times to take diabetes medicines
  • new types of monitoring devices and delivery systems

Watch a video of NIDDK Director Dr. Griffin P. Rodgers explaining the importance of participating in clinical trials.

What clinical trials for insulin, medicines, and other diabetes treatments are looking for participants?

You can view a filtered list of clinical studies on insulin, medicines, and other diabetes treatments covered in this health topic that are federally funded, open, and recruiting at . You can expand or narrow the list to include clinical studies from industry, universities, and individuals; however, the National Institutes of Health does not review these studies and cannot ensure they are safe. Always talk with your health care provider before you participate in a clinical study.

This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.

The NIDDK would like to thank Stuart A. Weinzimer, M.D., Yale University School of Medicine no longer supports Internet Explorer.

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Research Problem: Identification and Formulation

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Research is an investigation or experimentation that is aimed at a discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of theories or laws or practical application of the new or revised theories or laws. Identification of research problem leads in conducting a research. To initiate a research, the necessity for the research, to be carried out should be generated.The ideas and topics are developed while consulting literatures, discussions with experts and continuation of activities related to the subject matter. These ideas/topics generally called research problems and are statements about areas of concern, a condition to be improved, a difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling question that exists in scholarly literature, in theory, or in practice that points to the need for meaningful understanding and deliberate investigation. A research problem does not state how to do something, offer a vague or broad proposition, or present a value question. The problem must be significant researchable lead to further research and suitable for the researcher. Formulation of the problem should lead to empirical investigation. Formulation of research problem should depict what is to be determined and scope of the study.It also involves key concept definitions questions to be asked. The objective of the present paper highlights the above stated issues.

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Social Research: Definitions, Types, Nature, and Characteristics

  • First Online: 27 October 2022

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types of research problems pdf

  • Kanamik Kani Khan 4 &
  • Md. Mohsin Reza 5  

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Social research is often defined as a study of mankind that helps to identify the relations between social life and social systems. This kind of research usually creates new knowledge and theories or tests and verifies existing theories. However, social research is a broad spectrum that requires a discursive understanding of its varied nature and definitions. This chapter aims to explain the multifarious definitions of social research given by different scholars. The information used in this chapter is solely based on existing literature regarding social research. There are various stages discussed regarding how social research can be effectively conducted. The types and characteristics of social research are further analysed in this chapter. Social research plays a substantial role in investigating knowledge and theories relevant to social problems. Additionally, social research is important for its contribution to national and international policymaking, which explains the importance of social research.

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Khan, K.K., Mohsin Reza, M. (2022). Social Research: Definitions, Types, Nature, and Characteristics. In: Islam, M.R., Khan, N.A., Baikady, R. (eds) Principles of Social Research Methodology. Springer, Singapore.

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  1. Research Problem Definition

    types of research problems pdf

  2. Types of Research

    types of research problems pdf

  3. Research Problem Generator for School & University Students

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  4. Research Problem

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  5. Research problem: Everything a market researcher needs to know

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  6. Research

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  1. 3.Three type of main Research in education

  2. Research Problem || Defining a research Problem || Research

  3. Workshop on IPR And Types Research Paper Writing & Patents

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  1. Insulin, Medicines, & Other Diabetes Treatments

    In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system attacks these cells. A pancreatic islet transplantation replaces destroyed islets with new islets from organ donors. The new islets make and release insulin. Because researchers are still studying pancreatic islet transplantation, the procedure is only available to people enrolled in research studies.

  2. Code of Ethics: English

    These activities may be in the form of direct practice, community organizing, supervision, consultation, administration, advocacy, social and political action, policy development and implementation, education, and research and evaluation. Social workers seek to enhance the capacity of people to address their own needs.

  3. Effects of Semaglutide on Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Type

    We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] of 50 to 75 ml per minute per 1.73 m 2 of body-surface area ...

  4. How To Start A Business In 11 Steps (2024 Guide)

    Primary Research The first stage of any competition study is primary research, which entails obtaining data directly from potential customers rather than basing your conclusions on past data.

  5. (PDF) Identifying and Formulating the Research Problem

    identify and determine the problem to study. Identifying a research problem is important. because, as the issue or concern in a particular setting that motivates and guides the need. Parlindungan ...

  6. PDF Identifying a Research Problem and Question, and Searching Relevant

    to be emergent (refer to Chapter 6). In the case of experimental research and quantita - tive types of descriptive research, your research question often directly leads to your hypothesis. Therefore, it is good practice to ensure that your research topic or problem statement, research question, and hypothesis use consistent language regarding vari-

  7. (PDF) 6. Type of Research and Type Research Design

    of ans wering the research ques tion or testing from hypothesis. This type of research d esign. includes descriptive design, exploratory design, experimental design, longitudinal design, cross ...

  8. PDF 1 research and the research Problem

    research and the research Problem 3. research in its real meaning, and also at some of the emotive language that surrounds the term. These are some of the ways in which the term 'research' is wronglyused: 1 As a mere gathering of facts or information: 'I'll go and do a bit of research into the subject.'.

