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18 Qualitative Research Examples

qualitative research examples and definition, explained below

Qualitative research is an approach to scientific research that involves using observation to gather and analyze non-numerical, in-depth, and well-contextualized datasets.

It serves as an integral part of academic, professional, and even daily decision-making processes (Baxter & Jack, 2008).

Methods of qualitative research encompass a wide range of techniques, from in-depth personal encounters, like ethnographies (studying cultures in-depth) and autoethnographies (examining one’s own cultural experiences), to collection of diverse perspectives on topics through methods like interviewing focus groups (gatherings of individuals to discuss specific topics).

Qualitative Research Examples

1. ethnography.

Definition: Ethnography is a qualitative research design aimed at exploring cultural phenomena. Rooted in the discipline of anthropology , this research approach investigates the social interactions, behaviors, and perceptions within groups, communities, or organizations.

Ethnographic research is characterized by extended observation of the group, often through direct participation, in the participants’ environment. An ethnographer typically lives with the study group for extended periods, intricately observing their everyday lives (Khan, 2014).

It aims to present a complete, detailed and accurate picture of the observed social life, rituals, symbols, and values from the perspective of the study group.

Example of Ethnographic Research

Title: “ The Everyday Lives of Men: An Ethnographic Investigation of Young Adult Male Identity “

Citation: Evans, J. (2010). The Everyday Lives of Men: An Ethnographic Investigation of Young Adult Male Identity. Peter Lang.

Overview: This study by Evans (2010) provides a rich narrative of young adult male identity as experienced in everyday life. The author immersed himself among a group of young men, participating in their activities and cultivating a deep understanding of their lifestyle, values, and motivations. This research exemplified the ethnographic approach, revealing complexities of the subjects’ identities and societal roles, which could hardly be accessed through other qualitative research designs.

Read my Full Guide on Ethnography Here

2. Autoethnography

Definition: Autoethnography is an approach to qualitative research where the researcher uses their own personal experiences to extend the understanding of a certain group, culture, or setting. Essentially, it allows for the exploration of self within the context of social phenomena.

Unlike traditional ethnography, which focuses on the study of others, autoethnography turns the ethnographic gaze inward, allowing the researcher to use their personal experiences within a culture as rich qualitative data (Durham, 2019).

The objective is to critically appraise one’s personal experiences as they navigate and negotiate cultural, political, and social meanings. The researcher becomes both the observer and the participant, intertwining personal and cultural experiences in the research.

Example of Autoethnographic Research

Title: “ A Day In The Life Of An NHS Nurse “

Citation: Osben, J. (2019). A day in the life of a NHS nurse in 21st Century Britain: An auto-ethnography. The Journal of Autoethnography for Health & Social Care. 1(1).

Overview: This study presents an autoethnography of a day in the life of an NHS nurse (who, of course, is also the researcher). The author uses the research to achieve reflexivity, with the researcher concluding: “Scrutinising my practice and situating it within a wider contextual backdrop has compelled me to significantly increase my level of scrutiny into the driving forces that influence my practice.”

Read my Full Guide on Autoethnography Here

3. Semi-Structured Interviews

Definition: Semi-structured interviews stand as one of the most frequently used methods in qualitative research. These interviews are planned and utilize a set of pre-established questions, but also allow for the interviewer to steer the conversation in other directions based on the responses given by the interviewee.

In semi-structured interviews, the interviewer prepares a guide that outlines the focal points of the discussion. However, the interview is flexible, allowing for more in-depth probing if the interviewer deems it necessary (Qu, & Dumay, 2011). This style of interviewing strikes a balance between structured ones which might limit the discussion, and unstructured ones, which could lack focus.

Example of Semi-Structured Interview Research

Title: “ Factors influencing adherence to cancer treatment in older adults with cancer: a systematic review “

Citation: Puts, M., et al. (2014). Factors influencing adherence to cancer treatment in older adults with cancer: a systematic review. Annals of oncology, 25 (3), 564-577.

Overview: Puts et al. (2014) executed an extensive systematic review in which they conducted semi-structured interviews with older adults suffering from cancer to examine the factors influencing their adherence to cancer treatment. The findings suggested that various factors, including side effects, faith in healthcare professionals, and social support have substantial impacts on treatment adherence. This research demonstrates how semi-structured interviews can provide rich and profound insights into the subjective experiences of patients.

4. Focus Groups

Definition: Focus groups are a qualitative research method that involves organized discussion with a selected group of individuals to gain their perspectives on a specific concept, product, or phenomenon. Typically, these discussions are guided by a moderator.

During a focus group session, the moderator has a list of questions or topics to discuss, and participants are encouraged to interact with each other (Morgan, 2010). This interactivity can stimulate more information and provide a broader understanding of the issue under scrutiny. The open format allows participants to ask questions and respond freely, offering invaluable insights into attitudes, experiences, and group norms.

Example of Focus Group Research

Title: “ Perspectives of Older Adults on Aging Well: A Focus Group Study “

Citation: Halaweh, H., Dahlin-Ivanoff, S., Svantesson, U., & Willén, C. (2018). Perspectives of older adults on aging well: a focus group study. Journal of aging research .

Overview: This study aimed to explore what older adults (aged 60 years and older) perceived to be ‘aging well’. The researchers identified three major themes from their focus group interviews: a sense of well-being, having good physical health, and preserving good mental health. The findings highlight the importance of factors such as positive emotions, social engagement, physical activity, healthy eating habits, and maintaining independence in promoting aging well among older adults.

5. Phenomenology

Definition: Phenomenology, a qualitative research method, involves the examination of lived experiences to gain an in-depth understanding of the essence or underlying meanings of a phenomenon.

The focus of phenomenology lies in meticulously describing participants’ conscious experiences related to the chosen phenomenon (Padilla-Díaz, 2015).

In a phenomenological study, the researcher collects detailed, first-hand perspectives of the participants, typically via in-depth interviews, and then uses various strategies to interpret and structure these experiences, ultimately revealing essential themes (Creswell, 2013). This approach focuses on the perspective of individuals experiencing the phenomenon, seeking to explore, clarify, and understand the meanings they attach to those experiences.

Example of Phenomenology Research

Title: “ A phenomenological approach to experiences with technology: current state, promise, and future directions for research ”

Citation: Cilesiz, S. (2011). A phenomenological approach to experiences with technology: Current state, promise, and future directions for research. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59 , 487-510.

Overview: A phenomenological approach to experiences with technology by Sebnem Cilesiz represents a good starting point for formulating a phenomenological study. With its focus on the ‘essence of experience’, this piece presents methodological, reliability, validity, and data analysis techniques that phenomenologists use to explain how people experience technology in their everyday lives.

6. Grounded Theory

Definition: Grounded theory is a systematic methodology in qualitative research that typically applies inductive reasoning . The primary aim is to develop a theoretical explanation or framework for a process, action, or interaction grounded in, and arising from, empirical data (Birks & Mills, 2015).

In grounded theory, data collection and analysis work together in a recursive process. The researcher collects data, analyses it, and then collects more data based on the evolving understanding of the research context. This ongoing process continues until a comprehensive theory that represents the data and the associated phenomenon emerges – a point known as theoretical saturation (Charmaz, 2014).

Example of Grounded Theory Research

Title: “ Student Engagement in High School Classrooms from the Perspective of Flow Theory “

Citation: Shernoff, D. J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Shneider, B., & Shernoff, E. S. (2003). Student engagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of flow theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 18 (2), 158–176.

Overview: Shernoff and colleagues (2003) used grounded theory to explore student engagement in high school classrooms. The researchers collected data through student self-reports, interviews, and observations. Key findings revealed that academic challenge, student autonomy, and teacher support emerged as the most significant factors influencing students’ engagement, demonstrating how grounded theory can illuminate complex dynamics within real-world contexts.

7. Narrative Research

Definition: Narrative research is a qualitative research method dedicated to storytelling and understanding how individuals experience the world. It focuses on studying an individual’s life and experiences as narrated by that individual (Polkinghorne, 2013).

In narrative research, the researcher collects data through methods such as interviews, observations , and document analysis. The emphasis is on the stories told by participants – narratives that reflect their experiences, thoughts, and feelings.

These stories are then interpreted by the researcher, who attempts to understand the meaning the participant attributes to these experiences (Josselson, 2011).

Example of Narrative Research

Title: “Narrative Structures and the Language of the Self”

Citation: McAdams, D. P., Josselson, R., & Lieblich, A. (2006). Identity and story: Creating self in narrative . American Psychological Association.

Overview: In this innovative study, McAdams et al. (2006) employed narrative research to explore how individuals construct their identities through the stories they tell about themselves. By examining personal narratives, the researchers discerned patterns associated with characters, motivations, conflicts, and resolutions, contributing valuable insights about the relationship between narrative and individual identity.

8. Case Study Research

Definition: Case study research is a qualitative research method that involves an in-depth investigation of a single instance or event: a case. These ‘cases’ can range from individuals, groups, or entities to specific projects, programs, or strategies (Creswell, 2013).

The case study method typically uses multiple sources of information for comprehensive contextual analysis. It aims to explore and understand the complexity and uniqueness of a particular case in a real-world context (Merriam & Tisdell, 2015). This investigation could result in a detailed description of the case, a process for its development, or an exploration of a related issue or problem.

Example of Case Study Research

Title: “ Teacher’s Role in Fostering Preschoolers’ Computational Thinking: An Exploratory Case Study “

Citation: Wang, X. C., Choi, Y., Benson, K., Eggleston, C., & Weber, D. (2021). Teacher’s role in fostering preschoolers’ computational thinking: An exploratory case study. Early Education and Development , 32 (1), 26-48.

Overview: This study investigates the role of teachers in promoting computational thinking skills in preschoolers. The study utilized a qualitative case study methodology to examine the computational thinking scaffolding strategies employed by a teacher interacting with three preschoolers in a small group setting. The findings highlight the importance of teachers’ guidance in fostering computational thinking practices such as problem reformulation/decomposition, systematic testing, and debugging.

Read about some Famous Case Studies in Psychology Here

9. Participant Observation

Definition: Participant observation has the researcher immerse themselves in a group or community setting to observe the behavior of its members. It is similar to ethnography, but generally, the researcher isn’t embedded for a long period of time.

The researcher, being a participant, engages in daily activities, interactions, and events as a way of conducting a detailed study of a particular social phenomenon (Kawulich, 2005).

The method involves long-term engagement in the field, maintaining detailed records of observed events, informal interviews, direct participation, and reflexivity. This approach allows for a holistic view of the participants’ lived experiences, behaviours, and interactions within their everyday environment (Dewalt, 2011).

Example of Participant Observation Research

Title: Conflict in the boardroom: a participant observation study of supervisory board dynamics

Citation: Heemskerk, E. M., Heemskerk, K., & Wats, M. M. (2017). Conflict in the boardroom: a participant observation study of supervisory board dynamics. Journal of Management & Governance , 21 , 233-263.

Overview: This study examined how conflicts within corporate boards affect their performance. The researchers used a participant observation method, where they actively engaged with 11 supervisory boards and observed their dynamics. They found that having a shared understanding of the board’s role called a common framework, improved performance by reducing relationship conflicts, encouraging task conflicts, and minimizing conflicts between the board and CEO.

10. Non-Participant Observation

Definition: Non-participant observation is a qualitative research method in which the researcher observes the phenomena of interest without actively participating in the situation, setting, or community being studied.

This method allows the researcher to maintain a position of distance, as they are solely an observer and not a participant in the activities being observed (Kawulich, 2005).

During non-participant observation, the researcher typically records field notes on the actions, interactions, and behaviors observed , focusing on specific aspects of the situation deemed relevant to the research question.

This could include verbal and nonverbal communication , activities, interactions, and environmental contexts (Angrosino, 2007). They could also use video or audio recordings or other methods to collect data.

Example of Non-Participant Observation Research

Title: Mental Health Nurses’ attitudes towards mental illness and recovery-oriented practice in acute inpatient psychiatric units: A non-participant observation study

Citation: Sreeram, A., Cross, W. M., & Townsin, L. (2023). Mental Health Nurses’ attitudes towards mental illness and recovery‐oriented practice in acute inpatient psychiatric units: A non‐participant observation study. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing .

Overview: This study investigated the attitudes of mental health nurses towards mental illness and recovery-oriented practice in acute inpatient psychiatric units. The researchers used a non-participant observation method, meaning they observed the nurses without directly participating in their activities. The findings shed light on the nurses’ perspectives and behaviors, providing valuable insights into their attitudes toward mental health and recovery-focused care in these settings.

11. Content Analysis

Definition: Content Analysis involves scrutinizing textual, visual, or spoken content to categorize and quantify information. The goal is to identify patterns, themes, biases, or other characteristics (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005).

Content Analysis is widely used in various disciplines for a multitude of purposes. Researchers typically use this method to distill large amounts of unstructured data, like interview transcripts, newspaper articles, or social media posts, into manageable and meaningful chunks.

When wielded appropriately, Content Analysis can illuminate the density and frequency of certain themes within a dataset, provide insights into how specific terms or concepts are applied contextually, and offer inferences about the meanings of their content and use (Duriau, Reger, & Pfarrer, 2007).

Example of Content Analysis

Title: Framing European politics: A content analysis of press and television news .

Citation: Semetko, H. A., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2000). Framing European politics: A content analysis of press and television news. Journal of Communication, 50 (2), 93-109.

Overview: This study analyzed press and television news articles about European politics using a method called content analysis. The researchers examined the prevalence of different “frames” in the news, which are ways of presenting information to shape audience perceptions. They found that the most common frames were attribution of responsibility, conflict, economic consequences, human interest, and morality.

Read my Full Guide on Content Analysis Here

12. Discourse Analysis

Definition: Discourse Analysis, a qualitative research method, interprets the meanings, functions, and coherence of certain languages in context.

Discourse analysis is typically understood through social constructionism, critical theory , and poststructuralism and used for understanding how language constructs social concepts (Cheek, 2004).

Discourse Analysis offers great breadth, providing tools to examine spoken or written language, often beyond the level of the sentence. It enables researchers to scrutinize how text and talk articulate social and political interactions and hierarchies.

Insight can be garnered from different conversations, institutional text, and media coverage to understand how topics are addressed or framed within a specific social context (Jorgensen & Phillips, 2002).

Example of Discourse Analysis

Title: The construction of teacher identities in educational policy documents: A critical discourse analysis

Citation: Thomas, S. (2005). The construction of teacher identities in educational policy documents: A critical discourse analysis. Critical Studies in Education, 46 (2), 25-44.

Overview: The author examines how an education policy in one state of Australia positions teacher professionalism and teacher identities. While there are competing discourses about professional identity, the policy framework privileges a  narrative that frames the ‘good’ teacher as one that accepts ever-tightening control and regulation over their professional practice.

Read my Full Guide on Discourse Analysis Here

13. Action Research

Definition: Action Research is a qualitative research technique that is employed to bring about change while simultaneously studying the process and results of that change.

This method involves a cyclical process of fact-finding, action, evaluation, and reflection (Greenwood & Levin, 2016).

Typically, Action Research is used in the fields of education, social sciences , and community development. The process isn’t just about resolving an issue but also developing knowledge that can be used in the future to address similar or related problems.

The researcher plays an active role in the research process, which is normally broken down into four steps: 

  • developing a plan to improve what is currently being done
  • implementing the plan
  • observing the effects of the plan, and
  • reflecting upon these effects (Smith, 2010).

Example of Action Research

Title: Using Digital Sandbox Gaming to Improve Creativity Within Boys’ Writing

Citation: Ellison, M., & Drew, C. (2020). Using digital sandbox gaming to improve creativity within boys’ writing. Journal of Research in Childhood Education , 34 (2), 277-287.

Overview: This was a research study one of my research students completed in his own classroom under my supervision. He implemented a digital game-based approach to literacy teaching with boys and interviewed his students to see if the use of games as stimuli for storytelling helped draw them into the learning experience.

Read my Full Guide on Action Research Here

14. Semiotic Analysis

Definition: Semiotic Analysis is a qualitative method of research that interprets signs and symbols in communication to understand sociocultural phenomena. It stems from semiotics, the study of signs and symbols and their use or interpretation (Chandler, 2017).

In a Semiotic Analysis, signs (anything that represents something else) are interpreted based on their significance and the role they play in representing ideas.

This type of research often involves the examination of images, sounds, and word choice to uncover the embedded sociocultural meanings. For example, an advertisement for a car might be studied to learn more about societal views on masculinity or success (Berger, 2010).

Example of Semiotic Research

Title: Shielding the learned body: a semiotic analysis of school badges in New South Wales, Australia

Citation: Symes, C. (2023). Shielding the learned body: a semiotic analysis of school badges in New South Wales, Australia. Semiotica , 2023 (250), 167-190.

Overview: This study examines school badges in New South Wales, Australia, and explores their significance through a semiotic analysis. The badges, which are part of the school’s visual identity, are seen as symbolic representations that convey meanings. The analysis reveals that these badges often draw on heraldic models, incorporating elements like colors, names, motifs, and mottoes that reflect local culture and history, thus connecting students to their national identity. Additionally, the study highlights how some schools have shifted from traditional badges to modern logos and slogans, reflecting a more business-oriented approach.

15. Qualitative Longitudinal Studies

Definition: Qualitative Longitudinal Studies are a research method that involves repeated observation of the same items over an extended period of time.

Unlike a snapshot perspective, this method aims to piece together individual histories and examine the influences and impacts of change (Neale, 2019).

Qualitative Longitudinal Studies provide an in-depth understanding of change as it happens, including changes in people’s lives, their perceptions, and their behaviors.

For instance, this method could be used to follow a group of students through their schooling years to understand the evolution of their learning behaviors and attitudes towards education (Saldaña, 2003).

Example of Qualitative Longitudinal Research

Title: Patient and caregiver perspectives on managing pain in advanced cancer: a qualitative longitudinal study

Citation: Hackett, J., Godfrey, M., & Bennett, M. I. (2016). Patient and caregiver perspectives on managing pain in advanced cancer: a qualitative longitudinal study.  Palliative medicine ,  30 (8), 711-719.

Overview: This article examines how patients and their caregivers manage pain in advanced cancer through a qualitative longitudinal study. The researchers interviewed patients and caregivers at two different time points and collected audio diaries to gain insights into their experiences, making this study longitudinal.

Read my Full Guide on Longitudinal Research Here

16. Open-Ended Surveys

Definition: Open-Ended Surveys are a type of qualitative research method where respondents provide answers in their own words. Unlike closed-ended surveys, which limit responses to predefined options, open-ended surveys allow for expansive and unsolicited explanations (Fink, 2013).

Open-ended surveys are commonly used in a range of fields, from market research to social studies. As they don’t force respondents into predefined response categories, these surveys help to draw out rich, detailed data that might uncover new variables or ideas.

For example, an open-ended survey might be used to understand customer opinions about a new product or service (Lavrakas, 2008).

Contrast this to a quantitative closed-ended survey, like a Likert scale, which could theoretically help us to come up with generalizable data but is restricted by the questions on the questionnaire, meaning new and surprising data and insights can’t emerge from the survey results in the same way.

Example of Open-Ended Survey Research

Title: Advantages and disadvantages of technology in relationships: Findings from an open-ended survey

Citation: Hertlein, K. M., & Ancheta, K. (2014). Advantages and disadvantages of technology in relationships: Findings from an open-ended survey.  The Qualitative Report ,  19 (11), 1-11.

Overview: This article examines the advantages and disadvantages of technology in couple relationships through an open-ended survey method. Researchers analyzed responses from 410 undergraduate students to understand how technology affects relationships. They found that technology can contribute to relationship development, management, and enhancement, but it can also create challenges such as distancing, lack of clarity, and impaired trust.

17. Naturalistic Observation

Definition: Naturalistic Observation is a type of qualitative research method that involves observing individuals in their natural environments without interference or manipulation by the researcher.

Naturalistic observation is often used when conducting research on behaviors that cannot be controlled or manipulated in a laboratory setting (Kawulich, 2005).

It is frequently used in the fields of psychology, sociology, and anthropology. For instance, to understand the social dynamics in a schoolyard, a researcher could spend time observing the children interact during their recess, noting their behaviors, interactions, and conflicts without imposing their presence on the children’s activities (Forsyth, 2010).

Example of Naturalistic Observation Research

Title: Dispositional mindfulness in daily life: A naturalistic observation study

Citation: Kaplan, D. M., Raison, C. L., Milek, A., Tackman, A. M., Pace, T. W., & Mehl, M. R. (2018). Dispositional mindfulness in daily life: A naturalistic observation study. PloS one , 13 (11), e0206029.

Overview: In this study, researchers conducted two studies: one exploring assumptions about mindfulness and behavior, and the other using naturalistic observation to examine actual behavioral manifestations of mindfulness. They found that trait mindfulness is associated with a heightened perceptual focus in conversations, suggesting that being mindful is expressed primarily through sharpened attention rather than observable behavioral or social differences.

Read my Full Guide on Naturalistic Observation Here

18. Photo-Elicitation

Definition: Photo-elicitation utilizes photographs as a means to trigger discussions and evoke responses during interviews. This strategy aids in bringing out topics of discussion that may not emerge through verbal prompting alone (Harper, 2002).

Traditionally, Photo-Elicitation has been useful in various fields such as education, psychology, and sociology. The method involves the researcher or participants taking photographs, which are then used as prompts for discussion.

For instance, a researcher studying urban environmental issues might invite participants to photograph areas in their neighborhood that they perceive as environmentally detrimental, and then discuss each photo in depth (Clark-Ibáñez, 2004).

Example of Photo-Elicitation Research

Title: Early adolescent food routines: A photo-elicitation study

Citation: Green, E. M., Spivak, C., & Dollahite, J. S. (2021). Early adolescent food routines: A photo-elicitation study. Appetite, 158 .

Overview: This study focused on early adolescents (ages 10-14) and their food routines. Researchers conducted in-depth interviews using a photo-elicitation approach, where participants took photos related to their food choices and experiences. Through analysis, the study identified various routines and three main themes: family, settings, and meals/foods consumed, revealing how early adolescents view and are influenced by their eating routines.

Features of Qualitative Research

Qualitative research is a research method focused on understanding the meaning individuals or groups attribute to a social or human problem (Creswell, 2013).

Some key features of this method include:

  • Naturalistic Inquiry: Qualitative research happens in the natural setting of the phenomena, aiming to understand “real world” situations (Patton, 2015). This immersion in the field or subject allows the researcher to gather a deep understanding of the subject matter.
  • Emphasis on Process: It aims to understand how events unfold over time rather than focusing solely on outcomes (Merriam & Tisdell, 2015). The process-oriented nature of qualitative research allows researchers to investigate sequences, timing, and changes.
  • Interpretive: It involves interpreting and making sense of phenomena in terms of the meanings people assign to them (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011). This interpretive element allows for rich, nuanced insights into human behavior and experiences.
  • Holistic Perspective: Qualitative research seeks to understand the whole phenomenon rather than focusing on individual components (Creswell, 2013). It emphasizes the complex interplay of factors, providing a richer, more nuanced view of the research subject.
  • Prioritizes Depth over Breadth: Qualitative research favors depth of understanding over breadth, typically involving a smaller but more focused sample size (Hennink, Hutter, & Bailey, 2020). This enables detailed exploration of the phenomena of interest, often leading to rich and complex data.

Qualitative vs Quantitative Research

Qualitative research centers on exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups attribute to a social or human problem (Creswell, 2013).

It involves an in-depth approach to the subject matter, aiming to capture the richness and complexity of human experience.

Examples include conducting interviews, observing behaviors, or analyzing text and images.

There are strengths inherent in this approach. In its focus on understanding subjective experiences and interpretations, qualitative research can yield rich and detailed data that quantitative research may overlook (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011).

Additionally, qualitative research is adaptive, allowing the researcher to respond to new directions and insights as they emerge during the research process.

However, there are also limitations. Because of the interpretive nature of this research, findings may not be generalizable to a broader population (Marshall & Rossman, 2014). Well-designed quantitative research, on the other hand, can be generalizable.

Moreover, the reliability and validity of qualitative data can be challenging to establish due to its subjective nature, unlike quantitative research, which is ideally more objective.

Compare Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methodologies in This Guide Here

In conclusion, qualitative research methods provide distinctive ways to explore social phenomena and understand nuances that quantitative approaches might overlook. Each method, from Ethnography to Photo-Elicitation, presents its strengths and weaknesses but they all offer valuable means of investigating complex, real-world situations. The goal for the researcher is not to find a definitive tool, but to employ the method best suited for their research questions and the context at hand (Almalki, 2016). Above all, these methods underscore the richness of human experience and deepen our understanding of the world around us.

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131 Interesting Qualitative Research Topics For High Scoring Thesis

qualitative research topics

Qualitative research topics are undoubtedly not easy. While statistics enthralls some students, others don’t like the subject. That’s because qualitative assignments entail cognitive analysis, which complicates them. But apart from the hardships of completing the projects, selecting topics for qualitative research papers is also a challenge.

This article presents a list of 130-plus qualitative research topic ideas to help learners that struggle to get titles for their papers. It is helpful because many learners have difficulties picking titles that will make their essays impressive to educators. But before presenting the topics, this article defines qualitative research.

What Is Qualitative Research?

Qualitative research is an investigative and innovative abstract data analysis. When writing a qualitative research paper, a learner analyzes intangible data. Qualitative researchers code the data after or during collection. Therefore, having top-notch research topics is necessary for a first-class essay.

Knowing how to write a qualitative research paper is vital because it helps the student deliver a copy that provides a clear picture of an event or situation. A researcher can achieve this via practical experience, reliable reporting, and conversations. Gathering raw data is the initial step in qualitative research. A researcher can gather raw data by conducting reviews, observations, and surveys. Also, researchers can use creative methods to collect data.

Best Examples Of Qualitative Research Topics

Qualitative research covers many things. Here are examples of topics that learners can explore in their qualitative study.

  • What causes stigma around some health challenges?
  • Stigma facing the people living with disabilities- What is the cause?
  • Can Pro Bono legal assistance improve the criminal justice system?
  • How the less privileged can benefit from Pro Bono services
  • The educational challenges facing rural children- Are there ways to help them?
  • Child labor causes- How to mitigate the practice
  • Substance and drugs- What are young people abusing more?
  • How alcohol affects college students
  • Can food insecurity interfere with children’s performance in school?
  • Food banks intricacies- Understanding the challenge in low-income areas
  • Free education- Does it have socioeconomic benefits?
  • Culture and female harm- What’s the connection?
  • The impact of social media on physical and social engagement among teens in urban areas
  • Using medication to treat depression- What are the health benefits?
  • Investigating peer educators’ efficiency in creating awareness of health and social issues
  • Gender-based violence- What causes it in rural areas, and how does it affect victims?
  • Sexual reproductive health challenges of child brides- Are there ways to control it?
  • Investigating the causes of school dropout among teenagers
  • How to address school dropout among young adults
  • Investigating the deteriorating academic pursuit in Third-World countries
  • Social activities- Do they have benefits for depressed people?
  • Investigating cerebral palsy and the stigma that people associate with it.
  • Living with disabilities- Are there social implications?
  • The impact of ableism on disabled people
  • Exploring the promotion and benefits of feminist values
  • Why should society promote free education in all learning environments?
  • What causes food insecurities among low-income earners?
  • Food and housing insecurity- What are the root causes?
  • What are the effects of displacement- Investigating the homeless people’s mental health

These are good examples of qualitative research topics. However, a student that picks a title in this category should research it extensively to impress the educator with their work.

Qualitative Nursing Research Topics

Professors ask students to write about qualitative topics when pursuing nursing studies. Here are issues to consider in this category.

  • How does the nurse-patient relationship affect health outcomes?
  • How can nurses deal with complex patients?
  • How can nurses provide culturally competent care?
  • How do personal beliefs affect nursing practice?
  • What is the impact of spirituality on nursing care?
  • How does the nurse’s role change when working with terminally ill patients?
  • What challenges do nurses face when providing end-of-life care?
  • How can nurses best support families whose members have serious illnesses?
  • What are the unique challenges of caring for elderly patients?
  • How does the nurse’s role change when working in a hospice setting?
  • Health outreach programs- What are the most effective ways to execute them?
  • Effective methods of curbing drug abuse
  • Effective ways to help rape survivors
  • How can nurses administer care to female genital mutilation victims?
  • How to care for special needs individuals
  • Anxiety and depression symptoms
  • Methods of administering care to Dyslexia patients
  • How to help individuals dealing with mental disorders
  • Signs of Alzheimer’s disease in older people
  • How to provide primary patient care

These are good qualitative research topics for students pursuing nursing studies. Nevertheless, learners must research any of these titles before writing their papers.

Qualitative Research Topics In Education

Most topics spring up from the education niche despite fitting other specifications. Here are examples of qualitative research topics that include the education niche.

  • Are guidance and counseling essential in schools?
  • How computer literacy affects education
  • Why governments in developing schools should encourage adult education
  • Autistic children’s education- Which learning style suits them?
  • Is mental health education relevant in the modern school curriculum?
  • Exploring the learning conditions for kids in third world countries
  • Child education and food insecurity- What is the connection?
  • The impact of virtual learning on high school students
  • How does alcoholism affect a student and their education?
  • Homeschooling- What are its advantages and disadvantages?
  • How do teachers’ beliefs about intelligence affect their teaching?
  • What is the teacher’s role in developing a student’s self-concept?
  • Does race or ethnicity play a role in how teachers treat their students?
  • What are the teachers’ experiences with teaching students with special needs?
  • What methods do effective teachers use to motivate their students?
  • What are the most effective ways to teach reading and writing?
  • How does technology use affect how teachers teach, and students learn?
  • What are the challenges faced by teachers in rural areas?
  • What are the challenges faced by teachers in urban areas?
  • How do charter schools differ from traditional public schools?

Many topics and issues in the education system allow learners to find subjects to investigate and cover in their papers quickly. And this is not an exhaustive qualitative research topic list in this field. Nevertheless, it covers the most exciting ideas to explore.

Qualitative Research Topics In Public Health

Educators ask students to write academic papers while studying the public health sector. And this provides insights into crucial and relevant aspects of this sector. Here are qualitative research topics examples in this category.

  • How does the public health sector manage epidemics?
  • The role of public health in disaster management
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of public health campaigns
  • An analysis of the factors that hinder effective public health delivery
  • Access to healthcare: A study of rural and urban populations
  • Health needs assessment of refugees
  • Mental health support within the public health sector
  • The role of technology in public health
  • Understanding and addressing health disparities
  • Sexual and reproductive health rights in the public health discourse
  • How immunization benefits people in rural areas
  • What causes water-borne diseases, and how can society mitigate them?
  • Symptoms of high blood pressure among young people
  • How antenatal care helps pregnant women
  • How to boost breast cancer awareness

These are excellent qualitative research paper topics in the public health sector. Nevertheless, learners need sufficient time and resources to investigate their preferred titles in this category to write winning papers.

Qualitative Research Topics In Project Management

Project management writing focuses on ways to achieve results and goals while basing the achievement on the process. This subject covers planning, structuring, proffering, and controlling ways to execute plans to accomplish desired goals. Here are research topics for qualitative research in project management.

  • How effective communication strategies can impact the outcome of a project
  • How different leadership styles affect team productivity during a project
  • The role of conflict management in ensuring successful project outcomes
  • Gender differences in the perception and understanding of project risk
  • The impact of organizational culture on a project’s likelihood of success
  • How different project management methodologies affect its outcome
  • The effect of stakeholder involvement on project success
  • How to manage virtual teams effectively to ensure successful project outcomes
  • What motivates project managers to achieve successful results?
  • How can project managers create a positive work environment that leads to successful outcomes?
  • What challenges do project managers face when trying to achieve successful outcomes?
  • How can project management be used to achieve social change?
  • What are the ethical implications of project management?
  • What are the global impacts of project management?
  • Ways to achieve sustainable development through project management

These are topics to explore in project management. Nevertheless, learners need adequate time to investigate their chosen titles and write winning essays.

Qualitative Research Topics In Political Science

Qualitative research can also cover political science. Investigating this field enables people to understand it better and can be broad. Here are sample titles to consider in for your scientific thesis .

  • How do social media affect the way people engage with politics?
  • What motivates people to vote?
  • How does voting behavior change over time?
  • What are the consequences of gerrymandering?
  • How does campaign finance influence elections?
  • Interest groups- What is their role in politics?
  • How do the media cover politics?
  • What are the effects of political scandals?
  • How does public opinion influence policymakers?
  • How feminism enhanced the American politics
  • The adverse effects of misrepresentation
  • The American democracy- A look into its dimensions
  • Colorism, racism, and classism- How the American ideologies differ
  • What causes an election crisis?
  • Two-party system- What challenges does it face in America?
  • Black women’s inclusion in the American politics
  • Should America have a multi-party system?
  • Why mass media matters in politics’ scrutiny and promotion

While political science is a broad field, these narrow topics help learners handle their research effectively. Pick any of these ideas to write a winning essay.

Topics For Ethnography Qualitative Research

Ethnographic research entails studying and paying attention to society and describing it. Here are topics to consider for a research paper in this field.

  • Studying a subculture: Reasons people join and stay in gangs
  • How does social media use vary by culture?
  • An ethnographic study of a homeless shelter or soup kitchen
  • Understanding the lives of sex workers through ethnography
  • The impact of religion on family life
  • How does parenting vary between cultures?
  • How do children learn and socialize in different cultures?
  • What is the effect of migration on family life?
  • What are the experiences of refugees?- An explorative case study
  • What is the impact of poverty on family life?
  • How do people in different cultures understand and experience mental illness?
  • What is the role of the family in other cultures?
  • What are the end-of-life experiences and beliefs around death in different cultures?

This article has presented easy qualitative research topics. However, some need time and resources to investigate and write quality papers. Therefore, pick your paper title carefully to write an essay that will earn you an excellent grade.

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202 Best Choice Qualitative Research Topics for Students 2023

qualitative research topics

As a college student, you’ll always encounter a series of essays to write while in school. These essays will always be of different types, and they’ll include research essays. There are two important things to know when embarking on research paper writing. First, you have to understand if your research work is to be quantitative or qualitative.

For qualitative research writing, you’ll be required to go through a fundamental research process which entails gathering raw and primary information through field research which can either be done through interviews, surveys, observations, or through any other way of harnessing raw data.

There are so many research topics to look into when preparing for your essay writing. Among these are some of the qualitative research topics ideas to look out for.

Examples of Qualitative Research Topics

There is a wide variety of what qualitative research can cover. Below you’ll find a qualitative research topics list with some initial ideas that can get you started.

  • How Social media is affecting the physical social engagement of Teenagers in Urban areas
  • Health benefits of treating depression with medication and some of them realize results
  • The efficiency of Peer educators in creating social awareness on social and health issues
  • Understanding the effects of Gender-Based Violence (GBV) in rural areas and how this negatively impacts women in such areas
  • Challenges of the sexual reproductive health of child brides and how this can be controlled
  • Social investigation into the cause of dropping out of the school of teenagers and young adults and some of the ways through which it can be addressed
  • Academic pursuit: is it deteriorating in Third World countries
  • Benefits of engaging in social activities to depressed people and those struggling with certain mental health challenges
  • Understanding the learning challenges of dyslexic children and progressive ways to administer help to them
  • A questioning of the stigma associated with cerebral palsy
  • The social implications of living with disabilities
  • How ableism affects disabled people in our society
  • Understanding the benefits and promotion of feminist values in rural areas
  • The need to promote free education across every learning environment
  • Investigating the root causes of food insecurities in low-income neighborhoods
  • Understanding the challenges of housing insecurity and food insecurity
  • Displacement and its accompanying effects: a look into the mental health of homeless people
  • How culture contributes to female harm in the society
  • Socioeconomic benefits of free education in our society
  • Understanding the intricacies of food banks in low-income neighborhoods
  • How food insecurity causes children to perform poorly in school
  • The effects of alcohol on college students
  • Drugs & Substance: which do young adults abuse more
  • The causes of child labor and how to mitigate against such practices
  • Educational challenges on children in rural areas and ways to proffer help
  • Benefits of Pro Bono services to the less privileged
  • How Pro Bono legal aids improve the justice system
  • Understanding the stigma of living with disabilities
  • Causes of the stigma that surrounds certain health challenges

Qualitative Nursing Research Topics

Even while your area of specialization in college is in medicine or health care, you’ll still be required to carry out research writing. If your specialization is in nursing, there is still research to embark on. Because nursing itself as a field of study touches across a lot of medical and health care issues which requires research to be paid attention to and brought relevance to. Here are some qualitative research topics examples on nursing to look into.

  • How to administer care to patients with Dyslexia
  • How to help patients with mental disorders
  • Signs and Symptoms of autism and how to extend help to these patients
  • How to identify Alzheimer’s in older patients
  • Understanding how to deal with pregnant women and emergencies
  • Administering antenatal care to pregnant women
  • Patient care in psychiatric units and a look into that
  • Identifying and treating Alzheimer’s
  • Basics of patient care
  • Difference between workloads of ICU nurses and OR nurses
  • Care for hypertensive patients with diabetes
  • First aid treatments for gun victims
  • Pros & cons of nurses’ drug prescription
  • The role of nurses in rural healthcare services
  • Understanding care in nursing homes
  • Intensive care for visually and verbally impaired patients
  • Benefits of immunization in rural areas
  • Outlining and handling the side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine
  • Why compassion and sensitivity is important for nurses
  • The role of nurses and healthcare corporations
  • How nurses can handle cardiovascular challenges
  • Signs of Depression and anxiety in patients
  • How to take care of people with special needs
  • How to take care of elderly
  • How to administer care to survivors of female genital mutilation
  • How to assist rape survivors
  • Bipolar symptoms in young adults
  • How to curb drug abuse
  • Effective ways to carry out health outreach programs

Qualitative Research Topics in Education

While there are other topics specific to different other specifications, they all mostly spring up from education. There are so many issues and topics that pertain to the education system which allows for more research to be embarked on this aspect of learning. The one realistic and easy way to evaluate and improve the quality of education is through the carrying out of the research. Here are some good qualitative research topics in education.

  • Which learning style is efficient for autistic children
  • Importance of mental health education in the school curriculum
  • The importance of computer literacy
  • Learning condition of children in third world countries
  • Food insecurity and child education
  • How virtual learning affects high school students
  • Can students manipulate lockdown browsers?
  • Effects of alcoholism on education
  • Understanding adult learning
  • The need to encourage adult education
  • Impacts of computer literacy on education
  • Disadvantages of homeschooling
  • Importance of guidance and counseling in schools
  • Significance of school uniform to learning
  • How to improve oral learning in classrooms
  • The negative impacts of student loans
  • How to teach and improve the learning abilities of ADHD students
  • The importance of sign language learning
  • Impacts of the poor educational system
  • The need to include technology into the education system
  • How smartphones affect students academic performance in the academic system
  • Psychological impacts of student bullying
  • Developing connecting through virtual learning
  • Importance of research writing in schools
  • The need to improve educational learning for children in low-income neighborhoods
  • The importance of reading to preschoolers
  • Importance of social activities in schools
  • Ways to help children with learning disabilities to improve their learning
  • Easy ways to master foreign languages for students in high school.

Qualitative Research Topics in Political Science

Writing qualitative research also extends to the field of political sciences. Qualitative research is very important in the political field because it allows people to have a clearer understanding of the field as in most cases, it can easily become broad. Narrowing your research to specific topics will help you handle the research effectively. Here are some qualitative research topics lists in political science.

  • How COVID-19 impacts low-income neighborhoods
  • The need for the cancellation of student loans and not the suspension of student loans
  • Racism as a dividing factor in America
  • Segregation and racist laws
  • Effects of capitalism on America’s health system
  • Why healthcare in America should be free
  • The abortion regulation bill and its effects
  • What the return to office move says about American capitalism
  • The distinction between Liberalism and Conservatism and places where they merge
  • Understanding neoliberalism and how it impacts our activities in the society
  • COVID-19: Vaccines and treatments
  • The importance of independent judiciary and legislation to improve the American legal system
  • Understanding the effects of American incarceration
  • Carceral system in America and how it targets mostly people in minority groups
  • Understanding American foreign policy
  • The negative impacts of peace war in affected countries
  • A look into the dimensions of the American democracy
  • Classism, racism, colorism: understanding the different American ideologies
  • The need for the cancellation of the American carceral system
  • Dissecting the causes of the election crisis
  • The need for a free polling system to encourage free and fair voting practices
  • The challenges of Americans two-party system
  • The role of mass media in promoting and scrutinizing politics
  • Why America needs a multi-party system
  • The inclusion of black women in American politics
  • The need for representation in American politics
  • The negative impacts of misrepresentation
  • Addressing Police brutality in America
  • The role of feminism in enhancing American politics

Topics for Ethnography Qualitative Research

Carrying out Ethnographic research requires paying attention and studying society from a descriptive perspective. This form of research writing is usually useful in cultural anthropology. Practically, when you are writing ethnographic research, you’ll be required to carry out a series of research writings. One of the most important researches you’ll be embarking on which in turn becomes primarily beneficial to the essay is qualitative research. With qualitative research writing in ethnography, every single collected raw data is useful information to you that will enable you to pull through with your essay. Listed below are some qualitative research paper topics.

  • How does Sexual violence in rural areas affect the psychological well-being of the women and girls in such locality
  • Evaluating the role of parental care and the lack of it thereof in the lives of some foster kids
  • An insight into the primary causes of the swift migration happening from African to Europe
  • Examining the distinction between the Sharia laws applicable to Muslims abroad and those in African countries
  • Explain how political instability in certain countries is often the remote cause of the general instability that arises in any country.
  • The relationship between political and instability and migration
  • Exploring the link between violence against women and sex trafficking
  • Analyzing the socioeconomic impacts of instability on a nation
  • An overview of the rise of oral literature study in literature
  • The social implications of American confinement systems on individuals
  • What are the ways through which sororities impacts the lives of those within it
  • A study into the ways through which government enables homelessness
  • A study of the American society and how to reach it is in culture and history
  • Outlining some of the challenges of Muslims in Africa
  • Discussing the leniency of the practice of Islam in foreign spaces
  • A study into the importance of fraternities and sororities
  • How is the popular culture impacting the psyche of Americans
  • The impacts of westernization in human perception
  • How does literature contribute to change the world
  • Discussing the challenges transgender people undergo within and outside the LGBTQ+ community
  • How social media distorts the perception of reality
  • The role of the smartphone in our deteriorating attention span
  • Understanding culture and how it applies to different American groups
  • The importance of books in the lives of children in rural areas
  • How violence breeds housing and food insecurity
  • The role of capitalism in generating food insecurity
  • Understanding the effects of female genitalia mutilation in girls
  • How popular culture serves as an agent of social change
  • How male dominance breeds male violence

Qualitative Research Topics in Public Health

Even while within the public health sector, you’ll still be required to write qualitative research on your field of study. What this allows is that it gives you the much-needed insight into looking into relevant and crucial aspects of your field of specialty that might need the extra attention. Knowing this while writing research will enable you to broaden your understanding of the intricacies of your course of study as it allows you to gather information firsthand. Here are some research topics for qualitative research on public health.

  • The benefits of immunization in rural areas
  • Causes of water-borne diseases in such our society and how this can be mitigated against
  • The simple signs and symptoms on how to indicate high blood pressure in young people
  • The importance of antenatal care to every pregnant woman
  • Ways to create awareness for breast cancer
  • Barriers to clean hygiene in health centers
  • Understanding the health challenges of lack of drinkable water in a community
  • Prevalence of COVID and how to control its spread
  • Importance of nose masks in the times of Covid-19
  • Health insurance and how it benefits people
  • Importance of safe menstrual care for girls
  • How to control the widespread of Flu
  • Benefits of exercise to obese people
  • How to properly manage to live with Diabetes type II
  • Causes of malnutrition in young children
  • Control of the prevalence of drug and substance abuse
  • Prevention methods for COVID-19
  • The importance of contraceptives for sexually active teenagers
  • Why do teenagers need sex education and not complete abstinence
  • Poorly maintained public hospitals and their effects
  • The need to properly manage the source of our waste products disposal
  • Factors generating health issues in pregnant women
  • The importance of post-natal to nursing mothers
  • The need for the creation of health awareness in rural areas
  • The growing impacts of COVID-19 on the healthcare system
  • The health benefits of constant sanitation
  • Role of social distancing in limiting the cases of COVID-19 in the society
  • The difference between epidemic and pandemic
  • The role of finance in propagating an inclusive and efficient healthcare system.

Qualitative Research Topics in Project Management

Project management entails making plans, structuring, controlling, and proffering reliable ways for the carrying out of such plans to achieve desirable results or goals. The main focus of every form of project management writing is that it focuses on ways through which goals or results can be achieved while basing it on a given process. There are so many topics that are in line with project management. Here is a look into some of the easy qualitative research topics within this particular field of study.

  • The leading causes of underdevelopment in most sectors in the society and possible ways to mitigate against this.
  • The assessment of the contributing factors that lead to failed healthcare systems in rural areas
  • Understanding the challenges that often generate food insecurity and scarcity within a given locality
  • Plausible ways through which food insecurity can be handled within a given society
  • An investigation into the causes of increased child mortality cases in rural areas
  • Impacts of financial management in a country and how it benefits citizens
  • How to set up an operation pest control activity in a society
  • Investigation into the current cost of living in the society and how this is propagated by capitalism
  • The need to create a more inclusive healthcare system
  • The root causes of lack of medical insurance and possible ways to curb it.
  • The importance of health management in organizations and possible ways to ensure it
  • Procedure to encourage the building of health centers in underdeveloped areas
  • Promoting the growth and enhancement of management systems that ensure positive impacts on underserved areas
  • Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of manufacturing learning centers in urban areas
  • Evaluation of accommodation spaces in public nursing homes
  • Enhancing the living situation of charity homes and ways to ensure it
  • What is the benefit of building communication masts in rural areas
  • Efficient ways of regulating revenue distribution
  • Design system for building online regulated parking system
  • Design process and management of geolocators
  • How to ensure effective budget planning
  • The importance of budgeting systems and revenue regulatory systems in government sectors
  • Overview of budgeting and budget padding as a financial regulatory system.
  • The problem with healthcare construction projects in Louisiana
  • The role of strategy in enhancing business management
  • Student loan challenges faced by academic students in America
  • The importance of developing healthy customer-client relationships
  • Foreign policy and its impact on developing industrial complexes

Are you writing your college research essay and wondering about how to go about it and, at the same time, if it will require expert writing help? Look no further, for you can rest assured that there are professional research writing experts here that will provide you with quality but cheap essays that will get you high grades! Don’t hesitate to try it out if you are struggling.