  9. PDF Unit: 01 Research: Meaning, Types, Scope and Significance

    Understand research design and the process of research design. Formulate a research problem and state it as a hypothesis. 1.3 MEANING OF RESEARCH Research is a process to discover new knowledge to find answers to a question. The word research has two parts re (again) and search (find) which denote that we are taking up an

  10. What is a Research Problem? Characteristics, Types, and Examples

    Characteristics, Types, and Examples. August 22, 2023 Sunaina Singh. Knowing the basics of defining a research problem is instrumental in formulating a research inquiry. A research problem is a gap in existing knowledge, a contradiction in an established theory, or a real-world challenge that a researcher aims to address in their research.

  11. PDF CHAPTER 1 The Selection of a Research Approach

    Identify which one of the types of research designs you will use in your study. 6. Describe the differences between quantitative methods, qualitative methods, and mixed methods research. 7. Identify the reasons for choosing either a quantitative, qualitative, or nt c st r istribte mixed methods approach to use in your study.

  12. (PDF) What are Different Research Approaches? Comprehensive Review of

    Research Approaches Different types of research are classified based on a range of criteria including the application of study, the objectives of the research, and information sought [1].

  13. PDF Research Methodology: Tools and Techniques

    Types of Research: There are varieties of ways through which we may classify it into different categories. (A) On the basis of nature of information: On the basis of nature of information we can classify the research into two types; (i) Qualitative Research: When information is in the form of qualitative data.

  14. PDF 4: Formulating a Research Problem

    4.3 First Ask a Question to Start Formulating a Research Problem - 75. 4.4 Correctly Ask Research Questions - 77. 4.4.1 Try to Avoid Questions That Allow for Just "Yes" or "No". Answer - 77. 4.4.2 Phrase Questions to Deal with Cause-and-Efect Relationship - 77. 4.4.3 Avoid Phrasing Value Judgment Types of Questions - 78.


    the fundamental research to the actual solution of the problems. Applied research tackles practical problems, as for example, industrial/ organisational psychologists study and. 51 ... The general purpose of qualitative research methods is to examine human behaviour in the social, cultural, and political contexts in which they occur. ...

  16. PDF Chapter 1 Introduction to Research Methodology

    The research design is a fundamental aspect of research methodology, outlining the overall strategy and structure of the study. It includes decisions regarding the research type (e.g., descriptive, experimental), the selection of variables, and the determination of the study's scope and timeframe. We must carefully consider the design to ...

  17. (PDF) What is your Research Problem? Discovering a Research(able

    A mind map is a diagram used to visually organize information about something, a phenomenon, an. issue or a problem. A mind map is often created around a single concept, drawn as an image in the ...

  18. PDF The Selection of a Research Approach

    designs); and specific research methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation. The selection of a research approach is also based on the nature of the research problem or issue being addressed, the researchers' personal experiences, and the audiences for the study. Thus, in this book, research approaches, research designs, and research

  19. PDF An Introduction to Research

    problems, nor is it meant to suggest that all research must be oriented toward social action. There are methods for designing research that make it more likely to be useful to educators, psychologists, administrators, policymakers, parents, and students. Such applied social research is the focus of this text. There are also research studies (termed

  20. (PDF) Types of Research Gaps

    Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge." It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic ...

  21. Research Problem: Identification and Formulation

    ISSN 2348-6848 Research Problem: Identification and Formulation Mohd Shoket1 Abstract Research is an investigation or experimentation that is aimed at a discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of theories or laws or practical application of the new or revised theories or laws. Identification of research problem leads in conducting a ...

  22. How to Define a Research Problem

    A research problem is a specific issue or gap in existing knowledge that you aim to address in your research. You may choose to look for practical problems aimed at contributing to change, or theoretical problems aimed at expanding knowledge. Some research will do both of these things, but usually the research problem focuses on one or the other.

  23. PDF The Selection of a Research Design

    research design is also based on the nature of the research problem or issue being addressed, the researchers' personal experiences, and the audiences for the study. THE THREE TYPES OF DESIGNS In this book, three types of designs are advanced: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. Unquestionably, the three approaches are not as dis-

  24. PDF Formulating Research Problems

    The Role of Research Problems in the Research Process The problems of everyday life are difficulties to be avoided, if possible. Research problems are eagerly sought after. The difference is that research problems represent opportunities as well as trouble spots. Because 39 03-Brewer-4721.qxd 5/18/2005 5:03 PM Page 39


    Research problems are those topics the researcher "would like to address, investigate, or study, whether descriptively or experimentally" (Shoket, 2014). ... good research questions are based on the discovery of these types of anomalies. The researchable problem is usually the observation of an anomaly as well as the point of departure for ...

  26. PDF Social Research: Definitions, Types, Nature, and Characteristics

    Social research is an organized, systematic, and scientific activity to critically investigate, explore, experiment, test, and analyse human society and the patterns and meanings of human behaviour (Henn et al., 2009). May (2011) discusses that most social research is conducted after identifying a problem that is regarded as a concern for society.

  27. PDF Research Design and Research Methods

    tive methods and illustrates how these strengths can be used in mixed methods research. The final section considers the situation of mixed methods research as a newer and thus less fully developed approach to doing social science research. Overview I n social science research, one of the most basic choices you are likely to face