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example research title qualitative

Home Market Research

Qualitative Research Methods: Types, Analysis + Examples

Qualitative Research

Qualitative research is based on the disciplines of social sciences like psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Therefore, the qualitative research methods allow for in-depth and further probing and questioning of respondents based on their responses. The interviewer/researcher also tries to understand their motivation and feelings. Understanding how your audience makes decisions can help derive conclusions in market research.

What is qualitative research?

Qualitative research is defined as a market research method that focuses on obtaining data through open-ended and conversational communication .

This method is about “what” people think and “why” they think so. For example, consider a convenience store looking to improve its patronage. A systematic observation concludes that more men are visiting this store. One good method to determine why women were not visiting the store is conducting an in-depth interview method with potential customers.

For example, after successfully interviewing female customers and visiting nearby stores and malls, the researchers selected participants through random sampling . As a result, it was discovered that the store didn’t have enough items for women.

So fewer women were visiting the store, which was understood only by personally interacting with them and understanding why they didn’t visit the store because there were more male products than female ones.

Gather research insights

Types of qualitative research methods with examples

Qualitative research methods are designed in a manner that helps reveal the behavior and perception of a target audience with reference to a particular topic. There are different types of qualitative research methods, such as in-depth interviews, focus groups, ethnographic research, content analysis, and case study research that are usually used.

The results of qualitative methods are more descriptive, and the inferences can be drawn quite easily from the obtained data .

Qualitative research methods originated in the social and behavioral research sciences. Today, our world is more complicated, and it is difficult to understand what people think and perceive. Online research methods make it easier to understand that as it is a more communicative and descriptive analysis .

The following are the qualitative research methods that are frequently used. Also, read about qualitative research examples :

Types of Qualitative Research

1. One-on-one interview

Conducting in-depth interviews is one of the most common qualitative research methods. It is a personal interview that is carried out with one respondent at a time. This is purely a conversational method and invites opportunities to get details in depth from the respondent.

One of the advantages of this method is that it provides a great opportunity to gather precise data about what people believe and their motivations . If the researcher is well experienced, asking the right questions can help him/her collect meaningful data. If they should need more information, the researchers should ask such follow-up questions that will help them collect more information.

These interviews can be performed face-to-face or on the phone and usually can last between half an hour to two hours or even more. When the in-depth interview is conducted face to face, it gives a better opportunity to read the respondents’ body language and match the responses.

2. Focus groups

A focus group is also a commonly used qualitative research method used in data collection. A focus group usually includes a limited number of respondents (6-10) from within your target market.

The main aim of the focus group is to find answers to the “why, ” “what,” and “how” questions. One advantage of focus groups is you don’t necessarily need to interact with the group in person. Nowadays, focus groups can be sent an online survey on various devices, and responses can be collected at the click of a button.

Focus groups are an expensive method as compared to other online qualitative research methods. Typically, they are used to explain complex processes. This method is very useful for market research on new products and testing new concepts.

3. Ethnographic research

Ethnographic research is the most in-depth observational research method that studies people in their naturally occurring environment.

This method requires the researchers to adapt to the target audiences’ environments, which could be anywhere from an organization to a city or any remote location. Here, geographical constraints can be an issue while collecting data.

This research design aims to understand the cultures, challenges, motivations, and settings that occur. Instead of relying on interviews and discussions, you experience the natural settings firsthand.

This type of research method can last from a few days to a few years, as it involves in-depth observation and collecting data on those grounds. It’s a challenging and time-consuming method and solely depends on the researcher’s expertise to analyze, observe, and infer the data.

4. Case study research

T he case study method has evolved over the past few years and developed into a valuable quality research method. As the name suggests, it is used for explaining an organization or an entity.

This type of research method is used within a number of areas like education, social sciences, and similar. This method may look difficult to operate; however , it is one of the simplest ways of conducting research as it involves a deep dive and thorough understanding of the data collection methods and inferring the data.

5. Record keeping

This method makes use of the already existing reliable documents and similar sources of information as the data source. This data can be used in new research. This is similar to going to a library. There, one can go over books and other reference material to collect relevant data that can likely be used in the research.

6. Process of observation

Qualitative Observation is a process of research that uses subjective methodologies to gather systematic information or data. Since the focus on qualitative observation is the research process of using subjective methodologies to gather information or data. Qualitative observation is primarily used to equate quality differences.

Qualitative observation deals with the 5 major sensory organs and their functioning – sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing. This doesn’t involve measurements or numbers but instead characteristics.

Explore Insightfully Contextual Inquiry in Qualitative Research

Qualitative research: data collection and analysis

A. qualitative data collection.

Qualitative data collection allows collecting data that is non-numeric and helps us to explore how decisions are made and provide us with detailed insight. For reaching such conclusions the data that is collected should be holistic, rich, and nuanced and findings to emerge through careful analysis.

  • Whatever method a researcher chooses for collecting qualitative data, one aspect is very clear the process will generate a large amount of data. In addition to the variety of methods available, there are also different methods of collecting and recording the data.

For example, if the qualitative data is collected through a focus group or one-to-one discussion, there will be handwritten notes or video recorded tapes. If there are recording they should be transcribed and before the process of data analysis can begin.

  • As a rough guide, it can take a seasoned researcher 8-10 hours to transcribe the recordings of an interview, which can generate roughly 20-30 pages of dialogues. Many researchers also like to maintain separate folders to maintain the recording collected from the different focus group. This helps them compartmentalize the data collected.
  • In case there are running notes taken, which are also known as field notes, they are helpful in maintaining comments, environmental contexts, environmental analysis , nonverbal cues etc. These filed notes are helpful and can be compared while transcribing audio recorded data. Such notes are usually informal but should be secured in a similar manner as the video recordings or the audio tapes.

B. Qualitative data analysis

Qualitative data analysis such as notes, videos, audio recordings images, and text documents. One of the most used methods for qualitative data analysis is text analysis.

Text analysis is a  data analysis method that is distinctly different from all other qualitative research methods, where researchers analyze the social life of the participants in the research study and decode the words, actions, etc. 

There are images also that are used in this research study and the researchers analyze the context in which the images are used and draw inferences from them. In the last decade, text analysis through what is shared on social media platforms has gained supreme popularity.

Characteristics of qualitative research methods

Characteristics of qualitative research methods - Infographics| QuestionPro

  • Qualitative research methods usually collect data at the sight, where the participants are experiencing issues or research problems . These are real-time data and rarely bring the participants out of the geographic locations to collect information.
  • Qualitative researchers typically gather multiple forms of data, such as interviews, observations, and documents, rather than rely on a single data source .
  • This type of research method works towards solving complex issues by breaking down into meaningful inferences, that is easily readable and understood by all.
  • Since it’s a more communicative method, people can build their trust on the researcher and the information thus obtained is raw and unadulterated.

Qualitative research method case study

Let’s take the example of a bookstore owner who is looking for ways to improve their sales and customer outreach. An online community of members who were loyal patrons of the bookstore were interviewed and related questions were asked and the questions were answered by them.

At the end of the interview, it was realized that most of the books in the stores were suitable for adults and there were not enough options for children or teenagers.

By conducting this qualitative research the bookstore owner realized what the shortcomings were and what were the feelings of the readers. Through this research now the bookstore owner can now keep books for different age categories and can improve his sales and customer outreach.

Such qualitative research method examples can serve as the basis to indulge in further quantitative research , which provides remedies.

When to use qualitative research

Researchers make use of qualitative research techniques when they need to capture accurate, in-depth insights. It is very useful to capture “factual data”. Here are some examples of when to use qualitative research.

  • Developing a new product or generating an idea.
  • Studying your product/brand or service to strengthen your marketing strategy.
  • To understand your strengths and weaknesses.
  • Understanding purchase behavior.
  • To study the reactions of your audience to marketing campaigns and other communications.
  • Exploring market demographics, segments, and customer care groups.
  • Gathering perception data of a brand, company, or product.

LEARN ABOUT: Steps in Qualitative Research

Qualitative research methods vs quantitative research methods

The basic differences between qualitative research methods and quantitative research methods are simple and straightforward. They differ in:

  • Their analytical objectives
  • Types of questions asked
  • Types of data collection instruments
  • Forms of data they produce
  • Degree of flexibility

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  • How to Write a Great Title

Title

Maximize search-ability and engage your readers from the very beginning

Your title is the first thing anyone who reads your article is going to see, and for many it will be where they stop reading. Learn how to write a title that helps readers find your article, draws your audience in and sets the stage for your research!

How your title impacts the success of your article

Researchers are busy and there will always be more articles to read than time to read them.  Good titles help readers find your research, and decide whether to keep reading. Search engines use titles to retrieve relevant articles based on users’ keyword searches. Once readers find your article, they’ll use the title as the first filter to decide whether your research is what they’re looking for. A strong and specific title is the first step toward citations, inclusion in meta-analyses, and influencing your field. 

example research title qualitative

What to include in a title

Include the most important information that will signal to your target audience that they should keep reading.

Key information about the study design

Important keywords

What you discovered

Writing tips

Getting the title right can be more difficult than it seems, and researchers refine their writing skills throughout their career. Some journals even help editors to re-write their titles during the publication process! 

example research title qualitative

  • Keep it concise and informative What’s appropriate for titles varies greatly across disciplines. Take a look at some articles published in your field, and check the journal guidelines for character limits. Aim for fewer than 12 words, and check for journal specific word limits.
  • Write for your audience Consider who your primary audience is: are they specialists in your specific field, are they cross-disciplinary, are they non-specialists?
  • Entice the reader Find a way to pique your readers’ interest, give them enough information to keep them reading.
  • Incorporate important keywords Consider what about your article will be most interesting to your audience: Most readers come to an article from a search engine, so take some time and include the important ones in your title!
  • Write in sentence case In scientific writing, titles are given in sentence case. Capitalize only the first word of the text, proper nouns, and genus names. See our examples below.

example research title qualitative

Don’t

  • Write your title as a question In most cases, you shouldn’t need to frame your title as a question. You have the answers, you know what you found. Writing your title as a question might draw your readers in, but it’s more likely to put them off.
  • Sensationalize your research Be honest with yourself about what you truly discovered. A sensationalized or dramatic title might make a few extra people read a bit further into your article, but you don’t want them disappointed when they get to the results.

Examples…

Format: Prevalence of [disease] in [population] in [location]

Example: Prevalence of tuberculosis in homeless women in San Francisco

Format: Risk factors for [condition] among [population] in [location]

Example: Risk factors for preterm births among low-income women in Mexico City

Format (systematic review/meta-analysis): Effectiveness of [treatment] for [disease] in [population] for [outcome] : A systematic review and meta-analysis

Example: Effectiveness of Hepatitis B treatment in HIV-infected adolescents in the prevention of liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Format (clinical trial): [Intervention] improved [symptoms] of [disease] in [population] : A randomized controlled clinical trial

Example: Using a sleep app lessened insomnia in post-menopausal women in southwest United States: A randomized controlled clinical trial

Format  (general molecular studies): Characterization/identification/evaluation of [molecule name] in/from [organism/tissue] (b y [specific biological methods] ) 

Example: Identification of putative Type-I sex pheromone biosynthesis-related genes expressed in the female pheromone gland of Streltzoviella insularis

Format  (general molecular studies): [specific methods/analysis] of organism/tissue reveal insights into [function/role] of [molecule name] in [biological process]  

Example: Transcriptome landscape of Rafflesia cantleyi floral buds reveals insights into the roles of transcription factors and phytohormones in flower development

Format  (software/method papers): [tool/method/software] for [what purpose] in [what research area]

Example: CRISPR-based tools for targeted transcriptional and epigenetic regulation in plants

Tip: How to edit your work

Editing is challenging, especially if you are acting as both a writer and an editor. Read our guidelines for advice on how to refine your work, including useful tips for setting your intentions, re-review, and consultation with colleagues.

  • How to Write an Abstract
  • How to Write Your Methods
  • How to Report Statistics
  • How to Write Discussions and Conclusions
  • How to Edit Your Work

The contents of the Peer Review Center are also available as a live, interactive training session, complete with slides, talking points, and activities. …

The contents of the Writing Center are also available as a live, interactive training session, complete with slides, talking points, and activities. …

There’s a lot to consider when deciding where to submit your work. Learn how to choose a journal that will help your study reach its audience, while reflecting your values as a researcher…

Enago Academy

6 Important Tips on Writing a Research Paper Title

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When you are searching for a research study on a particular topic, you probably notice that articles with interesting, descriptive research titles draw you in. By contrast, research paper titles that are not descriptive are usually passed over, even though you may write a good research paper with interesting contents. This shows the importance of coming up with a good title for your research paper when drafting your own manuscript.

Importance of a Research Title

The research title plays a crucial role in the research process, and its importance can be summarized as follows:

Importance of a Research Title

Why do Research Titles Matter?

Before we look at how to title a research paper, let’s look at a research title example that illustrates why a good research paper should have a strong title.

Imagine that you are researching meditation and nursing, and you want to find out if any studies have shown that meditation makes nurses better communicators.  You conduct a keyword search using the keywords “nursing”, “communication”, and “meditation.” You come up with results that have the following titles:

  • Benefits of Meditation for the Nursing Profession: A Quantitative Investigation
  • Why Mindful Nurses Make the Best Communicators
  • Meditation Gurus
  • Nurses on the Move: A Quantitative Report on How Meditation Can Improve Nurse Performance

All four of these research paper titles may describe very similar studies—they could even be titles for the same study! As you can see, they give very different impressions.

  • Title 1 describes the topic and the method of the study but is not particularly catchy.
  • Title 2 partly describes the topic, but does not give any information about the method of the study—it could simply be a theoretical or opinion piece.
  • Title 3 is somewhat catchier but gives almost no information at all about the article.
  • Title 4 begins with a catchy main title and is followed by a subtitle that gives information about the content and method of the study.

As we will see, Title 4 has all the characteristics of a good research title.

Characteristics of a Good Research Title

According to rhetoric scholars Hairston and Keene, making a good title for a paper involves ensuring that the title of the research accomplishes four goals as mentioned below:

  • It should predict the content of the research paper .
  • It should be interesting to the reader .
  • It should reflect the tone of the writing .
  • It should contain important keywords that will make it easier to be located during a keyword search.

Let’s return to the examples in the previous section to see how to make a research title.

As you can see in the table above, only one of the four example titles fulfills all of the criteria of a suitable research paper title.

Related: You’ve chosen your study topic, but having trouble deciding where to publish it? Here’s a comprehensive course to help you identify the right journal .

Tips for Writing an Effective Research Paper Title

When writing a research title, you can use the four criteria listed above as a guide. Here are a few other tips you can use to make sure your title will be part of the recipe for an effective research paper :

  • Make sure your research title describes (a) the topic, (b) the method, (c) the sample, and (d) the results of your study. You can use the following formula:
[ Result ]: A [ method ] study of [ topic ] among [ sample ] Example : Meditation makes nurses perform better: a qualitative study of mindfulness meditation among German nursing students
  • Avoid unnecessary words and jargons. Keep the title statement as concise as possible. You want a title that will be comprehensible even to people who are not experts in your field. Check our article for a detailed list of things to avoid when writing an effective research title .
  • Make sure your title is between 5 and 15 words in length.
  • If you are writing a title for a university assignment or for a particular academic journal, verify that your title conforms to the standards and requirements for that outlet. For example, many journals require that titles fall under a character limit, including spaces. Many universities require that titles take a very specific form, limiting your creativity.
  • Use a descriptive phrase to convey the purpose of your research efficiently.
  • Most importantly, use critical keywords in the title to increase the discoverability of your article.

example research title qualitative

Resources for Further Reading

In addition to the tips above, there are many resources online that you can use to help write your research title. Here is a list of links that you may find useful as you work on creating an excellent research title:

  • The University of Southern California has a guide specific to social science research papers: http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/title
  • The Journal of European Psychology Students has a blog article focusing on APA-compliant research paper titles: http://blog.efpsa.org/2012/09/01/how-to-write-a-good-title-for-journal-articles/
  • This article by Kristen Hamlin contains a step-by-step approach to writing titles: http://classroom.synonym.com/choose-title-research-paper-4332.html

Are there any tips or tricks you find useful in crafting research titles? Which tip did you find most useful in this article? Leave a comment to let us know!

  • Hairston, M., & Keene, M. 2003. Successful writing . 5th ed. New York: Norton.
  • University of Southern California. 2017. Organizing your social sciences research paper: choosing a title . [Online] Available at: http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/title

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Thank you so much:) Have a nice day!

Thank you so much, it helped me.. God bless..

Thank you for the excellent article and tips for creating a research work, because I always forget about such an essential element as the keywords when forming topics. In particular, I have found a rapid help with the formation of informative and sound titles that also conforms to the standards and requirements.

I am doing a research work on sales girls or shop girls using qualititative method. Basicly I am from Pakistan and writing on the scenario of mycountry. I am really confused about my research title can you kindly give some suggestions and give me an approperaite tilte

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Hi Zubair, Thank you for your question. However, the information you have provided is insufficient for drafting an appropriate title. Information on what exactly you intend to study would be needed in order to draft a meaningful title. Meanwhile, you can try drafting your own title after going through the following articles our website: https://www.enago.com/academy/top-10-tips-on-choosing-an-attractive-research-title/ , https://www.enago.com/academy/writing-a-good-research-title-things-to-avoid/ , https://www.enago.com/academy/write-irresistible-research-paper-title/ We would be happy to give you feedback and suggest changes if required. Did you get a chance to install our free Mobile App? https://www.enago.com/academy/mobile-app/ . Make sure you subscribe to our weekly newsletter https://www.enago.com/academy/subscribe-now/ .

thanks for helping me like this!!

Thank you for this. It helped me improve my research title. I just want to verify to you the title I have just made. “Ensuring the safety: A Quantitative Study of Radio Frequency Identification system among the selected students of ( school’s name ).

(I need your reply asap coz we will be doing the chap. 1 tomorrow. Thank u in advance. 🙂 )

I am actually doing a research paper title. I want to know more further in doing research title. Can you give me some tips on doing a research paper?

Hi Joan, Thank you for your question. We are glad to know that you found our resources useful. Your feedback is very valuable to us. You can try drafting your own title after going through the following articles on our website: https://www.enago.com/academy/top-10-tips-on-choosing-an-attractive-research-title/ , https://www.enago.com/academy/writing-a-good-research-title-things-to-avoid/ , https://www.enago.com/academy/write-irresistible-research-paper-title/

We would be happy to give you feedback and suggest changes if required. Did you get a chance to install our free Mobile App? https://www.enago.com/academy/mobile-app/ . Make sure you subscribe to our weekly newsletter https://www.enago.com/academy/subscribe-now/ .

That really helpful. Thanks alot

Thank you so much. It’s really help me.

Thanks for sharing this tips. Title matters a lot for any article because it contents Keywords of article. It should be eye-catchy. Your article is helpful to select title of any article.

nice blog that you have shared

This blog is very informative for me. Thanks for sharing.

nice information that you have shared

i’m found in selecting my ma thesis title ,so i’m going to do my final research after the proposal approved. Your post help me find good title.

I need help. I need a research title for my study about early mobilization of the mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU. Any suggestions would be highly appreciated.

Thank you for posting your query on the website. When writing manuscripts, too many scholars neglect the research title. This phrase, along with the abstract, is what people will mostly see and read online. Title research of publications shows that the research paper title does matter a lot. Both bibliometrics and altmetrics tracking of citations are now, for better or worse, used to gauge a paper’s “success” for its author(s) and the journal publishing it. Interesting research topics coupled with good or clever yet accurate research titles can draw more attention to your work from peers and the public alike. You can check through the following search results for titles on similar topics: https://www.google.com/search?q=early+mobilization+of+the+mechanically+ventilated+patients+in+the+icu&rlz=1C1GCEU_enIN907IN907&oq=&aqs=chrome.0.69i59.4920093j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8 .

We hope this would be helpful in drafting an attractive title for your research paper.

Please let us know in case of any other queries.

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In case the topic is new research before you’re writing. And then to stand out, you end up being different.and be inclined to highlight yourself.

There are many free directories, and more paid lists.

To be honest your article is informative. I search many site to know about writing but I didn’t get the information I needed. I saw your site and I read it. I got some new information from here. I think some of your tips can be applied to those too! Thank you so very much for such informative and useful content.

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example research title qualitative

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Qualitative research: methods and examples

Last updated

13 April 2023

Reviewed by

Qualitative research involves gathering and evaluating non-numerical information to comprehend concepts, perspectives, and experiences. It’s also helpful for obtaining in-depth insights into a certain subject or generating new research ideas. 

As a result, qualitative research is practical if you want to try anything new or produce new ideas.

There are various ways you can conduct qualitative research. In this article, you'll learn more about qualitative research methodologies, including when you should use them.

Make research less tedious

Dovetail streamlines research to help you uncover and share actionable insights

  • What is qualitative research?

Qualitative research is a broad term describing various research types that rely on asking open-ended questions. Qualitative research investigates “how” or “why” certain phenomena occur. It is about discovering the inherent nature of something.

The primary objective of qualitative research is to understand an individual's ideas, points of view, and feelings. In this way, collecting in-depth knowledge of a specific topic is possible. Knowing your audience's feelings about a particular subject is important for making reasonable research conclusions.

Unlike quantitative research , this approach does not involve collecting numerical, objective data for statistical analysis. Qualitative research is used extensively in education, sociology, health science, history, and anthropology.

  • Types of qualitative research methodology

Typically, qualitative research aims at uncovering the attitudes and behavior of the target audience concerning a specific topic. For example,  “How would you describe your experience as a new Dovetail user?”

Some of the methods for conducting qualitative analysis include:

Focus groups

Hosting a focus group is a popular qualitative research method. It involves obtaining qualitative data from a limited sample of participants. In a moderated version of a focus group, the moderator asks participants a series of predefined questions. They aim to interact and build a group discussion that reveals their preferences, candid thoughts, and experiences.

Unmoderated, online focus groups are increasingly popular because they eliminate the need to interact with people face to face.

Focus groups can be more cost-effective than 1:1 interviews or studying a group in a natural setting and reporting one’s observations.

Focus groups make it possible to gather multiple points of view quickly and efficiently, making them an excellent choice for testing new concepts or conducting market research on a new product.

However, there are some potential drawbacks to this method. It may be unsuitable for sensitive or controversial topics. Participants might be reluctant to disclose their true feelings or respond falsely to conform to what they believe is the socially acceptable answer (known as response bias).

Case study research

A case study is an in-depth evaluation of a specific person, incident, organization, or society. This type of qualitative research has evolved into a broadly applied research method in education, law, business, and the social sciences.

Even though case study research may appear challenging to implement, it is one of the most direct research methods. It requires detailed analysis, broad-ranging data collection methodologies, and a degree of existing knowledge about the subject area under investigation.

Historical model

The historical approach is a distinct research method that deeply examines previous events to better understand the present and forecast future occurrences of the same phenomena. Its primary goal is to evaluate the impacts of history on the present and hence discover comparable patterns in the present to predict future outcomes.

Oral history

This qualitative data collection method involves gathering verbal testimonials from individuals about their personal experiences. It is widely used in historical disciplines to offer counterpoints to established historical facts and narratives. The most common methods of gathering oral history are audio recordings, analysis of auto-biographical text, videos, and interviews.

Qualitative observation

One of the most fundamental, oldest research methods, qualitative observation , is the process through which a researcher collects data using their senses of sight, smell, hearing, etc. It is used to observe the properties of the subject being studied. For example, “What does it look like?” As research methods go, it is subjective and depends on researchers’ first-hand experiences to obtain information, so it is prone to bias. However, it is an excellent way to start a broad line of inquiry like, “What is going on here?”

Record keeping and review

Record keeping uses existing documents and relevant data sources that can be employed for future studies. It is equivalent to visiting the library and going through publications or any other reference material to gather important facts that will likely be used in the research.

Grounded theory approach

The grounded theory approach is a commonly used research method employed across a variety of different studies. It offers a unique way to gather, interpret, and analyze. With this approach, data is gathered and analyzed simultaneously.  Existing analysis frames and codes are disregarded, and data is analyzed inductively, with new codes and frames generated from the research.

Ethnographic research

Ethnography  is a descriptive form of a qualitative study of people and their cultures. Its primary goal is to study people's behavior in their natural environment. This method necessitates that the researcher adapts to their target audience's setting. 

Thereby, you will be able to understand their motivation, lifestyle, ambitions, traditions, and culture in situ. But, the researcher must be prepared to deal with geographical constraints while collecting data i.e., audiences can’t be studied in a laboratory or research facility.

This study can last from a couple of days to several years. Thus, it is time-consuming and complicated, requiring you to have both the time to gather the relevant data as well as the expertise in analyzing, observing, and interpreting data to draw meaningful conclusions.

Narrative framework

A narrative framework is a qualitative research approach that relies on people's written text or visual images. It entails people analyzing these events or narratives to determine certain topics or issues. With this approach, you can understand how people represent themselves and their experiences to a larger audience.

Phenomenological approach

The phenomenological study seeks to investigate the experiences of a particular phenomenon within a group of individuals or communities. It analyzes a certain event through interviews with persons who have witnessed it to determine the connections between their views. Even though this method relies heavily on interviews, other data sources (recorded notes), and observations could be employed to enhance the findings.

  • Qualitative research methods (tools)

Some of the instruments involved in qualitative research include:

Document research: Also known as document analysis because it involves evaluating written documents. These can include personal and non-personal materials like archives, policy publications, yearly reports, diaries, or letters.

Focus groups:  This is where a researcher poses questions and generates conversation among a group of people. The major goal of focus groups is to examine participants' experiences and knowledge, including research into how and why individuals act in various ways.

Secondary study: Involves acquiring existing information from texts, images, audio, or video recordings.

Observations:   This requires thorough field notes on everything you see, hear, or experience. Compared to reported conduct or opinion, this study method can assist you in getting insights into a specific situation and observable behaviors.

Structured interviews :  In this approach, you will directly engage people one-on-one. Interviews are ideal for learning about a person's subjective beliefs, motivations, and encounters.

Surveys:  This is when you distribute questionnaires containing open-ended questions

  • What are common examples of qualitative research?

Everyday examples of qualitative research include:

Conducting a demographic analysis of a business

For instance, suppose you own a business such as a grocery store (or any store) and believe it caters to a broad customer base, but after conducting a demographic analysis, you discover that most of your customers are men.

You could do 1:1 interviews with female customers to learn why they don't shop at your store.

In this case, interviewing potential female customers should clarify why they don't find your shop appealing. It could be because of the products you sell or a need for greater brand awareness, among other possible reasons.

Launching or testing a new product

Suppose you are the product manager at a SaaS company looking to introduce a new product. Focus groups can be an excellent way to determine whether your product is marketable.

In this instance, you could hold a focus group with a sample group drawn from your intended audience. The group will explore the product based on its new features while you ensure adequate data on how users react to the new features. The data you collect will be key to making sales and marketing decisions.

Conducting studies to explain buyers' behaviors

You can also use qualitative research to understand existing buyer behavior better. Marketers analyze historical information linked to their businesses and industries to see when purchasers buy more.

Qualitative research can help you determine when to target new clients and peak seasons to boost sales by investigating the reason behind these behaviors.

  • Qualitative research: data collection

Data collection is gathering information on predetermined variables to gain appropriate answers, test hypotheses, and analyze results. Researchers will collect non-numerical data for qualitative data collection to obtain detailed explanations and draw conclusions.

To get valid findings and achieve a conclusion in qualitative research, researchers must collect comprehensive and multifaceted data.

Qualitative data is usually gathered through interviews or focus groups with videotapes or handwritten notes. If there are recordings, they are transcribed before the data analysis process. Researchers keep separate folders for the recordings acquired from each focus group when collecting qualitative research data to categorize the data.

  • Qualitative research: data analysis

Qualitative data analysis is organizing, examining, and interpreting qualitative data. Its main objective is identifying trends and patterns, responding to research questions, and recommending actions based on the findings. Textual analysis is a popular method for analyzing qualitative data.

Textual analysis differs from other qualitative research approaches in that researchers consider the social circumstances of study participants to decode their words, behaviors, and broader meaning. 

example research title qualitative

Learn more about qualitative research data analysis software

  • When to use qualitative research

Qualitative research is helpful in various situations, particularly when a researcher wants to capture accurate, in-depth insights. 

Here are some instances when qualitative research can be valuable:

Examining your product or service to improve your marketing approach

When researching market segments, demographics, and customer service teams

Identifying client language when you want to design a quantitative survey

When attempting to comprehend your or someone else's strengths and weaknesses

Assessing feelings and beliefs about societal and public policy matters

Collecting information about a business or product's perception

Analyzing your target audience's reactions to marketing efforts

When launching a new product or coming up with a new idea

When seeking to evaluate buyers' purchasing patterns

  • Qualitative research methods vs. quantitative research methods

Qualitative research examines people's ideas and what influences their perception, whereas quantitative research draws conclusions based on numbers and measurements.

Qualitative research is descriptive, and its primary goal is to comprehensively understand people's attitudes, behaviors, and ideas.

In contrast, quantitative research is more restrictive because it relies on numerical data and analyzes statistical data to make decisions. This research method assists researchers in gaining an initial grasp of the subject, which deals with numbers. For instance, the number of customers likely to purchase your products or use your services.

What is the most important feature of qualitative research?

A distinguishing feature of qualitative research is that it’s conducted in a real-world setting instead of a simulated environment. The researcher is examining actual phenomena instead of experimenting with different variables to see what outcomes (data) might result.

Can I use qualitative and quantitative approaches together in a study?

Yes, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches happens all the time and is known as mixed methods research. For example, you could study individuals’ perceived risk in a certain scenario, such as how people rate the safety or riskiness of a given neighborhood. Simultaneously, you could analyze historical data objectively, indicating how safe or dangerous that area has been in the last year. To get the most out of mixed-method research, it’s important to understand the pros and cons of each methodology, so you can create a thoughtfully designed study that will yield compelling results.

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A Practical Guide to Writing Quantitative and Qualitative Research Questions and Hypotheses in Scholarly Articles

Edward barroga.

1 Department of General Education, Graduate School of Nursing Science, St. Luke’s International University, Tokyo, Japan.

Glafera Janet Matanguihan

2 Department of Biological Sciences, Messiah University, Mechanicsburg, PA, USA.

The development of research questions and the subsequent hypotheses are prerequisites to defining the main research purpose and specific objectives of a study. Consequently, these objectives determine the study design and research outcome. The development of research questions is a process based on knowledge of current trends, cutting-edge studies, and technological advances in the research field. Excellent research questions are focused and require a comprehensive literature search and in-depth understanding of the problem being investigated. Initially, research questions may be written as descriptive questions which could be developed into inferential questions. These questions must be specific and concise to provide a clear foundation for developing hypotheses. Hypotheses are more formal predictions about the research outcomes. These specify the possible results that may or may not be expected regarding the relationship between groups. Thus, research questions and hypotheses clarify the main purpose and specific objectives of the study, which in turn dictate the design of the study, its direction, and outcome. Studies developed from good research questions and hypotheses will have trustworthy outcomes with wide-ranging social and health implications.

INTRODUCTION

Scientific research is usually initiated by posing evidenced-based research questions which are then explicitly restated as hypotheses. 1 , 2 The hypotheses provide directions to guide the study, solutions, explanations, and expected results. 3 , 4 Both research questions and hypotheses are essentially formulated based on conventional theories and real-world processes, which allow the inception of novel studies and the ethical testing of ideas. 5 , 6

It is crucial to have knowledge of both quantitative and qualitative research 2 as both types of research involve writing research questions and hypotheses. 7 However, these crucial elements of research are sometimes overlooked; if not overlooked, then framed without the forethought and meticulous attention it needs. Planning and careful consideration are needed when developing quantitative or qualitative research, particularly when conceptualizing research questions and hypotheses. 4

There is a continuing need to support researchers in the creation of innovative research questions and hypotheses, as well as for journal articles that carefully review these elements. 1 When research questions and hypotheses are not carefully thought of, unethical studies and poor outcomes usually ensue. Carefully formulated research questions and hypotheses define well-founded objectives, which in turn determine the appropriate design, course, and outcome of the study. This article then aims to discuss in detail the various aspects of crafting research questions and hypotheses, with the goal of guiding researchers as they develop their own. Examples from the authors and peer-reviewed scientific articles in the healthcare field are provided to illustrate key points.

DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIP OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES

A research question is what a study aims to answer after data analysis and interpretation. The answer is written in length in the discussion section of the paper. Thus, the research question gives a preview of the different parts and variables of the study meant to address the problem posed in the research question. 1 An excellent research question clarifies the research writing while facilitating understanding of the research topic, objective, scope, and limitations of the study. 5

On the other hand, a research hypothesis is an educated statement of an expected outcome. This statement is based on background research and current knowledge. 8 , 9 The research hypothesis makes a specific prediction about a new phenomenon 10 or a formal statement on the expected relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable. 3 , 11 It provides a tentative answer to the research question to be tested or explored. 4

Hypotheses employ reasoning to predict a theory-based outcome. 10 These can also be developed from theories by focusing on components of theories that have not yet been observed. 10 The validity of hypotheses is often based on the testability of the prediction made in a reproducible experiment. 8

Conversely, hypotheses can also be rephrased as research questions. Several hypotheses based on existing theories and knowledge may be needed to answer a research question. Developing ethical research questions and hypotheses creates a research design that has logical relationships among variables. These relationships serve as a solid foundation for the conduct of the study. 4 , 11 Haphazardly constructed research questions can result in poorly formulated hypotheses and improper study designs, leading to unreliable results. Thus, the formulations of relevant research questions and verifiable hypotheses are crucial when beginning research. 12

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES

Excellent research questions are specific and focused. These integrate collective data and observations to confirm or refute the subsequent hypotheses. Well-constructed hypotheses are based on previous reports and verify the research context. These are realistic, in-depth, sufficiently complex, and reproducible. More importantly, these hypotheses can be addressed and tested. 13

There are several characteristics of well-developed hypotheses. Good hypotheses are 1) empirically testable 7 , 10 , 11 , 13 ; 2) backed by preliminary evidence 9 ; 3) testable by ethical research 7 , 9 ; 4) based on original ideas 9 ; 5) have evidenced-based logical reasoning 10 ; and 6) can be predicted. 11 Good hypotheses can infer ethical and positive implications, indicating the presence of a relationship or effect relevant to the research theme. 7 , 11 These are initially developed from a general theory and branch into specific hypotheses by deductive reasoning. In the absence of a theory to base the hypotheses, inductive reasoning based on specific observations or findings form more general hypotheses. 10

TYPES OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES

Research questions and hypotheses are developed according to the type of research, which can be broadly classified into quantitative and qualitative research. We provide a summary of the types of research questions and hypotheses under quantitative and qualitative research categories in Table 1 .

Research questions in quantitative research

In quantitative research, research questions inquire about the relationships among variables being investigated and are usually framed at the start of the study. These are precise and typically linked to the subject population, dependent and independent variables, and research design. 1 Research questions may also attempt to describe the behavior of a population in relation to one or more variables, or describe the characteristics of variables to be measured ( descriptive research questions ). 1 , 5 , 14 These questions may also aim to discover differences between groups within the context of an outcome variable ( comparative research questions ), 1 , 5 , 14 or elucidate trends and interactions among variables ( relationship research questions ). 1 , 5 We provide examples of descriptive, comparative, and relationship research questions in quantitative research in Table 2 .

Hypotheses in quantitative research

In quantitative research, hypotheses predict the expected relationships among variables. 15 Relationships among variables that can be predicted include 1) between a single dependent variable and a single independent variable ( simple hypothesis ) or 2) between two or more independent and dependent variables ( complex hypothesis ). 4 , 11 Hypotheses may also specify the expected direction to be followed and imply an intellectual commitment to a particular outcome ( directional hypothesis ) 4 . On the other hand, hypotheses may not predict the exact direction and are used in the absence of a theory, or when findings contradict previous studies ( non-directional hypothesis ). 4 In addition, hypotheses can 1) define interdependency between variables ( associative hypothesis ), 4 2) propose an effect on the dependent variable from manipulation of the independent variable ( causal hypothesis ), 4 3) state a negative relationship between two variables ( null hypothesis ), 4 , 11 , 15 4) replace the working hypothesis if rejected ( alternative hypothesis ), 15 explain the relationship of phenomena to possibly generate a theory ( working hypothesis ), 11 5) involve quantifiable variables that can be tested statistically ( statistical hypothesis ), 11 6) or express a relationship whose interlinks can be verified logically ( logical hypothesis ). 11 We provide examples of simple, complex, directional, non-directional, associative, causal, null, alternative, working, statistical, and logical hypotheses in quantitative research, as well as the definition of quantitative hypothesis-testing research in Table 3 .

Research questions in qualitative research

Unlike research questions in quantitative research, research questions in qualitative research are usually continuously reviewed and reformulated. The central question and associated subquestions are stated more than the hypotheses. 15 The central question broadly explores a complex set of factors surrounding the central phenomenon, aiming to present the varied perspectives of participants. 15

There are varied goals for which qualitative research questions are developed. These questions can function in several ways, such as to 1) identify and describe existing conditions ( contextual research question s); 2) describe a phenomenon ( descriptive research questions ); 3) assess the effectiveness of existing methods, protocols, theories, or procedures ( evaluation research questions ); 4) examine a phenomenon or analyze the reasons or relationships between subjects or phenomena ( explanatory research questions ); or 5) focus on unknown aspects of a particular topic ( exploratory research questions ). 5 In addition, some qualitative research questions provide new ideas for the development of theories and actions ( generative research questions ) or advance specific ideologies of a position ( ideological research questions ). 1 Other qualitative research questions may build on a body of existing literature and become working guidelines ( ethnographic research questions ). Research questions may also be broadly stated without specific reference to the existing literature or a typology of questions ( phenomenological research questions ), may be directed towards generating a theory of some process ( grounded theory questions ), or may address a description of the case and the emerging themes ( qualitative case study questions ). 15 We provide examples of contextual, descriptive, evaluation, explanatory, exploratory, generative, ideological, ethnographic, phenomenological, grounded theory, and qualitative case study research questions in qualitative research in Table 4 , and the definition of qualitative hypothesis-generating research in Table 5 .

Qualitative studies usually pose at least one central research question and several subquestions starting with How or What . These research questions use exploratory verbs such as explore or describe . These also focus on one central phenomenon of interest, and may mention the participants and research site. 15

Hypotheses in qualitative research

Hypotheses in qualitative research are stated in the form of a clear statement concerning the problem to be investigated. Unlike in quantitative research where hypotheses are usually developed to be tested, qualitative research can lead to both hypothesis-testing and hypothesis-generating outcomes. 2 When studies require both quantitative and qualitative research questions, this suggests an integrative process between both research methods wherein a single mixed-methods research question can be developed. 1

FRAMEWORKS FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES

Research questions followed by hypotheses should be developed before the start of the study. 1 , 12 , 14 It is crucial to develop feasible research questions on a topic that is interesting to both the researcher and the scientific community. This can be achieved by a meticulous review of previous and current studies to establish a novel topic. Specific areas are subsequently focused on to generate ethical research questions. The relevance of the research questions is evaluated in terms of clarity of the resulting data, specificity of the methodology, objectivity of the outcome, depth of the research, and impact of the study. 1 , 5 These aspects constitute the FINER criteria (i.e., Feasible, Interesting, Novel, Ethical, and Relevant). 1 Clarity and effectiveness are achieved if research questions meet the FINER criteria. In addition to the FINER criteria, Ratan et al. described focus, complexity, novelty, feasibility, and measurability for evaluating the effectiveness of research questions. 14

The PICOT and PEO frameworks are also used when developing research questions. 1 The following elements are addressed in these frameworks, PICOT: P-population/patients/problem, I-intervention or indicator being studied, C-comparison group, O-outcome of interest, and T-timeframe of the study; PEO: P-population being studied, E-exposure to preexisting conditions, and O-outcome of interest. 1 Research questions are also considered good if these meet the “FINERMAPS” framework: Feasible, Interesting, Novel, Ethical, Relevant, Manageable, Appropriate, Potential value/publishable, and Systematic. 14

As we indicated earlier, research questions and hypotheses that are not carefully formulated result in unethical studies or poor outcomes. To illustrate this, we provide some examples of ambiguous research question and hypotheses that result in unclear and weak research objectives in quantitative research ( Table 6 ) 16 and qualitative research ( Table 7 ) 17 , and how to transform these ambiguous research question(s) and hypothesis(es) into clear and good statements.

a These statements were composed for comparison and illustrative purposes only.

b These statements are direct quotes from Higashihara and Horiuchi. 16

a This statement is a direct quote from Shimoda et al. 17

The other statements were composed for comparison and illustrative purposes only.

CONSTRUCTING RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES

To construct effective research questions and hypotheses, it is very important to 1) clarify the background and 2) identify the research problem at the outset of the research, within a specific timeframe. 9 Then, 3) review or conduct preliminary research to collect all available knowledge about the possible research questions by studying theories and previous studies. 18 Afterwards, 4) construct research questions to investigate the research problem. Identify variables to be accessed from the research questions 4 and make operational definitions of constructs from the research problem and questions. Thereafter, 5) construct specific deductive or inductive predictions in the form of hypotheses. 4 Finally, 6) state the study aims . This general flow for constructing effective research questions and hypotheses prior to conducting research is shown in Fig. 1 .

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Research questions are used more frequently in qualitative research than objectives or hypotheses. 3 These questions seek to discover, understand, explore or describe experiences by asking “What” or “How.” The questions are open-ended to elicit a description rather than to relate variables or compare groups. The questions are continually reviewed, reformulated, and changed during the qualitative study. 3 Research questions are also used more frequently in survey projects than hypotheses in experiments in quantitative research to compare variables and their relationships.

Hypotheses are constructed based on the variables identified and as an if-then statement, following the template, ‘If a specific action is taken, then a certain outcome is expected.’ At this stage, some ideas regarding expectations from the research to be conducted must be drawn. 18 Then, the variables to be manipulated (independent) and influenced (dependent) are defined. 4 Thereafter, the hypothesis is stated and refined, and reproducible data tailored to the hypothesis are identified, collected, and analyzed. 4 The hypotheses must be testable and specific, 18 and should describe the variables and their relationships, the specific group being studied, and the predicted research outcome. 18 Hypotheses construction involves a testable proposition to be deduced from theory, and independent and dependent variables to be separated and measured separately. 3 Therefore, good hypotheses must be based on good research questions constructed at the start of a study or trial. 12

In summary, research questions are constructed after establishing the background of the study. Hypotheses are then developed based on the research questions. Thus, it is crucial to have excellent research questions to generate superior hypotheses. In turn, these would determine the research objectives and the design of the study, and ultimately, the outcome of the research. 12 Algorithms for building research questions and hypotheses are shown in Fig. 2 for quantitative research and in Fig. 3 for qualitative research.

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EXAMPLES OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS FROM PUBLISHED ARTICLES

  • EXAMPLE 1. Descriptive research question (quantitative research)
  • - Presents research variables to be assessed (distinct phenotypes and subphenotypes)
  • “BACKGROUND: Since COVID-19 was identified, its clinical and biological heterogeneity has been recognized. Identifying COVID-19 phenotypes might help guide basic, clinical, and translational research efforts.
  • RESEARCH QUESTION: Does the clinical spectrum of patients with COVID-19 contain distinct phenotypes and subphenotypes? ” 19
  • EXAMPLE 2. Relationship research question (quantitative research)
  • - Shows interactions between dependent variable (static postural control) and independent variable (peripheral visual field loss)
  • “Background: Integration of visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensations contributes to postural control. People with peripheral visual field loss have serious postural instability. However, the directional specificity of postural stability and sensory reweighting caused by gradual peripheral visual field loss remain unclear.
  • Research question: What are the effects of peripheral visual field loss on static postural control ?” 20
  • EXAMPLE 3. Comparative research question (quantitative research)
  • - Clarifies the difference among groups with an outcome variable (patients enrolled in COMPERA with moderate PH or severe PH in COPD) and another group without the outcome variable (patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH))
  • “BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in COPD is a poorly investigated clinical condition.
  • RESEARCH QUESTION: Which factors determine the outcome of PH in COPD?
  • STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the characteristics and outcome of patients enrolled in the Comparative, Prospective Registry of Newly Initiated Therapies for Pulmonary Hypertension (COMPERA) with moderate or severe PH in COPD as defined during the 6th PH World Symposium who received medical therapy for PH and compared them with patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) .” 21
  • EXAMPLE 4. Exploratory research question (qualitative research)
  • - Explores areas that have not been fully investigated (perspectives of families and children who receive care in clinic-based child obesity treatment) to have a deeper understanding of the research problem
  • “Problem: Interventions for children with obesity lead to only modest improvements in BMI and long-term outcomes, and data are limited on the perspectives of families of children with obesity in clinic-based treatment. This scoping review seeks to answer the question: What is known about the perspectives of families and children who receive care in clinic-based child obesity treatment? This review aims to explore the scope of perspectives reported by families of children with obesity who have received individualized outpatient clinic-based obesity treatment.” 22
  • EXAMPLE 5. Relationship research question (quantitative research)
  • - Defines interactions between dependent variable (use of ankle strategies) and independent variable (changes in muscle tone)
  • “Background: To maintain an upright standing posture against external disturbances, the human body mainly employs two types of postural control strategies: “ankle strategy” and “hip strategy.” While it has been reported that the magnitude of the disturbance alters the use of postural control strategies, it has not been elucidated how the level of muscle tone, one of the crucial parameters of bodily function, determines the use of each strategy. We have previously confirmed using forward dynamics simulations of human musculoskeletal models that an increased muscle tone promotes the use of ankle strategies. The objective of the present study was to experimentally evaluate a hypothesis: an increased muscle tone promotes the use of ankle strategies. Research question: Do changes in the muscle tone affect the use of ankle strategies ?” 23

EXAMPLES OF HYPOTHESES IN PUBLISHED ARTICLES

  • EXAMPLE 1. Working hypothesis (quantitative research)
  • - A hypothesis that is initially accepted for further research to produce a feasible theory
  • “As fever may have benefit in shortening the duration of viral illness, it is plausible to hypothesize that the antipyretic efficacy of ibuprofen may be hindering the benefits of a fever response when taken during the early stages of COVID-19 illness .” 24
  • “In conclusion, it is plausible to hypothesize that the antipyretic efficacy of ibuprofen may be hindering the benefits of a fever response . The difference in perceived safety of these agents in COVID-19 illness could be related to the more potent efficacy to reduce fever with ibuprofen compared to acetaminophen. Compelling data on the benefit of fever warrant further research and review to determine when to treat or withhold ibuprofen for early stage fever for COVID-19 and other related viral illnesses .” 24
  • EXAMPLE 2. Exploratory hypothesis (qualitative research)
  • - Explores particular areas deeper to clarify subjective experience and develop a formal hypothesis potentially testable in a future quantitative approach
  • “We hypothesized that when thinking about a past experience of help-seeking, a self distancing prompt would cause increased help-seeking intentions and more favorable help-seeking outcome expectations .” 25
  • “Conclusion
  • Although a priori hypotheses were not supported, further research is warranted as results indicate the potential for using self-distancing approaches to increasing help-seeking among some people with depressive symptomatology.” 25
  • EXAMPLE 3. Hypothesis-generating research to establish a framework for hypothesis testing (qualitative research)
  • “We hypothesize that compassionate care is beneficial for patients (better outcomes), healthcare systems and payers (lower costs), and healthcare providers (lower burnout). ” 26
  • Compassionomics is the branch of knowledge and scientific study of the effects of compassionate healthcare. Our main hypotheses are that compassionate healthcare is beneficial for (1) patients, by improving clinical outcomes, (2) healthcare systems and payers, by supporting financial sustainability, and (3) HCPs, by lowering burnout and promoting resilience and well-being. The purpose of this paper is to establish a scientific framework for testing the hypotheses above . If these hypotheses are confirmed through rigorous research, compassionomics will belong in the science of evidence-based medicine, with major implications for all healthcare domains.” 26
  • EXAMPLE 4. Statistical hypothesis (quantitative research)
  • - An assumption is made about the relationship among several population characteristics ( gender differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of adults with ADHD ). Validity is tested by statistical experiment or analysis ( chi-square test, Students t-test, and logistic regression analysis)
  • “Our research investigated gender differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of adults with ADHD in a Japanese clinical sample. Due to unique Japanese cultural ideals and expectations of women's behavior that are in opposition to ADHD symptoms, we hypothesized that women with ADHD experience more difficulties and present more dysfunctions than men . We tested the following hypotheses: first, women with ADHD have more comorbidities than men with ADHD; second, women with ADHD experience more social hardships than men, such as having less full-time employment and being more likely to be divorced.” 27
  • “Statistical Analysis
  • ( text omitted ) Between-gender comparisons were made using the chi-squared test for categorical variables and Students t-test for continuous variables…( text omitted ). A logistic regression analysis was performed for employment status, marital status, and comorbidity to evaluate the independent effects of gender on these dependent variables.” 27

EXAMPLES OF HYPOTHESIS AS WRITTEN IN PUBLISHED ARTICLES IN RELATION TO OTHER PARTS

  • EXAMPLE 1. Background, hypotheses, and aims are provided
  • “Pregnant women need skilled care during pregnancy and childbirth, but that skilled care is often delayed in some countries …( text omitted ). The focused antenatal care (FANC) model of WHO recommends that nurses provide information or counseling to all pregnant women …( text omitted ). Job aids are visual support materials that provide the right kind of information using graphics and words in a simple and yet effective manner. When nurses are not highly trained or have many work details to attend to, these job aids can serve as a content reminder for the nurses and can be used for educating their patients (Jennings, Yebadokpo, Affo, & Agbogbe, 2010) ( text omitted ). Importantly, additional evidence is needed to confirm how job aids can further improve the quality of ANC counseling by health workers in maternal care …( text omitted )” 28
  • “ This has led us to hypothesize that the quality of ANC counseling would be better if supported by job aids. Consequently, a better quality of ANC counseling is expected to produce higher levels of awareness concerning the danger signs of pregnancy and a more favorable impression of the caring behavior of nurses .” 28
  • “This study aimed to examine the differences in the responses of pregnant women to a job aid-supported intervention during ANC visit in terms of 1) their understanding of the danger signs of pregnancy and 2) their impression of the caring behaviors of nurses to pregnant women in rural Tanzania.” 28
  • EXAMPLE 2. Background, hypotheses, and aims are provided
  • “We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate and compare changes in salivary cortisol and oxytocin levels of first-time pregnant women between experimental and control groups. The women in the experimental group touched and held an infant for 30 min (experimental intervention protocol), whereas those in the control group watched a DVD movie of an infant (control intervention protocol). The primary outcome was salivary cortisol level and the secondary outcome was salivary oxytocin level.” 29
  • “ We hypothesize that at 30 min after touching and holding an infant, the salivary cortisol level will significantly decrease and the salivary oxytocin level will increase in the experimental group compared with the control group .” 29
  • EXAMPLE 3. Background, aim, and hypothesis are provided
  • “In countries where the maternal mortality ratio remains high, antenatal education to increase Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness (BPCR) is considered one of the top priorities [1]. BPCR includes birth plans during the antenatal period, such as the birthplace, birth attendant, transportation, health facility for complications, expenses, and birth materials, as well as family coordination to achieve such birth plans. In Tanzania, although increasing, only about half of all pregnant women attend an antenatal clinic more than four times [4]. Moreover, the information provided during antenatal care (ANC) is insufficient. In the resource-poor settings, antenatal group education is a potential approach because of the limited time for individual counseling at antenatal clinics.” 30
  • “This study aimed to evaluate an antenatal group education program among pregnant women and their families with respect to birth-preparedness and maternal and infant outcomes in rural villages of Tanzania.” 30
  • “ The study hypothesis was if Tanzanian pregnant women and their families received a family-oriented antenatal group education, they would (1) have a higher level of BPCR, (2) attend antenatal clinic four or more times, (3) give birth in a health facility, (4) have less complications of women at birth, and (5) have less complications and deaths of infants than those who did not receive the education .” 30

Research questions and hypotheses are crucial components to any type of research, whether quantitative or qualitative. These questions should be developed at the very beginning of the study. Excellent research questions lead to superior hypotheses, which, like a compass, set the direction of research, and can often determine the successful conduct of the study. Many research studies have floundered because the development of research questions and subsequent hypotheses was not given the thought and meticulous attention needed. The development of research questions and hypotheses is an iterative process based on extensive knowledge of the literature and insightful grasp of the knowledge gap. Focused, concise, and specific research questions provide a strong foundation for constructing hypotheses which serve as formal predictions about the research outcomes. Research questions and hypotheses are crucial elements of research that should not be overlooked. They should be carefully thought of and constructed when planning research. This avoids unethical studies and poor outcomes by defining well-founded objectives that determine the design, course, and outcome of the study.

Disclosure: The authors have no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.

Author Contributions:

  • Conceptualization: Barroga E, Matanguihan GJ.
  • Methodology: Barroga E, Matanguihan GJ.
  • Writing - original draft: Barroga E, Matanguihan GJ.
  • Writing - review & editing: Barroga E, Matanguihan GJ.

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  • Knowledge Base
  • Methodology
  • What Is Qualitative Research? | Methods & Examples

What Is Qualitative Research? | Methods & Examples

Published on 4 April 2022 by Pritha Bhandari . Revised on 30 January 2023.

Qualitative research involves collecting and analysing non-numerical data (e.g., text, video, or audio) to understand concepts, opinions, or experiences. It can be used to gather in-depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas for research.

Qualitative research is the opposite of quantitative research , which involves collecting and analysing numerical data for statistical analysis.

Qualitative research is commonly used in the humanities and social sciences, in subjects such as anthropology, sociology, education, health sciences, and history.

  • How does social media shape body image in teenagers?
  • How do children and adults interpret healthy eating in the UK?
  • What factors influence employee retention in a large organisation?
  • How is anxiety experienced around the world?
  • How can teachers integrate social issues into science curriculums?

Table of contents

Approaches to qualitative research, qualitative research methods, qualitative data analysis, advantages of qualitative research, disadvantages of qualitative research, frequently asked questions about qualitative research.

Qualitative research is used to understand how people experience the world. While there are many approaches to qualitative research, they tend to be flexible and focus on retaining rich meaning when interpreting data.

Common approaches include grounded theory, ethnography, action research, phenomenological research, and narrative research. They share some similarities, but emphasise different aims and perspectives.

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Each of the research approaches involve using one or more data collection methods . These are some of the most common qualitative methods:

  • Observations: recording what you have seen, heard, or encountered in detailed field notes.
  • Interviews:  personally asking people questions in one-on-one conversations.
  • Focus groups: asking questions and generating discussion among a group of people.
  • Surveys : distributing questionnaires with open-ended questions.
  • Secondary research: collecting existing data in the form of texts, images, audio or video recordings, etc.
  • You take field notes with observations and reflect on your own experiences of the company culture.
  • You distribute open-ended surveys to employees across all the company’s offices by email to find out if the culture varies across locations.
  • You conduct in-depth interviews with employees in your office to learn about their experiences and perspectives in greater detail.

Qualitative researchers often consider themselves ‘instruments’ in research because all observations, interpretations and analyses are filtered through their own personal lens.

For this reason, when writing up your methodology for qualitative research, it’s important to reflect on your approach and to thoroughly explain the choices you made in collecting and analysing the data.

Qualitative data can take the form of texts, photos, videos and audio. For example, you might be working with interview transcripts, survey responses, fieldnotes, or recordings from natural settings.

Most types of qualitative data analysis share the same five steps:

  • Prepare and organise your data. This may mean transcribing interviews or typing up fieldnotes.
  • Review and explore your data. Examine the data for patterns or repeated ideas that emerge.
  • Develop a data coding system. Based on your initial ideas, establish a set of codes that you can apply to categorise your data.
  • Assign codes to the data. For example, in qualitative survey analysis, this may mean going through each participant’s responses and tagging them with codes in a spreadsheet. As you go through your data, you can create new codes to add to your system if necessary.
  • Identify recurring themes. Link codes together into cohesive, overarching themes.

There are several specific approaches to analysing qualitative data. Although these methods share similar processes, they emphasise different concepts.

Qualitative research often tries to preserve the voice and perspective of participants and can be adjusted as new research questions arise. Qualitative research is good for:

  • Flexibility

The data collection and analysis process can be adapted as new ideas or patterns emerge. They are not rigidly decided beforehand.

  • Natural settings

Data collection occurs in real-world contexts or in naturalistic ways.

  • Meaningful insights

Detailed descriptions of people’s experiences, feelings and perceptions can be used in designing, testing or improving systems or products.

  • Generation of new ideas

Open-ended responses mean that researchers can uncover novel problems or opportunities that they wouldn’t have thought of otherwise.

Researchers must consider practical and theoretical limitations in analysing and interpreting their data. Qualitative research suffers from:

  • Unreliability

The real-world setting often makes qualitative research unreliable because of uncontrolled factors that affect the data.

  • Subjectivity

Due to the researcher’s primary role in analysing and interpreting data, qualitative research cannot be replicated . The researcher decides what is important and what is irrelevant in data analysis, so interpretations of the same data can vary greatly.

  • Limited generalisability

Small samples are often used to gather detailed data about specific contexts. Despite rigorous analysis procedures, it is difficult to draw generalisable conclusions because the data may be biased and unrepresentative of the wider population .

  • Labour-intensive

Although software can be used to manage and record large amounts of text, data analysis often has to be checked or performed manually.

Quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative research deals with words and meanings.

Quantitative methods allow you to test a hypothesis by systematically collecting and analysing data, while qualitative methods allow you to explore ideas and experiences in depth.

There are five common approaches to qualitative research :

  • Grounded theory involves collecting data in order to develop new theories.
  • Ethnography involves immersing yourself in a group or organisation to understand its culture.
  • Narrative research involves interpreting stories to understand how people make sense of their experiences and perceptions.
  • Phenomenological research involves investigating phenomena through people’s lived experiences.
  • Action research links theory and practice in several cycles to drive innovative changes.

Data collection is the systematic process by which observations or measurements are gathered in research. It is used in many different contexts by academics, governments, businesses, and other organisations.

There are various approaches to qualitative data analysis , but they all share five steps in common:

  • Prepare and organise your data.
  • Review and explore your data.
  • Develop a data coding system.
  • Assign codes to the data.
  • Identify recurring themes.

The specifics of each step depend on the focus of the analysis. Some common approaches include textual analysis , thematic analysis , and discourse analysis .

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How to Make a Research Paper Title with Examples

example research title qualitative

What is a research paper title and why does it matter?

A research paper title summarizes the aim and purpose of your research study. Making a title for your research is one of the most important decisions when writing an article to publish in journals. The research title is the first thing that journal editors and reviewers see when they look at your paper and the only piece of information that fellow researchers will see in a database or search engine query. Good titles that are concise and contain all the relevant terms have been shown to increase citation counts and Altmetric scores .

Therefore, when you title research work, make sure it captures all of the relevant aspects of your study, including the specific topic and problem being investigated. It also should present these elements in a way that is accessible and will captivate readers. Follow these steps to learn how to make a good research title for your work.

How to Make a Research Paper Title in 5 Steps

You might wonder how you are supposed to pick a title from all the content that your manuscript contains—how are you supposed to choose? What will make your research paper title come up in search engines and what will make the people in your field read it? 

In a nutshell, your research title should accurately capture what you have done, it should sound interesting to the people who work on the same or a similar topic, and it should contain the important title keywords that other researchers use when looking for literature in databases. To make the title writing process as simple as possible, we have broken it down into 5 simple steps.

Step 1: Answer some key questions about your research paper

What does your paper seek to answer and what does it accomplish? Try to answer these questions as briefly as possible. You can create these questions by going through each section of your paper and finding the MOST relevant information to make a research title.

Step 2: Identify research study keywords

Now that you have answers to your research questions, find the most important parts of these responses and make these your study keywords. Note that you should only choose the most important terms for your keywords–journals usually request anywhere from 3 to 8 keywords maximum.

Step 3: Research title writing: use these keywords

“We employed a case study of 60 liver transplant patients around the US aged 20-50 years to assess how waiting list volume affects the outcomes of liver transplantation in patients; results indicate a positive correlation between increased waiting list volume and negative prognosis after the transplant procedure.”

The sentence above is clearly much too long for a research paper title. This is why you will trim and polish your title in the next two steps.

Step 4: Create a working research paper title

To create a working title, remove elements that make it a complete “sentence” but keep everything that is important to what the study is about. Delete all unnecessary and redundant words that are not central to the study or that researchers would most likely not use in a database search.

“ We employed a case study of 60 liver transplant patients around the US aged 20-50 years to assess how the waiting list volume affects the outcome of liver transplantation in patients ; results indicate a positive correlation between increased waiting list volume and a negative prognosis after transplant procedure ”

Now shift some words around for proper syntax and rephrase it a bit to shorten the length and make it leaner and more natural. What you are left with is:

“A case study of 60 liver transplant patients around the US aged 20-50 years assessing the impact of waiting list volume on outcome of transplantation and showing a positive correlation between increased waiting list volume and a negative prognosis” (Word Count: 38)

This text is getting closer to what we want in a research title, which is just the most important information. But note that the word count for this working title is still 38 words, whereas the average length of published journal article titles is 16 words or fewer. Therefore, we should eliminate some words and phrases that are not essential to this title.

Step 5: Remove any nonessential words and phrases from your title

Because the number of patients studied and the exact outcome are not the most essential parts of this paper, remove these elements first:

 “A case study of 60 liver transplant patients around the US aged 20-50 years assessing the impact of waiting list volume on outcomes of transplantation and showing a positive correlation between increased waiting list volume and a negative prognosis” (Word Count: 19)

In addition, the methods used in a study are not usually the most searched-for keywords in databases and represent additional details that you may want to remove to make your title leaner. So what is left is:

“Assessing the impact of waiting list volume on outcome and prognosis in liver transplantation patients” (Word Count: 15)

In this final version of the title, one can immediately recognize the subject and what objectives the study aims to achieve. Note that the most important terms appear at the beginning and end of the title: “Assessing,” which is the main action of the study, is placed at the beginning; and “liver transplantation patients,” the specific subject of the study, is placed at the end.

This will aid significantly in your research paper title being found in search engines and database queries, which means that a lot more researchers will be able to locate your article once it is published. In fact, a 2014 review of more than 150,000 papers submitted to the UK’s Research Excellence Framework (REF) database found the style of a paper’s title impacted the number of citations it would typically receive. In most disciplines, articles with shorter, more concise titles yielded more citations.

Adding a Research Paper Subtitle

If your title might require a subtitle to provide more immediate details about your methodology or sample, you can do this by adding this information after a colon:

“ : a case study of US adult patients ages 20-25”

If we abide strictly by our word count rule this may not be necessary or recommended. But every journal has its own standard formatting and style guidelines for research paper titles, so it is a good idea to be aware of the specific journal author instructions , not just when you write the manuscript but also to decide how to create a good title for it.

Research Paper Title Examples

The title examples in the following table illustrate how a title can be interesting but incomplete, complete by uninteresting, complete and interesting but too informal in tone, or some other combination of these. A good research paper title should meet all the requirements in the four columns below.

Tips on Formulating a Good Research Paper Title

In addition to the steps given above, there are a few other important things you want to keep in mind when it comes to how to write a research paper title, regarding formatting, word count, and content:

  • Write the title after you’ve written your paper and abstract
  • Include all of the essential terms in your paper
  • Keep it short and to the point (~16 words or fewer)
  • Avoid unnecessary jargon and abbreviations
  • Use keywords that capture the content of your paper
  • Never include a period at the end—your title is NOT a sentence

Research Paper Writing Resources

We hope this article has been helpful in teaching you how to craft your research paper title. But you might still want to dig deeper into different journal title formats and categories that might be more suitable for specific article types or need help with writing a cover letter for your manuscript submission.

In addition to getting English proofreading services , including paper editing services , before submission to journals, be sure to visit our academic resources papers. Here you can find dozens of articles on manuscript writing, from drafting an outline to finding a target journal to submit to.

TheHighSchooler

100 Qualitative Research Titles For High School Students

Are you brainstorming for excellent qualitative research titles for your high school curriculum? If yes, then this blog is for you! Academic life throws a lot of thesis and qualitative research papers and essays at you. Although thesis and essays may not be much of a hassle. However, when it comes to your research paper title, you must ensure that it is qualitative, and not quantitative. 

Qualitative research is primarily focused on obtaining data through case studies, artifacts, interviews, documentaries, and other first-hand observations. It focuses more on these natural settings rather than statistics and numbers. If you are finding it difficult to find a topic, then worry not because the high schooler has this blog post curated for you with 100 qualitative research titles that can help you get started!

Qualitative research prompts for high schoolers

Qualitative research papers are written by gathering and analyzing non-numerical data. Generally, teachers allot a list of topics that you can choose from. However, if you aren’t given the list, you need to search for a topic for yourself.

Qualitative research topics mostly deal with the happenings in society and nature. There are endless topics that you can choose from. We have curated a list of 100 qualitative research titles for you to choose from. Read on and pick the one that best aligns with your interests!

  • Why is there a pressing need for wildlife conservation?
  • Discuss the impacts of climate change on future generations. 
  • Discuss the impact of overpopulation on sustainable resources.
  • Discuss the factors considered while establishing the first 10 engineering universities in the world.
  • What is the contribution of AI to emotional intelligence? Explain. 
  • List out the effective methods to reduce the occurrences of fraud through cybercrimes.
  • With case studies, discuss some of the greatest movements in history leading to independence. 
  • Discuss real-life scenarios of gender-based discrimination. 
  • Discuss disparities in income and opportunities in developing nations. 
  • How to deal with those dealing with ADHD?
  • Describe how life was before the invention of the air conditioner. 
  • Explain the increasing applications of clinical psychology. 
  • What is psychology? Explain the career opportunities it brings forth for youngsters.
  • Covid lockdown: Is homeschooling the new way to school children?
  • What is the role of army dogs? How are they trained for the role?
  • What is feminism to you? Mention a feminist and his/her contributions to making the world a better place for women.  
  • What is true leadership quality according to you? Explain with a case study of a famous personality you admire for their leadership skills. 
  • Is wearing a mask effective in preventing covid-19? Explain the other practices that can help one prevent covid-19. 
  • Explain how teachers play an important role in helping students with disabilities improve their learning.
  • Is ‘E business’ taking over traditional methods of carrying out business?
  • What are the implications of allowing high schoolers to use smartphones in classes?
  • Does stress have an effect on human behavior?
  • Explain the link between poverty and education. 
  • With case studies, explain the political instability in developing nations.
  • Are ‘reality television shows’ scripted or do they showcase reality?
  • Online vs Offline teaching: which method is more effective and how?
  • Does there exist an underlying correlation between education and success? Explain with case studies.
  • Explain the social stigma associated with menstruation. 
  • Are OTT entertainment platforms like Netflix and Amazon Prime beneficial in any other way?
  • Does being physically active help reverse type 2 diabetes?
  • Does pop culture influence today’s youth and their behavior?
  • ‘A friend in need is a friend in deed.’ Explain with case studies of famous personalities. 
  • Do books have greater importance in the lives of children from weaker economic backgrounds? Explain in detail.
  • Give an overview of the rise of spoken arts. 
  • Explain the problem of food insecurity in developing nations.
  • How related are Windows and Apple products?
  • Explore the methods used in schools to promote cultural diversity. 
  • Has social media replaced the physical social engagement of children in society?
  • Give an overview of allopathic medicine in treating mental disorders. 
  • Explain if and how willpower plays a role in overcoming difficulties in life. 
  • Are third-world countries seeing a decline in academic pursuit? Explain with real-life scenarios. 
  • Can animals predict earthquakes in advance? Explain which animals have this ability and how they do it. 
  • Discuss if the education system in America needs to improve. If yes, list out how this can be achieved.
  • Discuss democracy as a government of the people, by the people, and for the people.’
  • Discuss the increasing rate of attention deficit disorder among children.
  • Explain fun games that can help boost the morale of kids with dyslexia. 
  • Explain the causes of youth unemployment.
  • Explain some of the ways you think might help in making differently-abled students feel inclusive in the mainstream.
  • Explain in detail the challenges faced by students with special needs to feel included when it comes to accessibility to education.
  • Discuss the inefficiency of the healthcare system brought about by the covid-19 pandemic. 
  • Does living in hostels instill better life skills among students than those who are brought up at home? Explain in detail. 
  • What is Advanced Traffic Management? Explain the success cases of countries that have deployed it.  
  • Elaborate on the ethnic and socioeconomic reasons leading to poor school attendance in third-world nations.
  • Do preschoolers benefit from being read to by their parents? Discuss in detail.
  • What is the significance of oral learning in classrooms?
  • Does computer literacy promise a brighter future? Analyze. 
  • What people skills are enhanced in a high school classroom?
  • Discuss in detail the education system in place of a developing nation. Highlight the measures you think are impressive and those that you think need a change. 
  • Apart from the drawbacks of UV rays on the human body, explain how it has proven to be beneficial in treating diseases.  
  • Discuss why or why not wearing school uniforms can make students feel included in the school environment. 
  • What are the effective ways that have been proven to mitigate child labor in society? 
  • Explain the contributions of arts and literature to the evolving world. 
  • How do healthcare organizations cope with patients living with transmissive medical conditions?
  • Why do people with special abilities still face hardships when it comes to accessibility to healthcare and education?
  • What are the prevailing signs of depression in small children?
  • How to identify the occurrences and onset of autism in kids below three years of age?
  • Explain how SWOT and PESTLE analysis is important for a business.
  • Why is it necessary to include mental health education in the school curriculum?
  • What is adult learning and does it have any proven benefits?
  • What is the importance of having access to libraries in high school?
  • Discuss the need for including research writing in school curriculums. 
  • Explain some of the greatest non-violent movements of ancient history. 
  • Explain the reasons why some of the species of wildlife are critically endangered today. 
  • How is the growing emission of co2 bringing an unprecedented change in the environment?
  • What are the consequences of an increasing population in developing nations like India? Discuss in detail. 
  • Are remote tests as effective as in-class tests? 
  • Explain how sports play a vital role in schools. 
  • What do you understand about social activities in academic institutions? Explain how they pose as a necessity for students. 
  • Are there countries providing free healthcare? How are they faring in terms of their economy? Discuss in detail. 
  • State case studies of human lives lost due to racist laws present in society.
  • Discuss the effect of COVID-19 vaccines in curbing the novel coronavirus.
  • State what according to you is more effective: e-learning or classroom-based educational systems.
  • What changes were brought into the e-commerce industry by the COVID-19 pandemic?
  • Name a personality regarded as a youth icon. Explain his or her contributions in detail.
  • Discuss why more and more people are relying on freelancing as a prospective career. 
  • Does virtual learning imply lesser opportunities? What is your take?
  • Curbing obesity through exercise: Analyze.
  • Discuss the need and importance of health outreach programs.
  • Discuss in detail how the upcoming generation of youngsters can do its bit and contribute to afforestation.
  • Discuss the 2020 budget allocation of the United States. 
  • Discuss some of the historic ‘rags to riches’ stories.
  • What according to you is the role of nurses in the healthcare industry?
  • Will AI actually replace humans and eat up their jobs? Discuss your view and also explain the sector that will benefit the most from AI replacing humans. 
  • Is digital media taking over print media? Explain with case studies. 
  • Why is there an increasing number of senior citizens in the elderly homes? 
  • Are health insurances really beneficial? 
  • How important are soft skills? What role do they play in recruitment? 
  • Has the keto diet been effective in weight loss? Explain the merits and demerits. 
  • Is swimming a good physical activity to curb obesity? 
  • Is work from home as effective as work from office? Explain your take. 

Qualitative research titles for high school students

Tips to write excellent qualitative research papers

Now that you have scrolled through this section, we trust that you have picked up a topic for yourself from our list of 100 brilliant qualitative research titles for high school students. Deciding on a topic is the very first step. The next step is to figure out ways how you can ensure that your qualitative research paper can help you grab top scores. 

Once you have decided on the title, you are halfway there. However, deciding on a topic signals the next step, which is the process of writing your qualitative paper. This poses a real challenge! 

To help you with it, here are a few tips that will help you accumulate data irrespective of the topic you have chosen. Follow these four simple steps and you will be able to do justice to the topic you have chosen!

  • Create an outline based on the topic. Jot down the sub-topics you would like to include. 
  • Refer to as many sources as you can – documentaries, books, news articles, case studies, interviews, etc. Make a note of the facts and phrases you would like to include in your research paper. 
  • Write the body. Start adding qualitative data. 
  • Re-read and revise your paper. Make it comprehensible. Check for plagiarism, and proofread your research paper. Try your best and leave no scope for mistakes. 

Wrapping it up!

To wrap up, writing a qualitative research paper is almost the same as writing other research papers such as argumentative research papers , English research papers , Biology research papers , and more. Writing a paper on qualitative research titles promotes analytical and critical thinking skills among students. Moreover,  it also helps improve data interpretation and writing ability, which are essential for students going ahead.

example research title qualitative

Having a 10+ years of experience in teaching little budding learners, I am now working as a soft skills and IELTS trainers. Having spent my share of time with high schoolers, I understand their fears about the future. At the same time, my experience has helped me foster plenty of strategies that can make their 4 years of high school blissful. Furthermore, I have worked intensely on helping these young adults bloom into successful adults by training them for their dream colleges. Through my blogs, I intend to help parents, educators and students in making these years joyful and prosperous.

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  • Knowledge Base

Methodology

  • Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research | Differences, Examples & Methods

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research | Differences, Examples & Methods

Published on April 12, 2019 by Raimo Streefkerk . Revised on June 22, 2023.

When collecting and analyzing data, quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative research deals with words and meanings. Both are important for gaining different kinds of knowledge.

Common quantitative methods include experiments, observations recorded as numbers, and surveys with closed-ended questions.

Quantitative research is at risk for research biases including information bias , omitted variable bias , sampling bias , or selection bias . Qualitative research Qualitative research is expressed in words . It is used to understand concepts, thoughts or experiences. This type of research enables you to gather in-depth insights on topics that are not well understood.

Common qualitative methods include interviews with open-ended questions, observations described in words, and literature reviews that explore concepts and theories.

Table of contents

The differences between quantitative and qualitative research, data collection methods, when to use qualitative vs. quantitative research, how to analyze qualitative and quantitative data, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about qualitative and quantitative research.

Quantitative and qualitative research use different research methods to collect and analyze data, and they allow you to answer different kinds of research questions.

Qualitative vs. quantitative research

Quantitative and qualitative data can be collected using various methods. It is important to use a data collection method that will help answer your research question(s).

Many data collection methods can be either qualitative or quantitative. For example, in surveys, observational studies or case studies , your data can be represented as numbers (e.g., using rating scales or counting frequencies) or as words (e.g., with open-ended questions or descriptions of what you observe).

However, some methods are more commonly used in one type or the other.

Quantitative data collection methods

  • Surveys :  List of closed or multiple choice questions that is distributed to a sample (online, in person, or over the phone).
  • Experiments : Situation in which different types of variables are controlled and manipulated to establish cause-and-effect relationships.
  • Observations : Observing subjects in a natural environment where variables can’t be controlled.

Qualitative data collection methods

  • Interviews : Asking open-ended questions verbally to respondents.
  • Focus groups : Discussion among a group of people about a topic to gather opinions that can be used for further research.
  • Ethnography : Participating in a community or organization for an extended period of time to closely observe culture and behavior.
  • Literature review : Survey of published works by other authors.

A rule of thumb for deciding whether to use qualitative or quantitative data is:

  • Use quantitative research if you want to confirm or test something (a theory or hypothesis )
  • Use qualitative research if you want to understand something (concepts, thoughts, experiences)

For most research topics you can choose a qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods approach . Which type you choose depends on, among other things, whether you’re taking an inductive vs. deductive research approach ; your research question(s) ; whether you’re doing experimental , correlational , or descriptive research ; and practical considerations such as time, money, availability of data, and access to respondents.

Quantitative research approach

You survey 300 students at your university and ask them questions such as: “on a scale from 1-5, how satisfied are your with your professors?”

You can perform statistical analysis on the data and draw conclusions such as: “on average students rated their professors 4.4”.

Qualitative research approach

You conduct in-depth interviews with 15 students and ask them open-ended questions such as: “How satisfied are you with your studies?”, “What is the most positive aspect of your study program?” and “What can be done to improve the study program?”

Based on the answers you get you can ask follow-up questions to clarify things. You transcribe all interviews using transcription software and try to find commonalities and patterns.

Mixed methods approach

You conduct interviews to find out how satisfied students are with their studies. Through open-ended questions you learn things you never thought about before and gain new insights. Later, you use a survey to test these insights on a larger scale.

It’s also possible to start with a survey to find out the overall trends, followed by interviews to better understand the reasons behind the trends.

Qualitative or quantitative data by itself can’t prove or demonstrate anything, but has to be analyzed to show its meaning in relation to the research questions. The method of analysis differs for each type of data.

Analyzing quantitative data

Quantitative data is based on numbers. Simple math or more advanced statistical analysis is used to discover commonalities or patterns in the data. The results are often reported in graphs and tables.

Applications such as Excel, SPSS, or R can be used to calculate things like:

  • Average scores ( means )
  • The number of times a particular answer was given
  • The correlation or causation between two or more variables
  • The reliability and validity of the results

Analyzing qualitative data

Qualitative data is more difficult to analyze than quantitative data. It consists of text, images or videos instead of numbers.

Some common approaches to analyzing qualitative data include:

  • Qualitative content analysis : Tracking the occurrence, position and meaning of words or phrases
  • Thematic analysis : Closely examining the data to identify the main themes and patterns
  • Discourse analysis : Studying how communication works in social contexts

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Chi square goodness of fit test
  • Degrees of freedom
  • Null hypothesis
  • Discourse analysis
  • Control groups
  • Mixed methods research
  • Non-probability sampling
  • Quantitative research
  • Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Research bias

  • Rosenthal effect
  • Implicit bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Selection bias
  • Negativity bias
  • Status quo bias

Quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative research deals with words and meanings.

Quantitative methods allow you to systematically measure variables and test hypotheses . Qualitative methods allow you to explore concepts and experiences in more detail.

In mixed methods research , you use both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods to answer your research question .

The research methods you use depend on the type of data you need to answer your research question .

  • If you want to measure something or test a hypothesis , use quantitative methods . If you want to explore ideas, thoughts and meanings, use qualitative methods .
  • If you want to analyze a large amount of readily-available data, use secondary data. If you want data specific to your purposes with control over how it is generated, collect primary data.
  • If you want to establish cause-and-effect relationships between variables , use experimental methods. If you want to understand the characteristics of a research subject, use descriptive methods.

Data collection is the systematic process by which observations or measurements are gathered in research. It is used in many different contexts by academics, governments, businesses, and other organizations.

There are various approaches to qualitative data analysis , but they all share five steps in common:

  • Prepare and organize your data.
  • Review and explore your data.
  • Develop a data coding system.
  • Assign codes to the data.
  • Identify recurring themes.

The specifics of each step depend on the focus of the analysis. Some common approaches include textual analysis , thematic analysis , and discourse analysis .

A research project is an academic, scientific, or professional undertaking to answer a research question . Research projects can take many forms, such as qualitative or quantitative , descriptive , longitudinal , experimental , or correlational . What kind of research approach you choose will depend on your topic.

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Research

83 Qualitative Research Questions & Examples

83 Qualitative Research Questions & Examples

Qualitative research questions help you understand consumer sentiment. They’re strategically designed to show organizations how and why people feel the way they do about a brand, product, or service. It looks beyond the numbers and is one of the most telling types of market research a company can do.

The UK Data Service describes this perfectly, saying, “The value of qualitative research is that it gives a voice to the lived experience .”

Read on to see seven use cases and 83 qualitative research questions, with the added bonus of examples that show how to get similar insights faster with Similarweb Digital Research Intelligence.

Inspirational quote about customer insights

What is a qualitative research question?

A qualitative research question explores a topic in-depth, aiming to better understand the subject through interviews, observations, and other non-numerical data. Qualitative research questions are open-ended, helping to uncover a target audience’s opinions, beliefs, and motivations.

How to choose qualitative research questions?

Choosing the right qualitative research questions can be incremental to the success of your research and the findings you uncover. Here’s my six-step process for choosing the best qualitative research questions.

  • Start by understanding the purpose of your research. What do you want to learn? What outcome are you hoping to achieve?
  • Consider who you are researching. What are their experiences, attitudes, and beliefs? How can you best capture these in your research questions ?
  • Keep your questions open-ended . Qualitative research questions should not be too narrow or too broad. Aim to ask specific questions to provide meaningful answers but broad enough to allow for exploration.
  • Balance your research questions. You don’t want all of your questions to be the same type. Aim to mix up your questions to get a variety of answers.
  • Ensure your research questions are ethical and free from bias. Always have a second (and third) person check for unconscious bias.
  • Consider the language you use. Your questions should be written in a way that is clear and easy to understand. Avoid using jargon , acronyms, or overly technical language.

Choosing qualitative questions

Types of qualitative research questions

For a question to be considered qualitative, it usually needs to be open-ended. However, as I’ll explain, there can sometimes be a slight cross-over between quantitative and qualitative research questions.

Open-ended questions

These allow for a wide range of responses and can be formatted with multiple-choice answers or a free-text box to collect additional details. The next two types of qualitative questions are considered open questions, but each has its own style and purpose.

  • Probing questions are used to delve deeper into a respondent’s thoughts, such as “Can you tell me more about why you feel that way?”
  • Comparative questions ask people to compare two or more items, such as “Which product do you prefer and why?” These qualitative questions are highly useful for understanding brand awareness , competitive analysis , and more.

Closed-ended questions

These ask respondents to choose from a predetermined set of responses, such as “On a scale of 1-5, how satisfied are you with the new product?” While they’re traditionally quantitative, adding a free text box that asks for extra comments into why a specific rating was chosen will provide qualitative insights alongside their respective quantitative research question responses.

  • Ranking questions get people to rank items in order of preference, such as “Please rank these products in terms of quality.” They’re advantageous in many scenarios, like product development, competitive analysis, and brand awareness.
  • Likert scale questions ask people to rate items on a scale, such as “On a scale of 1-5, how satisfied are you with the new product?” Ideal for placement on websites and emails to gather quick, snappy feedback.

Qualitative research question examples

There are many applications of qualitative research and lots of ways you can put your findings to work for the success of your business. Here’s a summary of the most common use cases for qualitative questions and examples to ask.

Qualitative questions for identifying customer needs and motivations

These types of questions help you find out why customers choose products or services and what they are looking for when making a purchase.

  • What factors do you consider when deciding to buy a product?
  • What would make you choose one product or service over another?
  • What are the most important elements of a product that you would buy?
  • What features do you look for when purchasing a product?
  • What qualities do you look for in a company’s products?
  • Do you prefer localized or global brands when making a purchase?
  • How do you determine the value of a product?
  • What do you think is the most important factor when choosing a product?
  • How do you decide if a product or service is worth the money?
  • Do you have any specific expectations when purchasing a product?
  • Do you prefer to purchase products or services online or in person?
  • What kind of customer service do you expect when buying a product?
  • How do you decide when it is time to switch to a different product?
  • Where do you research products before you decide to buy?
  • What do you think is the most important customer value when making a purchase?

Qualitative research questions to enhance customer experience

Use these questions to reveal insights into how customers interact with a company’s products or services and how those experiences can be improved.

  • What aspects of our product or service do customers find most valuable?
  • How do customers perceive our customer service?
  • What factors are most important to customers when purchasing?
  • What do customers think of our brand?
  • What do customers think of our current marketing efforts?
  • How do customers feel about the features and benefits of our product?
  • How do customers feel about the price of our product or service?
  • How could we improve the customer experience?
  • What do customers think of our website or app?
  • What do customers think of our customer support?
  • What could we do to make our product or service easier to use?
  • What do customers think of our competitors?
  • What is your preferred way to access our site?
  • How do customers feel about our delivery/shipping times?
  • What do customers think of our loyalty programs?

Qualitative research question example for customer experience

  • 🙋‍♀️ Question: What is your preferred way to access our site?
  • 🤓 Insight sought: How mobile-dominant are consumers? Should you invest more in mobile optimization or mobile marketing?
  • 🤯 Challenges with traditional qualitative research methods: While using this type of question is ideal if you have a large database to survey when placed on a site or sent to a limited customer list, it only gives you a point-in-time perspective from a limited group of people.
  • 💡 A new approach: You can get better, broader insights quicker with Similarweb Digital Research Intelligence. To fully inform your research, you need to know preferences at the industry or market level.
  • ⏰ Time to insight: 30 seconds
  • ✅ How it’s done: Similarweb offers multiple ways to answer this question without going through a lengthy qualitative research process. 

First, I’m going to do a website market analysis of the banking credit and lending market in the finance sector to get a clearer picture of industry benchmarks.

Here, I can view device preferences across any industry or market instantly. It shows me the device distribution for any country across any period. This clearly answers the question of how mobile dominate my target audience is , with 59.79% opting to access site via a desktop vs. 40.21% via mobile

I then use the trends section to show me the exact split between mobile and web traffic for each key player in my space. Let’s say I’m about to embark on a competitive campaign that targets customers of Chase and Bank of America ; I can see both their audiences are highly desktop dominant compared with others in their space .

Qualitative question examples for developing new products or services

Research questions like this can help you understand customer pain points and give you insights to develop products that meet those needs.

  • What is the primary reason you would choose to purchase a product from our company?
  • How do you currently use products or services that are similar to ours?
  • Is there anything that could be improved with products currently on the market?
  • What features would you like to see added to our products?
  • How do you prefer to contact a customer service team?
  • What do you think sets our company apart from our competitors?
  • What other product or service offerings would like to see us offer?
  • What type of information would help you make decisions about buying a product?
  • What type of advertising methods are most effective in getting your attention?
  • What is the biggest deterrent to purchasing products from us?

Qualitative research question example for service development

  • 🙋‍♀️ Question: What type of advertising methods are most effective in getting your attention?
  • 🤓 Insight sought: The marketing channels and/or content that performs best with a target audience .
  • 🤯 Challenges with traditional qualitative research methods: When using qualitative research surveys to answer questions like this, the sample size is limited, and bias could be at play.
  • 💡 A better approach: The most authentic insights come from viewing real actions and results that take place in the digital world. No questions or answers are needed to uncover this intel, and the information you seek is readily available in less than a minute.
  • ⏰ Time to insight: 5 minutes
  • ✅ How it’s done: There are a few ways to approach this. You can either take an industry-wide perspective or hone in on specific competitors to unpack their individual successes. Here, I’ll quickly show a snapshot with a whole market perspective.

qualitative example question - marketing channels

Using the market analysis element of Similarweb Digital Research Intelligence, I select my industry or market, which I’ve kept as banking and credit. A quick click into marketing channels shows me which channels drive the highest traffic in my market. Taking direct traffic out of the equation, for now, I can see that referrals and organic traffic are the two highest-performing channels in this market.

Similarweb allows me to view the specific referral partners and pages across these channels. 

qualitative question example - Similarweb referral channels

Looking closely at referrals in this market, I’ve chosen chase.com and its five closest rivals . I select referrals in the channel traffic element of marketing channels. I see that Capital One is a clear winner, gaining almost 25 million visits due to referral partnerships.

Qualitative research question example

Next, I get to see exactly who is referring traffic to Capital One and the total traffic share for each referrer. I can see the growth as a percentage and how that has changed, along with an engagement score that rates the average engagement level of that audience segment. This is particularly useful when deciding on which new referral partnerships to pursue.  

Once I’ve identified the channels and campaigns that yield the best results, I can then use Similarweb to dive into the various ad creatives and content that have the greatest impact.

Qualitative research example for ad creatives

These ads are just a few of those listed in the creatives section from my competitive website analysis of Capital One. You can filter this list by the specific campaign, publishers, and ad networks to view those that matter to you most. You can also discover video ad creatives in the same place too.

In just five minutes ⏰ 

  • I’ve captured audience loyalty statistics across my market
  • Spotted the most competitive players
  • Identified the marketing channels my audience is most responsive to
  • I know which content and campaigns are driving the highest traffic volume
  • I’ve created a target list for new referral partners and have been able to prioritize this based on results and engagement figures from my rivals
  • I can see the types of creatives that my target audience is responding to, giving me ideas for ways to generate effective copy for future campaigns

Qualitative questions to determine pricing strategies

Companies need to make sure pricing stays relevant and competitive. Use these questions to determine customer perceptions on pricing and develop pricing strategies to maximize profits and reduce churn.

  • How do you feel about our pricing structure?
  • How does our pricing compare to other similar products?
  • What value do you feel you get from our pricing?
  • How could we make our pricing more attractive?
  • What would be an ideal price for our product?
  • Which features of our product that you would like to see priced differently?
  • What discounts or deals would you like to see us offer?
  • How do you feel about the amount you have to pay for our product?

Get Faster Answers to Qualitative Research Questions with Similarweb Today

Qualitative research question example for determining pricing strategies.

  • 🙋‍♀️ Question: What discounts or deals would you like to see us offer?
  • 🤓 Insight sought: The promotions or campaigns that resonate with your target audience.
  • 🤯 Challenges with traditional qualitative research methods: Consumers don’t always recall the types of ads or campaigns they respond to. Over time, their needs and habits change. Your sample size is limited to those you ask, leaving a huge pool of unknowns at play.
  • 💡 A better approach: While qualitative insights are good to know, you get the most accurate picture of the highest-performing promotion and campaigns by looking at data collected directly from the web. These analytics are real-world, real-time, and based on the collective actions of many, instead of the limited survey group you approach. By getting a complete picture across an entire market, your decisions are better informed and more aligned with current market trends and behaviors.
  • ✅ How it’s done: Similarweb’s Popular Pages feature shows the content, products, campaigns, and pages with the highest growth for any website. So, if you’re trying to unpack the successes of others in your space and find out what content resonates with a target audience, there’s a far quicker way to get answers to these questions with Similarweb.

Qualitative research example

Here, I’m using Capital One as an example site. I can see trending pages on their site showing the largest increase in page views. Other filters include campaign, best-performing, and new–each of which shows you page URLs, share of traffic , and growth as a percentage. This page is particularly useful for staying on top of trending topics , campaigns, and new content being pushed out in a market by key competitors.

Qualitative research questions for product development teams

It’s vital to stay in touch with changing consumer needs. These questions can also be used for new product or service development, but this time, it’s from the perspective of a product manager or development team. 

  • What are customers’ primary needs and wants for this product?
  • What do customers think of our current product offerings?
  • What is the most important feature or benefit of our product?
  • How can we improve our product to meet customers’ needs better?
  • What do customers like or dislike about our competitors’ products?
  • What do customers look for when deciding between our product and a competitor’s?
  • How have customer needs and wants for this product changed over time?
  • What motivates customers to purchase this product?
  • What is the most important thing customers want from this product?
  • What features or benefits are most important when selecting a product?
  • What do customers perceive to be our product’s pros and cons?
  • What would make customers switch from a competitor’s product to ours?
  • How do customers perceive our product in comparison to similar products?
  • What do customers think of our pricing and value proposition?
  • What do customers think of our product’s design, usability, and aesthetics?

Qualitative questions examples to understand customer segments

Market segmentation seeks to create groups of consumers with shared characteristics. Use these questions to learn more about different customer segments and how to target them with tailored messaging.

  • What motivates customers to make a purchase?
  • How do customers perceive our brand in comparison to our competitors?
  • How do customers feel about our product quality?
  • How do customers define quality in our products?
  • What factors influence customers’ purchasing decisions ?
  • What are the most important aspects of customer service?
  • What do customers think of our customer service?
  • What do customers think of our pricing?
  • How do customers rate our product offerings?
  • How do customers prefer to make purchases (online, in-store, etc.)?

Qualitative research question example for understanding customer segments

  • 🙋‍♀️ Question: Which social media channels are you most active on?
  • 🤓 Insight sought: Formulate a social media strategy . Specifically, the social media channels most likely to succeed with a target audience.
  • 🤯 Challenges with traditional qualitative research methods: Qualitative research question responses are limited to those you ask, giving you a limited sample size. Questions like this are usually at risk of some bias, and this may not be reflective of real-world actions.
  • 💡 A better approach: Get a complete picture of social media preferences for an entire market or specific audience belonging to rival firms. Insights are available in real-time, and are based on the actions of many, not a select group of participants. Data is readily available, easy to understand, and expandable at a moment’s notice.
  • ✅ How it’s done: Using Similarweb’s website analysis feature, you can get a clear breakdown of social media stats for your audience using the marketing channels element. It shows the percentage of visits from each channel to your site, respective growth, and specific referral pages by each platform. All data is expandable, meaning you can select any platform, period, and region to drill down and get more accurate intel, instantly.

Qualitative question example social media

This example shows me Bank of America’s social media distribution, with YouTube , Linkedin , and Facebook taking the top three spots, and accounting for almost 80% of traffic being driven from social media.

When doing any type of market research, it’s important to benchmark performance against industry averages and perform a social media competitive analysis to verify rival performance across the same channels.

Qualitative questions to inform competitive analysis

Organizations must assess market sentiment toward other players to compete and beat rival firms. Whether you want to increase market share , challenge industry leaders , or reduce churn, understanding how people view you vs. the competition is key.

  • What is the overall perception of our competitors’ product offerings in the market?
  • What attributes do our competitors prioritize in their customer experience?
  • What strategies do our competitors use to differentiate their products from ours?
  • How do our competitors position their products in relation to ours?
  • How do our competitors’ pricing models compare to ours?
  • What do consumers think of our competitors’ product quality?
  • What do consumers think of our competitors’ customer service?
  • What are the key drivers of purchase decisions in our market?
  • What is the impact of our competitors’ marketing campaigns on our market share ? 10. How do our competitors leverage social media to promote their products?

Qualitative research question example for competitive analysis

  • 🙋‍♀️ Question: What other companies do you shop with for x?
  • 🤓 Insight sought: W ho are your competitors? Which of your rival’s sites do your customers visit? How loyal are consumers in your market?
  • 🤯 Challenges with traditional qualitative research methods:  Sample size is limited, and customers could be unwilling to reveal which competitors they shop with, or how often they around. Where finances are involved, people can act with reluctance or bias, and be unwilling to reveal other suppliers they do business with.
  • 💡 A better approach: Get a complete picture of your audience’s loyalty, see who else they shop with, and how many other sites they visit in your competitive group. Find out the size of the untapped opportunity and which players are doing a better job at attracting unique visitors – without having to ask people to reveal their preferences.
  • ✅ How it’s done: Similarweb website analysis shows you the competitive sites your audience visits, giving you access to data that shows cross-visitation habits, audience loyalty, and untapped potential in a matter of minutes.

Qualitative research example for audience analysis

Using the audience interests element of Similarweb website analysis, you can view the cross-browsing behaviors of a website’s audience instantly. You can see a matrix that shows the percentage of visitors on a target site and any rival site they may have visited.

Qualitative research question example for competitive analysis

With the Similarweb audience overlap feature, view the cross-visitation habits of an audience across specific websites. In this example, I chose chase.com and its four closest competitors to review. For each intersection, you see the number of unique visitors and the overall proportion of each site’s audience it represents. It also shows the volume of unreached potential visitors.

qualitative question example for audience loyalty

Here, you can see a direct comparison of the audience loyalty represented in a bar graph. It shows a breakdown of each site’s audience based on how many other sites they have visited. Those sites with the highest loyalty show fewer additional sites visited.

From the perspective of chase.com, I can see 47% of their visitors do not visit rival sites. 33% of their audience visited 1 or more sites in this group, 14% visited 2 or more sites, 4% visited 3 or more sites, and just 0.8% viewed all sites in this comparison. 

How to answer qualitative research questions with Similarweb

Similarweb Digital Research Intelligence drastically improves market research efficiency and time to insight. Both of these can impact the bottom line and the pace at which organizations can adapt and flex when markets shift, and rivals change tactics.

Outdated practices, while still useful, take time . And with a quicker, more efficient way to garner similar insights, opting for the fast lane puts you at a competitive advantage.

With a birds-eye view of the actions and behaviors of companies and consumers across a market , you can answer certain research questions without the need to plan, do, and review extensive qualitative market research .

Wrapping up

Qualitative research methods have been around for centuries. From designing the questions to finding the best distribution channels, collecting and analyzing findings takes time to get the insights you need. Similarweb Digital Research Intelligence drastically improves efficiency and time to insight. Both of which impact the bottom line and the pace at which organizations can adapt and flex when markets shift.

Similarweb’s suite of digital intelligence solutions offers unbiased, accurate, honest insights you can trust for analyzing any industry, market, or audience.

  • Methodologies used for data collection are robust, transparent, and trustworthy.
  • Clear presentation of data via an easy-to-use, intuitive platform.
  • It updates dynamically–giving you the freshest data about an industry or market.
  • Data is available via an API – so you can plug into platforms like Tableau or PowerBI to streamline your analyses.
  • Filter and refine results according to your needs.

Are quantitative or qualitative research questions best?

Both have their place and purpose in market research. Qualitative research questions seek to provide details, whereas quantitative market research gives you numerical statistics that are easier and quicker to analyze. You get more flexibility with qualitative questions, and they’re non-directional.

What are the advantages of qualitative research?

Qualitative research is advantageous because it allows researchers to better understand their subject matter by exploring people’s attitudes, behaviors, and motivations in a particular context. It also allows researchers to uncover new insights that may not have been discovered with quantitative research methods.

What are some of the challenges of qualitative research?

Qualitative research can be time-consuming and costly, typically involving in-depth interviews and focus groups. Additionally, there are challenges associated with the reliability and validity of the collected data, as there is no universal standard for interpreting the results.

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example research title qualitative

List of Topics for Quantitative and Qualitative Research

Dr. stanley gajda, 25 jul 2018.

Library databases may provide research topics.

Choosing the right topic can make all the difference between a long, arduous research experience and a rewarding one. Use a qualitative approach to explore topics that you wish to subjectively describe in rich detail. A quantitative approach is better when investigating topics that can be objectively measured. In some situations, either approach can work depending on your research interests and purpose. For instance, the topic of gun control may studied qualitatively through in-depth interviews with people on both sides of the debate, or quantitatively by administering a closed-ended survey measuring how people voted on gun control legislation.

Explore this article

  • Descriptive Research Sample Titles
  • List of Qualitative Research Topics
  • List of Quantitative Research Topics
  • Applied Research in Education

1 Descriptive Research Sample Titles

Examples of descriptive research sample titles are abundant in in the humanities. For instance, you might talk about “What are human rights?” or “What is visual iconography?” Ideas for topics may also be found from endowments, foundations and charitable trusts, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, and from most organizations that fund research. Questions like, “How do local workers interpret and make sense of career paths and obstacles in the cultural economy?” require a qualitative review of documentation, participant observation and interviewing. Questions like, “What is the relationship between the arts, entrepreneurship and innovation in the workplace?” A quantitative concentration on a small, finite number of variables is needed to describe current conditions and investigate relationships such as, “What is the relationship between the arts, entrepreneurship and innovation in the workplace?”

2 List of Qualitative Research Topics

Topics in the social sciences include, for example, abortion, immigration and marijuana legalization. Federal agencies may list topics as well as suggest approaches to research. The Army, for instance, may announce qualitative research grants to better understand the challenges service members face when returning home and reintegrating into the community. Exploratory verbs and phrases including “discover,” “seek to understand” and “report the stories” indicate that qualitative approaches are needed. Conversely, data driven topics such as divorce rates following deployment suggest quantitative research, often indicated by verbs and phrases like “effect,” “cause” and “correlate.”

3 List of Quantitative Research Topics

Science topics are common on the list of quantitative research titles that teacher often assign. Examples include such subjects as bioterrorism, environmental concerns, and nuclear energy. Mother Nature may guide topics, approaches to research and data collection. For instance, the National Science Foundation may sponsor a qualitative case study of reactions to a natural disaster that asks, “What happened? What was involved in response to the disaster? What themes emerged during the months that followed?” Exploratory data collection entails qualitative approaches that are inductive, holistic and process orientated. By comparison, explanatory data collection involves quantitative approaches that are deductive, focused and outcome orientated. For example, to determine the effectiveness of a disaster-relief program, a quantitative survey may compare approval ratings across various demographics.

4 Applied Research in Education

Examples of quantitative research in education can be found in topics related to standardized test scores, placement testing, and achievement gaps between inner city and suburban schools, for instance. Occupational, professional and trade associations may inform the research topics and objectives. The American Educational Research Association, for example, may fund research on effective teachers. To develop specific measures for future study, a qualitative researcher may observe student interactions, review lesson plans and interview teachers, principals and students throughout the year. By contrast, to identify one or more generalizable variables that characterize effective teachers, a quantitative researcher may analyze finite, standardized, numerical data.

  • 1 Atlas Ti: Qualitative Research
  • 2 American Educational Research Foundation: Research Grants
  • 3 National Endowment for the Arts: Research: Art Works Grants Final Papers
  • 4 National Science Foundation: A Special Report: Disasters

About the Author

Stanley Jacob Gajda earned a PhD in higher education from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. He also studied at Bowling Green and Ohio State University. Dr. Gajda writes on socially responsible leadership in and out of the classroom. His work has resulted in documented increases in student engagement, workforce efficiency and program funding.

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Research Method

Home » 500+ Quantitative Research Titles and Topics

500+ Quantitative Research Titles and Topics

Table of Contents

Quantitative Research Topics

Quantitative research involves collecting and analyzing numerical data to identify patterns, trends, and relationships among variables. This method is widely used in social sciences, psychology , economics , and other fields where researchers aim to understand human behavior and phenomena through statistical analysis. If you are looking for a quantitative research topic, there are numerous areas to explore, from analyzing data on a specific population to studying the effects of a particular intervention or treatment. In this post, we will provide some ideas for quantitative research topics that may inspire you and help you narrow down your interests.

Quantitative Research Titles

Quantitative Research Titles are as follows:

Business and Economics

  • “Statistical Analysis of Supply Chain Disruptions on Retail Sales”
  • “Quantitative Examination of Consumer Loyalty Programs in the Fast Food Industry”
  • “Predicting Stock Market Trends Using Machine Learning Algorithms”
  • “Influence of Workplace Environment on Employee Productivity: A Quantitative Study”
  • “Impact of Economic Policies on Small Businesses: A Regression Analysis”
  • “Customer Satisfaction and Profit Margins: A Quantitative Correlation Study”
  • “Analyzing the Role of Marketing in Brand Recognition: A Statistical Overview”
  • “Quantitative Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Consumer Trust”
  • “Price Elasticity of Demand for Luxury Goods: A Case Study”
  • “The Relationship Between Fiscal Policy and Inflation Rates: A Time-Series Analysis”
  • “Factors Influencing E-commerce Conversion Rates: A Quantitative Exploration”
  • “Examining the Correlation Between Interest Rates and Consumer Spending”
  • “Standardized Testing and Academic Performance: A Quantitative Evaluation”
  • “Teaching Strategies and Student Learning Outcomes in Secondary Schools: A Quantitative Study”
  • “The Relationship Between Extracurricular Activities and Academic Success”
  • “Influence of Parental Involvement on Children’s Educational Achievements”
  • “Digital Literacy in Primary Schools: A Quantitative Assessment”
  • “Learning Outcomes in Blended vs. Traditional Classrooms: A Comparative Analysis”
  • “Correlation Between Teacher Experience and Student Success Rates”
  • “Analyzing the Impact of Classroom Technology on Reading Comprehension”
  • “Gender Differences in STEM Fields: A Quantitative Analysis of Enrollment Data”
  • “The Relationship Between Homework Load and Academic Burnout”
  • “Assessment of Special Education Programs in Public Schools”
  • “Role of Peer Tutoring in Improving Academic Performance: A Quantitative Study”

Medicine and Health Sciences

  • “The Impact of Sleep Duration on Cardiovascular Health: A Cross-sectional Study”
  • “Analyzing the Efficacy of Various Antidepressants: A Meta-Analysis”
  • “Patient Satisfaction in Telehealth Services: A Quantitative Assessment”
  • “Dietary Habits and Incidence of Heart Disease: A Quantitative Review”
  • “Correlations Between Stress Levels and Immune System Functioning”
  • “Smoking and Lung Function: A Quantitative Analysis”
  • “Influence of Physical Activity on Mental Health in Older Adults”
  • “Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Community Hospitals: A Quantitative Study”
  • “The Efficacy of Vaccination Programs in Controlling Disease Spread: A Time-Series Analysis”
  • “Role of Social Determinants in Health Outcomes: A Quantitative Exploration”
  • “Impact of Hospital Design on Patient Recovery Rates”
  • “Quantitative Analysis of Dietary Choices and Obesity Rates in Children”

Social Sciences

  • “Examining Social Inequality through Wage Distribution: A Quantitative Study”
  • “Impact of Parental Divorce on Child Development: A Longitudinal Study”
  • “Social Media and its Effect on Political Polarization: A Quantitative Analysis”
  • “The Relationship Between Religion and Social Attitudes: A Statistical Overview”
  • “Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Educational Achievement”
  • “Quantifying the Effects of Community Programs on Crime Reduction”
  • “Public Opinion and Immigration Policies: A Quantitative Exploration”
  • “Analyzing the Gender Representation in Political Offices: A Quantitative Study”
  • “Impact of Mass Media on Public Opinion: A Regression Analysis”
  • “Influence of Urban Design on Social Interactions in Communities”
  • “The Role of Social Support in Mental Health Outcomes: A Quantitative Analysis”
  • “Examining the Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Employment Status”

Engineering and Technology

  • “Performance Evaluation of Different Machine Learning Algorithms in Autonomous Vehicles”
  • “Material Science: A Quantitative Analysis of Stress-Strain Properties in Various Alloys”
  • “Impacts of Data Center Cooling Solutions on Energy Consumption”
  • “Analyzing the Reliability of Renewable Energy Sources in Grid Management”
  • “Optimization of 5G Network Performance: A Quantitative Assessment”
  • “Quantifying the Effects of Aerodynamics on Fuel Efficiency in Commercial Airplanes”
  • “The Relationship Between Software Complexity and Bug Frequency”
  • “Machine Learning in Predictive Maintenance: A Quantitative Analysis”
  • “Wearable Technologies and their Impact on Healthcare Monitoring”
  • “Quantitative Assessment of Cybersecurity Measures in Financial Institutions”
  • “Analysis of Noise Pollution from Urban Transportation Systems”
  • “The Influence of Architectural Design on Energy Efficiency in Buildings”

Quantitative Research Topics

Quantitative Research Topics are as follows:

  • The effects of social media on self-esteem among teenagers.
  • A comparative study of academic achievement among students of single-sex and co-educational schools.
  • The impact of gender on leadership styles in the workplace.
  • The correlation between parental involvement and academic performance of students.
  • The effect of mindfulness meditation on stress levels in college students.
  • The relationship between employee motivation and job satisfaction.
  • The effectiveness of online learning compared to traditional classroom learning.
  • The correlation between sleep duration and academic performance among college students.
  • The impact of exercise on mental health among adults.
  • The relationship between social support and psychological well-being among cancer patients.
  • The effect of caffeine consumption on sleep quality.
  • A comparative study of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy in treating depression.
  • The relationship between physical attractiveness and job opportunities.
  • The correlation between smartphone addiction and academic performance among high school students.
  • The impact of music on memory recall among adults.
  • The effectiveness of parental control software in limiting children’s online activity.
  • The relationship between social media use and body image dissatisfaction among young adults.
  • The correlation between academic achievement and parental involvement among minority students.
  • The impact of early childhood education on academic performance in later years.
  • The effectiveness of employee training and development programs in improving organizational performance.
  • The relationship between socioeconomic status and access to healthcare services.
  • The correlation between social support and academic achievement among college students.
  • The impact of technology on communication skills among children.
  • The effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction programs in reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression.
  • The relationship between employee turnover and organizational culture.
  • The correlation between job satisfaction and employee engagement.
  • The impact of video game violence on aggressive behavior among children.
  • The effectiveness of nutritional education in promoting healthy eating habits among adolescents.
  • The relationship between bullying and academic performance among middle school students.
  • The correlation between teacher expectations and student achievement.
  • The impact of gender stereotypes on career choices among high school students.
  • The effectiveness of anger management programs in reducing violent behavior.
  • The relationship between social support and recovery from substance abuse.
  • The correlation between parent-child communication and adolescent drug use.
  • The impact of technology on family relationships.
  • The effectiveness of smoking cessation programs in promoting long-term abstinence.
  • The relationship between personality traits and academic achievement.
  • The correlation between stress and job performance among healthcare professionals.
  • The impact of online privacy concerns on social media use.
  • The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in treating anxiety disorders.
  • The relationship between teacher feedback and student motivation.
  • The correlation between physical activity and academic performance among elementary school students.
  • The impact of parental divorce on academic achievement among children.
  • The effectiveness of diversity training in improving workplace relationships.
  • The relationship between childhood trauma and adult mental health.
  • The correlation between parental involvement and substance abuse among adolescents.
  • The impact of social media use on romantic relationships among young adults.
  • The effectiveness of assertiveness training in improving communication skills.
  • The relationship between parental expectations and academic achievement among high school students.
  • The correlation between sleep quality and mood among adults.
  • The impact of video game addiction on academic performance among college students.
  • The effectiveness of group therapy in treating eating disorders.
  • The relationship between job stress and job performance among teachers.
  • The correlation between mindfulness and emotional regulation.
  • The impact of social media use on self-esteem among college students.
  • The effectiveness of parent-teacher communication in promoting academic achievement among elementary school students.
  • The impact of renewable energy policies on carbon emissions
  • The relationship between employee motivation and job performance
  • The effectiveness of psychotherapy in treating eating disorders
  • The correlation between physical activity and cognitive function in older adults
  • The effect of childhood poverty on adult health outcomes
  • The impact of urbanization on biodiversity conservation
  • The relationship between work-life balance and employee job satisfaction
  • The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in treating trauma
  • The correlation between parenting styles and child behavior
  • The effect of social media on political polarization
  • The impact of foreign aid on economic development
  • The relationship between workplace diversity and organizational performance
  • The effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy in treating borderline personality disorder
  • The correlation between childhood abuse and adult mental health outcomes
  • The effect of sleep deprivation on cognitive function
  • The impact of trade policies on international trade and economic growth
  • The relationship between employee engagement and organizational commitment
  • The effectiveness of cognitive therapy in treating postpartum depression
  • The correlation between family meals and child obesity rates
  • The effect of parental involvement in sports on child athletic performance
  • The impact of social entrepreneurship on sustainable development
  • The relationship between emotional labor and job burnout
  • The effectiveness of art therapy in treating dementia
  • The correlation between social media use and academic procrastination
  • The effect of poverty on childhood educational attainment
  • The impact of urban green spaces on mental health
  • The relationship between job insecurity and employee well-being
  • The effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy in treating anxiety disorders
  • The correlation between childhood trauma and substance abuse
  • The effect of screen time on children’s social skills
  • The impact of trade unions on employee job satisfaction
  • The relationship between cultural intelligence and cross-cultural communication
  • The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in treating chronic pain
  • The correlation between childhood obesity and adult health outcomes
  • The effect of gender diversity on corporate performance
  • The impact of environmental regulations on industry competitiveness.
  • The impact of renewable energy policies on greenhouse gas emissions
  • The relationship between workplace diversity and team performance
  • The effectiveness of group therapy in treating substance abuse
  • The correlation between parental involvement and social skills in early childhood
  • The effect of technology use on sleep patterns
  • The impact of government regulations on small business growth
  • The relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover
  • The effectiveness of virtual reality therapy in treating anxiety disorders
  • The correlation between parental involvement and academic motivation in adolescents
  • The effect of social media on political engagement
  • The impact of urbanization on mental health
  • The relationship between corporate social responsibility and consumer trust
  • The correlation between early childhood education and social-emotional development
  • The effect of screen time on cognitive development in young children
  • The impact of trade policies on global economic growth
  • The relationship between workplace diversity and innovation
  • The effectiveness of family therapy in treating eating disorders
  • The correlation between parental involvement and college persistence
  • The effect of social media on body image and self-esteem
  • The impact of environmental regulations on business competitiveness
  • The relationship between job autonomy and job satisfaction
  • The effectiveness of virtual reality therapy in treating phobias
  • The correlation between parental involvement and academic achievement in college
  • The effect of social media on sleep quality
  • The impact of immigration policies on social integration
  • The relationship between workplace diversity and employee well-being
  • The effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy in treating personality disorders
  • The correlation between early childhood education and executive function skills
  • The effect of parental involvement on STEM education outcomes
  • The impact of trade policies on domestic employment rates
  • The relationship between job insecurity and mental health
  • The effectiveness of exposure therapy in treating PTSD
  • The correlation between parental involvement and social mobility
  • The effect of social media on intergroup relations
  • The impact of urbanization on air pollution and respiratory health.
  • The relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness
  • The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in treating depression
  • The correlation between early childhood education and language development
  • The effect of parental involvement on academic achievement in STEM fields
  • The impact of trade policies on income inequality
  • The relationship between workplace diversity and customer satisfaction
  • The effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy in treating anxiety disorders
  • The correlation between parental involvement and civic engagement in adolescents
  • The effect of social media on mental health among teenagers
  • The impact of public transportation policies on traffic congestion
  • The relationship between job stress and job performance
  • The effectiveness of group therapy in treating depression
  • The correlation between early childhood education and cognitive development
  • The effect of parental involvement on academic motivation in college
  • The impact of environmental regulations on energy consumption
  • The relationship between workplace diversity and employee engagement
  • The effectiveness of art therapy in treating PTSD
  • The correlation between parental involvement and academic success in vocational education
  • The effect of social media on academic achievement in college
  • The impact of tax policies on economic growth
  • The relationship between job flexibility and work-life balance
  • The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in treating anxiety disorders
  • The correlation between early childhood education and social competence
  • The effect of parental involvement on career readiness in high school
  • The impact of immigration policies on crime rates
  • The relationship between workplace diversity and employee retention
  • The effectiveness of play therapy in treating trauma
  • The correlation between parental involvement and academic success in online learning
  • The effect of social media on body dissatisfaction among women
  • The impact of urbanization on public health infrastructure
  • The relationship between job satisfaction and job performance
  • The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in treating PTSD
  • The correlation between early childhood education and social skills in adolescence
  • The effect of parental involvement on academic achievement in the arts
  • The impact of trade policies on foreign investment
  • The relationship between workplace diversity and decision-making
  • The effectiveness of exposure and response prevention therapy in treating OCD
  • The correlation between parental involvement and academic success in special education
  • The impact of zoning laws on affordable housing
  • The relationship between job design and employee motivation
  • The effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation therapy in treating traumatic brain injury
  • The correlation between early childhood education and social-emotional learning
  • The effect of parental involvement on academic achievement in foreign language learning
  • The impact of trade policies on the environment
  • The relationship between workplace diversity and creativity
  • The effectiveness of emotion-focused therapy in treating relationship problems
  • The correlation between parental involvement and academic success in music education
  • The effect of social media on interpersonal communication skills
  • The impact of public health campaigns on health behaviors
  • The relationship between job resources and job stress
  • The effectiveness of equine therapy in treating substance abuse
  • The correlation between early childhood education and self-regulation
  • The effect of parental involvement on academic achievement in physical education
  • The impact of immigration policies on cultural assimilation
  • The relationship between workplace diversity and conflict resolution
  • The effectiveness of schema therapy in treating personality disorders
  • The correlation between parental involvement and academic success in career and technical education
  • The effect of social media on trust in government institutions
  • The impact of urbanization on public transportation systems
  • The relationship between job demands and job stress
  • The correlation between early childhood education and executive functioning
  • The effect of parental involvement on academic achievement in computer science
  • The effectiveness of cognitive processing therapy in treating PTSD
  • The correlation between parental involvement and academic success in homeschooling
  • The effect of social media on cyberbullying behavior
  • The impact of urbanization on air quality
  • The effectiveness of dance therapy in treating anxiety disorders
  • The correlation between early childhood education and math achievement
  • The effect of parental involvement on academic achievement in health education
  • The impact of global warming on agriculture
  • The effectiveness of narrative therapy in treating depression
  • The correlation between parental involvement and academic success in character education
  • The effect of social media on political participation
  • The impact of technology on job displacement
  • The relationship between job resources and job satisfaction
  • The effectiveness of art therapy in treating addiction
  • The correlation between early childhood education and reading comprehension
  • The effect of parental involvement on academic achievement in environmental education
  • The impact of income inequality on social mobility
  • The relationship between workplace diversity and organizational culture
  • The effectiveness of solution-focused brief therapy in treating anxiety disorders
  • The correlation between parental involvement and academic success in physical therapy education
  • The effect of social media on misinformation
  • The impact of green energy policies on economic growth
  • The relationship between job demands and employee well-being
  • The correlation between early childhood education and science achievement
  • The effect of parental involvement on academic achievement in religious education
  • The impact of gender diversity on corporate governance
  • The relationship between workplace diversity and ethical decision-making
  • The correlation between parental involvement and academic success in dental hygiene education
  • The effect of social media on self-esteem among adolescents
  • The impact of renewable energy policies on energy security
  • The effect of parental involvement on academic achievement in social studies
  • The impact of trade policies on job growth
  • The relationship between workplace diversity and leadership styles
  • The correlation between parental involvement and academic success in online vocational training
  • The effect of social media on self-esteem among men
  • The impact of urbanization on air pollution levels
  • The effectiveness of music therapy in treating depression
  • The correlation between early childhood education and math skills
  • The effect of parental involvement on academic achievement in language arts
  • The impact of immigration policies on labor market outcomes
  • The effectiveness of hypnotherapy in treating phobias
  • The effect of social media on political engagement among young adults
  • The impact of urbanization on access to green spaces
  • The relationship between job crafting and job satisfaction
  • The effectiveness of exposure therapy in treating specific phobias
  • The correlation between early childhood education and spatial reasoning
  • The effect of parental involvement on academic achievement in business education
  • The impact of trade policies on economic inequality
  • The effectiveness of narrative therapy in treating PTSD
  • The correlation between parental involvement and academic success in nursing education
  • The effect of social media on sleep quality among adolescents
  • The impact of urbanization on crime rates
  • The relationship between job insecurity and turnover intentions
  • The effectiveness of pet therapy in treating anxiety disorders
  • The correlation between early childhood education and STEM skills
  • The effect of parental involvement on academic achievement in culinary education
  • The impact of immigration policies on housing affordability
  • The relationship between workplace diversity and employee satisfaction
  • The effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction in treating chronic pain
  • The correlation between parental involvement and academic success in art education
  • The effect of social media on academic procrastination among college students
  • The impact of urbanization on public safety services.

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The Most Interesting ABM Research Topics For Students

ABM Research Topics For Students

ABM is an acronym for Accounting, Business, and Management. This strand is one of the academic tracks in the K-12 program, which aims to teach vital concepts and skills related to business and finance. This strand provides future leaders and entrepreneurs with an opportunity to learn essential career skills. For instance, they learn how to interact with clients and strategize money-making moves. Like most courses, ABM students must write research and dissertation papers. The topic you choose for your paper will determine your success and how smoothly your research goes. So, are you looking for a research topic related to the ABM strand?

What Is the Best Research Title for ABM Students?

Interesting research titles for abm students, perfect quantitative research topics for abm students, awesome research topics related to abm strand, abm research titles for student authors, educative qualitative research topics for abm students, abm research titles about accounting, abm research titles about business, abm research titles about management, topics on research problems related to abm strand, business research topics for abm students, well-thought grade 12 abm research topics.

We have prepared some great research topics for ABM students below, including ABM strand quantitative research topics for ABM students and ABM strand ABM research topics. Hopefully, this article will help you find a suitable research title for ABM students.

Research about ABM can be interesting because you have so many examples of quantitative research titles about the ABM strands to choose from. Some of the ABM strand research topics you can never go wrong with include:

  • Career paths in business management and accountancy
  • The fundamentals of Accountancy, Business, and Management strand
  • Essential skills you develop when working with a mentor in business management and accountancy
  • Expanding a business: Guidelines for choosing the ideal market
  • The role of globalization on consumer behavior
  • The correlation between globalization and business behavior
  • What is the future of globalization? Will it continue to grow or wear off in the future?
  • What are big-box stores, and how can they move toward success in the current business sector?
  • The concept of competitive intelligence and its role in business environment success
  • The best ways to gather and analyze data about your business environment
  • Corporate lobbyists: Their role in America’s future
  • Business Vs. General Ethics: the difference and laws
  • A guide for defining and attracting a target audience
  • Crisis management: a guide for businesses
  • How do monopolies impact the corporate sector?

The AMB strand is vast because it involves three subjects, each with several sub-classes. Therefore, choosing a research title for the ABM strand can be challenging as numerous options exist. While many opt for a quantitative research topic about ABM strand pdf, we prepared the following more examples of topics you can use:

  • The advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing for a business
  • Is outsourcing an ethical business practice?
  • A comprehensive guide for negotiation tactics
  • Insider trading: what is it, and why is it an offense
  • The nature of insider trading and punishments for it
  • What would be the ideal punishment for severe corporate crimes?
  • Wages and employee productivity: What are the correlations?
  • Guidelines for managing employee retention
  • The role of staff motivation in employee productivity and retention
  • The impact of a low-cost economy on companies and their employees
  • The benefits and drawbacks of a low-cost economy on companies
  • How to navigate the startup world
  • Teenage businesses: a booming phenomenon
  • Are small businesses the basics of economics?
  • How do third-world countries navigate the business world?

Quantitative research focuses on collecting numerical data and examining stats. Quantitative research for ABM students includes methods like target group surveys. Choosing a quantitative research title for the ABM strand requires keenness. Here are a few quantitative research title examples for ABM students:

  • How social media and the internet have changed the corporate world
  • Evolutionary aspects of corporate crisis management
  • What are the most and least popular services in the corporate world
  • Business strategies in the banking sector
  • Negotiation and diplomacy: a guide for business owners
  • Creating a balanced ecology for increasing production
  • Branding: The concept and its place in the modern market
  • What challenges do small enterprises face in corporate America?
  • Is internet advertisement taking over the world of advertising?
  • The psychology behind consumer decision making
  • How has feminism influenced the way women consume products and services
  • Is advertising in schools an ethical practice?
  • Do companies need to offer psychologists for their employees?
  • How can companies incorporate and encourage eco-friendly policies and practices in their organizations?
  • Should minimum wage be canceled?

Choosing an ABM research title can be hard. However, with some inspiration, you will find a place to start. This section will help you select a research topic about the ABM strand. So here is our collection of ABM strand research topics.

  • The rise, fall, and policies of Eastman Kodak
  • Do ethics and morality exist in the current business-oriented world?
  • The contributors to the high mobile phone sale rates in recent years
  • The Apple Company: How has the company maintained its position in the device market?
  • Corporate rituals: what are they, examples of the oldest and most rigid ones still in practice
  • The role of brainstorming in idea production and business solutions
  • The role of a franchise agreement for franchise and franchise holders
  • Elements to consider when selecting a sector to expand your business
  • Alcohol companies should be obliged to donate to alcohol recovery centers: An explanation
  • Brad awareness: How to create a globally recognizable brand
  • The financial crisis: what should global and local businesses expect?
  • What is the future of commerce and retail in the current digital era?
  • Are bank mergers a wise strategy or a recipe for failure?
  • Does bankruptcy mean the end of a business?
  • Should banks consider bank mergers? If so, when would be the right time?

An ABM research title with the author feels should be well thought out. Here are a few more creative ABM research topics for your consideration:

  • Effective competing strategies for local businesses
  • How are local businesses influencing the global economy?
  • What is the role of employee unions in the United States?
  • Should companies encourage their employees to join employee unions?
  • How can large businesses help local companies break through the global market without fear of competition?
  • Global businesses: how is the internet promoting globalization?
  • Does organizational environmental pollution affect consumer trust levels?
  • How can businesses incorporate their consumers into eco-friendly practices?
  • What are the consequences of overworking employees in the workplace?
  • How can you transform your leadership to create a successful business?

Qualitative research answers the whys and hows of a topic. It tests people’s reactions to products and studies client or consumer behaviors. Qualitative research also employs case studies, interviews, and focus groups to gather information on qualitative research topics .

  • How can you make a museum exhibition marketable?
  • Tobacco companies: Should they be mandated to donate to cancer treatment avenues?
  • What are the advantages of owning a recognizable and respectable brand?
  • How can you package your brand, so people receive it positively and widely?
  • Company image: How does it affect consumer behavior and modern corporate culture?
  • Why do certain niche companies gravitate towards hiring youths?
  • Why do certain companies prefer female employees to men and the contrary?
  • How has the Chinese market benefit from globalization?
  • How do business clusters move globalization?
  • Should alcohol companies pay higher taxes?

Are you wondering about the ABM research title about accounting to choose? Your choice of a qualitative research topic about the ABM strand will determine the course your research takes. Find a qualitative and quantitative research title about the ABM strand in accounting in the following list.

  • Blockchain: How will this improve the future of accounting?
  • The impact of COVID-19 on global accountancy firms
  • Cryptocurrency: Is this the solution to all current financial issues in the consumerist society?
  • Discretionary accruals: Meaning and important ethical considerations
  • The role of interest rates on the success of accounting firms
  • What would accounting firms look like if interest rates did not exist?
  • Do global companies have better accountancy workforces than local ones?
  • Should local vendors adopt similar accountancy practices as global companies?
  • The role of an efficient accountancy workforce in a company’s success
  • Should more global companies jump on the cryptocurrency trend?

Another core subject in the ABM strand is business. It is arguably one of the easiest of the three elements in the ABM strand. However, students still struggle to find a good ABM research topic for business. So, we prepared this research title about business section for you to find a business research title example (research title about business quantitative and quantitative). Find an example of a business research title from the list below:

  • Are businesses that were formed during the COVID-19 pandemic still thriving?
  • How was launching a business during the pandemic different from any other year?
  • AI business models: are they the most integrated business approach model currently?
  • How important is language in communicating business goals and reaching your target audience?
  • Business ethic theories: do modern businesses follow them as rigorously as conventional ones?
  • How do internet-related businesses like Amazon affect other businesses and the general public?
  • How to build consumer loyalty in a competitive sector
  • Consumer crisis: What is it and how to manage it
  • What are the best ways to minimize the risks of low-quality products or ones that do not meet industry standards?
  • The value of determining your target market at the conception of a business

Most students panic whenever they choose an ABM research title about management because they lack options. That should not be an issue again because we are here to help. Find an excellent qualitative or quantitative management and advertising research title for ABM students in the section below:

  • Career and talent management: Differences and correlations
  • Critical elements that affect business management, process planning, and project management
  • The role of organizational leadership in small company management
  • Construction management: How is it useful and how to do it effectively
  • Brand management: What would happen if businesses did not practice effective brand management?
  • The best customer risk management practices and why should always have a plan set in place
  • An explanation of the concept of consumer management in the current business sector
  • How effective management impacts the concept of perfect competition.
  • The impact of business management on worker loyalty and productivity rates
  • Critical factors to consider when choosing the right management team for a business
  • What is subliminal advertising, and what should you know about it?
  • How does subliminal advertising work?
  • Is product placement a good advertising strategy?
  • What is the future of telemarketing in the current corporate world?
  • Is telemarketing a thing of the past or a relevant form of advertising?

From ABM research topics quantitative to overall topics related to ABM, there are many approaches you can take for your research. The good thing is you will always benefit from an example of a research title about the ABM strand. Below are a few examples.

  • Why do copycat products enter the market so easily?
  • How can companies fight for their copyright and prevent copycat products from entering the market?
  • Can companies redeem themselves after a corporate crime crisis?
  • The role of corporate social responsibility in making a company more socially accountable
  • An explanation of the concept of corporate social responsibility
  • Corporate crime: What to know about this and how to come back from such a challenge
  • The idea of data security in the current business world
  • How to protect your data from data corruption, unauthorized access, and other data security issues
  • Employee coaching Vs. Employee management: What is the difference and how to organize each practice
  • Do businesses still adhere to this ethical principle?

An example of a research title about the business will help you get started. However, you must be keen on the research title about ABM that you select. Find a suitable business research topic for ABM students here:

  • Disruptive innovation in business: What are it and essential things you should understand
  • Is intellectual capital the key to unlocking your potential?
  • The basic components of intellectual capital
  • What is the most effective way to match a person to a role in a company?
  • Is job sculpting the key to unlocking people’s potential in the workplace?
  • Moral principles and regulations that govern business operations in your country
  • A guide to the various types of mergers
  • Key reasons that motivate companies to turn to merge
  • The Starbucks effect in the real estate sector?
  • Do people consider the presence of a Starbucks in their environment when making real estate decisions?
  • The value of strategic planning when establishing the direction of a small business before its launch
  • Labor strikes: What companies do they affect, and what are their consequences?
  • The value of company ethics and how companies should establish them
  • A guide for setting company ethics for a startup
  • The consequences of labor strikes in the general corporate economy

Most ABM students are usually in the 12 th grade. At this academic level, students have the cognitive ability to grasp ABM strand concepts. An ABM research project is a stepping stone for 12 th -grade students to move toward the next level of studies. Therefore, choosing a good topic is mandatory.

A good topic will help you find your ground and write a research paper that stands out. Creativity is an essential quality when picking research topics. However, if you do not trust your creativity, you need not worry. Here are some ABM-related research topics for 12 th -grade students:

  • Do undocumented workers have rights?
  • Ware the risks of employing undocumented workers in your business?
  • What belief system is work ethic, and does it have disadvantages?
  • The element of work ethic when selecting employees for your startup
  • How to encourage and maintain work-life balance for your employees
  • Can a work-life balance help promote productivity in your workplace?
  • Is business leadership a learned skill or an in-born talent?
  • How much power should stakeholders have in your business?
  • How do stakeholders affect the success of a business?
  • Why should the corporate sector educate the public on international investment?
  • Global competition: is this a successful strategy for local companies or a recipe for success?
  • International unemployment is a global phenomenon
  • How can local companies help resolve the issue of global unemployment?
  • How can large and successful companies create more employment opportunities?
  • Forms of ethical conflicts in the business world and how to avoid them

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Whether you want to choose an ABM research title about accounting, advertising, management, or other focus areas, you can always depend on us for help. In addition to that, our team is ready to create satisfactory content on any ABM research topic you have. Let’s do this!

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  1. 500+ Qualitative Research Titles and Topics

    Qualitative research titles often reflect the study's focus on understanding the depth and complexity of human behavior, experiences, or social phenomena. ... Here are some examples across various fields: Education "Understanding the Impact of Project-Based Learning on Student Engagement in High School Classrooms: A Qualitative Study" ...

  2. 100+ Qualitative Research Topics To Write About In 2023

    Here are fantastic examples of qualitative research titles: Female harm: how it is influenced by culture. The socioeconomic impacts of free education. The link between food insecurity and poor performance in schools. Alcoholism among college students: a critical study. How to mitigate child labor in our society.

  3. 18 Qualitative Research Examples (2024)

    Qualitative Research Examples. 1. Ethnography. Definition: Ethnography is a qualitative research design aimed at exploring cultural phenomena. Rooted in the discipline of anthropology, this research approach investigates the social interactions, behaviors, and perceptions within groups, communities, or organizations.

  4. 131 Qualitative Research Topics For Academic Thesis Writing

    This article presents a list of 130-plus qualitative research topic ideas to help learners that struggle to get titles for their papers. It is helpful because many learners have difficulties picking titles that will make their essays impressive to educators. But before presenting the topics, this article defines qualitative research.

  5. 202 Qualitative Research Topics to Check Out

    Here are some qualitative research topics lists in political science. How COVID-19 impacts low-income neighborhoods. The need for the cancellation of student loans and not the suspension of student loans. Racism as a dividing factor in America. Segregation and racist laws.

  6. What Is Qualitative Research?

    Qualitative research involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g., text, video, or audio) to understand concepts, opinions, or experiences. It can be used to gather in-depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas for research. Qualitative research is the opposite of quantitative research, which involves collecting and ...

  7. Qualitative Research: Definition, Types, Methods and Examples

    Qualitative research is defined as a market research method that focuses on obtaining data through open-ended and conversational communication. This method is about "what" people think and "why" they think so. For example, consider a convenience store looking to improve its patronage.

  8. Qualitative Study

    Qualitative research is a type of research that explores and provides deeper insights into real-world problems.[1] Instead of collecting numerical data points or intervene or introduce treatments just like in quantitative research, qualitative research helps generate hypotheses as well as further investigate and understand quantitative data. Qualitative research gathers participants ...

  9. What is Qualitative in Qualitative Research

    What is qualitative research? If we look for a precise definition of qualitative research, and specifically for one that addresses its distinctive feature of being "qualitative," the literature is meager. In this article we systematically search, identify and analyze a sample of 89 sources using or attempting to define the term ...

  10. How to Write a Great Title

    Search engines use titles to retrieve relevant articles based on users' keyword searches. Once readers find your article, they'll use the title as the first filter to decide whether your research is what they're looking for. A strong and specific title is the first step toward citations, inclusion in meta-analyses, and influencing your field.

  11. How to Write a Research Paper Title with Examples

    You can use the following formula: [ Result ]: A [ method] study of [ topic] among [ sample] Example: Meditation makes nurses perform better: a qualitative study of mindfulness meditation among German nursing students. Avoid unnecessary words and jargons. Keep the title statement as concise as possible.

  12. PDF A Sample Qualitative Dissertation Proposal

    Rationale for Qualitative Methods The purpose of qualitative research is to understand and explain participant meaning (Morrow & Smith, 2000). More specifically, Creswell (1998) defines qualitative research as, an inquiry process of understanding based on distinct methodological traditions of inquiry that explore a social or human problem.

  13. Qualitative Research: Methods and Examples

    Qualitative research: methods and examples. Qualitative research is an excellent way to gain insight into real-world problems. This research type can explain various aspects of individuals in a target group, such as their traits, behaviors, and motivations. Qualitative research involves gathering and evaluating non-numerical information to ...

  14. A Practical Guide to Writing Quantitative and Qualitative Research

    INTRODUCTION. Scientific research is usually initiated by posing evidenced-based research questions which are then explicitly restated as hypotheses.1,2 The hypotheses provide directions to guide the study, solutions, explanations, and expected results.3,4 Both research questions and hypotheses are essentially formulated based on conventional theories and real-world processes, which allow the ...

  15. What Is Qualitative Research?

    Revised on 30 January 2023. Qualitative research involves collecting and analysing non-numerical data (e.g., text, video, or audio) to understand concepts, opinions, or experiences. It can be used to gather in-depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas for research. Qualitative research is the opposite of quantitative research, which ...

  16. PDF Sample of the Qualitative Research Paper

    QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PAPER 1 Sample of the Qualitative Research Paper In the following pages you will find a sample of the full BGS research qualitative paper with each section or chapter as it might look in a completed research paper beginning with the title page and working through each chapter and section of the research paper.

  17. How to Make a Research Paper Title with Examples

    Step 4: Create a working research paper title. To create a working title, remove elements that make it a complete "sentence" but keep everything that is important to what the study is about. Delete all unnecessary and redundant words that are not central to the study or that researchers would most likely not use in a database search.

  18. 100 Qualitative Research Titles For High School Students

    Qualitative research is primarily focused on obtaining data through case studies, artifacts, interviews, documentaries, and other first-hand observations. It focuses more on these natural settings rather than statistics and numbers. If you are finding it difficult to find a topic, then worry not because the high schooler has this blog post ...

  19. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research

    Use quantitative research if you want to confirm or test something (a theory or hypothesis) Use qualitative research if you want to understand something (concepts, thoughts, experiences) For most research topics you can choose a qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods approach. Which type you choose depends on, among other things, whether ...

  20. 83 Qualitative Research Questions & Examples

    The UK Data Service describes this perfectly, saying, "The value of qualitative research is that it gives a voice to the lived experience .". Read on to see seven use cases and 83 qualitative research questions, with the added bonus of examples that show how to get similar insights faster with Similarweb Digital Research Intelligence.

  21. List of Topics for Quantitative and Qualitative Research

    Quantitative research is ideally suited for science topics that involve investigating cause and effect relationships and analyzing measurable, objective data. Qualitative research is better suited for social science and humanities topics where meaning, emotion and life experiences are explored.

  22. 500+ Quantitative Research Titles and Topics

    Quantitative Research Topics. Quantitative Research Topics are as follows: The effects of social media on self-esteem among teenagers. A comparative study of academic achievement among students of single-sex and co-educational schools. The impact of gender on leadership styles in the workplace.

  23. 100+ Brilliant ABM Research Topics For Students

    Here are a few quantitative research title examples for ABM students: How social media and the internet have changed the corporate world. Evolutionary aspects of corporate crisis management. What are the most and least popular services in the corporate world. Business strategies in the banking sector.